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The Journal of John Wesley

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John Wesley

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About The Journal of John Wesley by John Wesley

The Journal of John WesleyTitle:http://www.ccel.org/ccel/wesley/journal.htmlURL:Wesley, John (1703-1791)Author(s):Grand Rapids: Christian Classics Ethereal LibraryPublisher:Chicago: Moody Press, 1951Print Basis:Public DomainRights:2000-1-1Date Created:Quick conversion from HTML documentStatus:This version needs a good proofreading. OCR errors are evident.Editorial Comments:Classic; All; Biography; ProofedCCEL Subjects:BX8495LC Call no:

Christian DenominationsLC Subjects:Protestantism

Post-ReformationOther Protestant denominations

Methodism

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Table of Contents

p. iiAbout This Book. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 1Title Page. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 2EDITOR'S NOTE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 3INTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 5AN APPRECIATION OF JOHN WESLEY'S JOURNAL. . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 11BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 15The Journal of John Wesley. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 15Chapter 1. Wesley as a Missionary to Georgia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 15Wesley Begins his Work. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 15Origin of the Holy Club. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 16Wesley Sails for America. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 17Life on Board. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 17Memorable Atlantic Storms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 18Wesley Arrives in Georgia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 19Begins His Ministry at Savannah. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 20'I Waked Under Water'. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 20Talks to the Indians. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 21Fearless of Rains and Dews. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 22Desires to Go Among the Indians. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

p. 22Chapter 2. Troubles in Georgia; Return to England; Peter Bohler; 'I Feltmy Heart Strangely Warmed'. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

p. 22Begins to Learn Spanish. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 23Warrant for Wesley's Arrest. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 24The Jury's Charge against Wesley. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 26Why Wesley left Georgia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 27Lost in the Woods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 28Farewell to America. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 28The Voyage to England. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 29Lands at Deal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 30In London Again. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 31Wesley Meets Peter Bohler. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 32Wesley's Four Resolutions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 33Incidents on the Manchester Road. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 33Companions on Horseback. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 34Preaches in Oxford Castle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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p. 35Talks with Bohler. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 36'I Felt My Heart Strangely Warmed'. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 37Wesley Preaches in Newgate Gaol. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

p. 38Chapter 3. Field-Preaching; 'All the World my Parish'; Whitefield; Wales;Experience with Demons. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

p. 38Wesley Begins Field-preaching. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 39The First Methodist Building. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 40Wesley's Living Arguments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 41Beau Nash Argues with Wesley. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 42'All the World My Parish'. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 43Susanna Wesley and her Son. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 44Talks with Whitefield. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 45Press-gang Disturbs the Sermon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 45The New Name of Methodism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 46An Accident and a Long Sermon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 46Wesley in Wales. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 47'A Terrible Sight'. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 48'Yonder Comes Wesley, Galloping'. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 49The Colliers of Kingswood. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

p. 49Chapter 4. Preaching Incidents; Wesley's Labor Colony; Dispute withWhitefield; Curious Interruptions; The Mother of the Wesleys. . . . . . . .

p. 49Wesley's Correspondents. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 50A Sermon and a Riot. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 51Preaching Incidents. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 51Wesley's Labor Colony. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 52Dispute with Whitefield. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 53Wesley at Northampton and Nottingham. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 54An Ox in the Congregation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 54Wesley at Cardiff. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 55A Curious Interruption. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 55Wesley's Congregation Stoned. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 56A Bull in the Congregation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 57Wesley Was 'the Better Mounted'. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 58A Big Crowd at Newcastle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 58Wesley on His Father's Tombstone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 59'Let Them Convert the Scolds'. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 60Death of Wesley's Mother. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 61Mrs. Wesley as Preacher. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 61She Speaks to Two Hundred. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 62How the Wesleys Were Brought up. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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p. 63'Conquer the Child's Will'. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 64They Had Nothing They Cried For. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 65Keeping the Wesley Children in Order. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 66Susanna Wesley's 'By-laws'. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 67Mr. Stephenson and Wesley. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 67Newcastle's First Methodist Room. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

p. 67Chapter 5. Wesley Refused Sacraments at Epworth; Cornwall and theScilly Isles; Natural Amphitheater at Gwennap; Wesley in Danger. . . . .

p. 68Wesley Refused the Sacrament at Epworth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 68Wesley and the co*ck-fighter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 69Wesley in Seven Dials. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 69Wesley's Horses Give Trouble. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 70Wesley Goes to Cornwall. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 71The Cornish Tinners. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 72In the Scilly Isles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 73Remarkable Service at Gwennap. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 73A Mob at Wednesbury. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 74Wesley in Danger. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 75His Presence of Mind. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 75'What Soft Hair He Has'. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 76Wesley's Defenders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 76The Sleepy Magistrates' Proclamation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 77Wesley Nearly Drowned. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 78Methodism on the Stage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

p. 78Chapter 6. First Methodist Conference; Pressgangs and Mobs; Wesley'sProtest against Ungodliness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

p. 78The First Conference. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 79Wesley's Chancery Bill. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 79Wesley's Effective Letter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 80Press Gang and Methodists. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 81Reading the Riot Act. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 82Wesley Seized for a Soldier. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 83Dramatic Scenes at Falmouth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 84'I am John Wesley'. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 85Wesley Pushed from a High Wall. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 85Riot Act and a Sermon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 86Pelted by the Mob at Leeds. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 86Great Excitement at Newcastle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 87Wesley's Letter to the Mayor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 87Preaching under Difficulties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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p. 88The Blasphemous Troops. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 89Bonfires Everywhere. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

p. 90Chapter 7. Severe Weather; Ireland; Wesley's Protest againstLawlessness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

p. 90Wesley and Faith-healing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 90Wesley Encounters Severe Weather. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 91Preaching to the Lead Miners. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 92How Wesley Dealt with a Mob. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 93The Bargemen and their Clubs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 94Remarkable Accident to Wesley. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 94A Shower of Stones. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 95A Horrible Proposition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 95Incidents in Ireland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 96Wesley Lives on Apple-tea. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 97A Determined Preacher. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 97Zealous Protestants. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 98Wesley Protests Against Lawlessness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 99Beaten by the Mob. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 99Defending Field Preaching. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 100Three Remarkable Shots with Stones. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

p. 100Chapter 8. Wesley and the Soldiers; In Ireland and Wales Again; WesleyBurned in Effigy; Wesley as an Editor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

p. 100Wesley in Wales. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 101Marries his Brother. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 102Methodists Lease an Abbey. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 102Wesley and the Soldiers' Class. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 103A Ridiculous Question. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 104A Rough Voyage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 105Remarkable Scenes at Bolton. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 105Wesley at Dudley and Birmingham. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 106Wesley in Wales. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 107Waiting for the Irish Boat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 108'Where Is the Parson?'. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 109Wesley Interviews Mrs. Pilkington. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 110Wesley Burned in Effigy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 110Visits to Kinsale and Cork. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 111At an Irish Funeral. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 112Wesley Rides Ninety Miles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 113He Left One Shilling and Fourpence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 113Wesley as Editor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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p. 114In Canterbury Cathedral. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

p. 114Chapter 9. Wesley's Marriage; Dealings with Cornwall Smugglers; HisIllness and Recovery. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

p. 115Wesley Decides to Marry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 115Marriage and Preaching. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 116Wesley and His Barber. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 116Wesley's Impressions of Scotland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 117Wesley's Remarkable Vitality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 117A Crowded Coach. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 118Wesley Sleeps in a Cellar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 119Round Chester Walls. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 119A Boiling Sea. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 120Wesley's Forgiveness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 121The Pay of Preaching. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 122Wesley in Glasgow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 122Apprenticeship Customs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 123Cornish Smugglers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 124Wesley Writes His Epitaph. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 125Wesley His Own Doctor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

p. 125Chapter 10. Retirement in Paddington; Wesley Slandered; Premonitions;A Dream. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

p. 126Wesley Retires to Paddington. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 126Persecuting the Methodists. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 127Wesley's Prescriptions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 127Wesley and the Sunshine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 128The Room Was Like and Oven. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 129'This Is No Mazed Man'. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 129Slandering Wesley in the Pulpit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 130Extraordinary Coincidence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 131Macbeth and Thunder at Drury Lane. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 132At Dover Castle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 132Preaching to a Press-gang. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 133Waiting for the Ferry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 134Irish Honesty. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 134A Remarkable Premonition Fulfilled. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 135Preaching in a Loft. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 135A Terrible Dream. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 136The Delights of North Wales. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 137Wesley's Debt of f 1236. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 137Wesley on Electricity as a Cure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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p. 138Chapter 11. 'I do Indeed Live by Preaching'; Wesley's Advice to Travelers;Wesley and the French Prisoners. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

p. 138In Glasgow Cathedral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 139Wesley Sings a Scotch Psalm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 139'I Do Indeed Live by Preaching!' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 140Wesley at Charterhouse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 141Wesley Opposed by Mayor and Minister. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 142Fire at Kingswood School. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 142In Norfolk and Suffolk. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 143Another Ninety-mile Journey. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 144Wesley's Advice to Travelers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 144Wesley at Norwich and Colchester . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 145The Sands of Ravenglass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 145Useless Doctors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 146Fire in a Coalpit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 147Newcastle as a Summer Resort. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 147Wesley Likes a Soft Cushion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 147Defeating the Press-gang . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 148Extraordinary Trances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 149Wesley Rides Twenty-four Hundred Miles in Seven Months . . . . . . .p. 150Field-preaching Expedient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 150Wesley Clothes French Prisoners. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 151The Truth about Trances. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

p. 152Chapter 12. Wesley's Letter to an Editor; Impositions and Declarations;the Speaking Statue; Wesley's Pentecost. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

p. 152Wesley and the Irish Question. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 152Attack on Wesley's Hat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 153'A Kind of Waterspout' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 154A Tinner's Story . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 154Wesley Writes to the London Chronicle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 156Preaching in the Inn Yard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 156Wesley Preaches at Aberdeen. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 157Wesley's Criticism of Edinburgh. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 157A Busy Week . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 158Wesley and Impositions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 159A Monster Called a Declaration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 159Some Impudent Women. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 160Seen in a Looking Glass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 160Wesley at Matlock Bath and Boston . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 161Preaching by Moonlight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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p. 161Some Rough Journeys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 162Remarkable Speaking Statue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 163Wesley and the Oatmeal Sellers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 163The Irish Whiteboys. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 164Whitewashing Kilkenny Marble. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 165Wesley in Cornwall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 166Wesley's Day of Pentecost . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

p. 166Chapter 13. Wesley in Scotland Again; Methodist's Wealth; 'No Law forMethodists'; Exhausting Days; Whitefield. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

p. 166Wesley in Aberdeen Again . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 167Plain Dealing in Scotland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 168The Drunkard's Magnificat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 169Methodists and Their Wealth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 170A Difficult Crossing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 170Wesley at Birmingham, Walsal, and Derby . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 171'No Law for Methodists'. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 172Wesley Unhorsed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 173Wesley on Holy Island. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 173Wesley at the General Assembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 174At Inverness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 174A Sermon and Congregation to Order. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 175Wesley and a Scotch Communion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 176Wesley's Likes and Dislikes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 176She Thought, 'I Laugh Prettily' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 177An Exhausting Day. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 178Seven Hours on Horseback. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 178The Ride from Pembroke to Swansea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 179Wesley's Experiments with Lions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

p. 180Chapter 14. Justice for Methodists; Methodist Character; Instructions toParents; Wesley's Opinion of Mary Queen of Scots. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

p. 180Breakfast with Mr. Whitefield. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 181Two Deeds. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 181Wesley Covered with Mud. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 182Wesley Secures Justice for Methodists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 183Gwennap's Famous Amphitheater . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 184Wesley on a Country Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 184Wesley and the Character of a Methodist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 185The Sexton's Strange Apparition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 186Queer Houses at Sheerness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 187Wesley in the Marshalsea Prison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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p. 187Wesley Travels North . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 188Preaching in a North Wind . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 188Wesley Instructs Parents. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 189Wesley and Mary Queen of Scots. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 190Wesley at Scoon and Holyrood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 190Wesley's Old Schoolfellow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 191Wesley's Wife Ill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 192Wesley and Seaport Towns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

p. 192

Chapter 15. Wesley Opens a New Church; Comments on Rousseau;Geology; Swedenborg, and Riding Horseback; Gwennap and 20,000People; Death of Whitefield . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

p. 192Wesley's Land-shark . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 193Wesley Opens a New Church . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 194A Forsaken Beauty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 194Wesley at the Countess of Huntingdon's . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 195The Gentleman with Rotten Eggs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 195Wesley on Geology and Rousseau. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 196Swedenborg an Entertaining Madman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 197Wesley and His Horses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 198Wesley at Nairn, Elgin, and Aberdeen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 198Where Are the Highlands? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 199Wesley and the Turnpikes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 199Wesley in St. Albans Abbey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 200Wesley and the Druid Monuments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 201Congregation of 20,000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 201Fire at Portsmouth Dock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 201Wesley Preaches Whitefield's Funeral Sermon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

p. 202Chapter 16. Windsor Park; Wesley as Art Critic; Glasgow and Perth; At70, Wesley Preaches to 30,000 People. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

p. 203The Earl of Desmond's Castle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 203Wesley in Winchester Cathedral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 204Wesley at Windsor Park . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 205Wesley as Art Critic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 206Wesley on A Sentimental Journey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 207Wesley and the Boarding School . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 207Wesley at Greenock and Glasgow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 208Wesley Receives the Freedom of Perth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 209Wesley Visits the Bass Rock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 210Through the Dales. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 210Field-preaching as Wesley's Cross . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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p. 210Good or Bad Spirits? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 211A Remarkable Dream. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 212Wesley's Letters and Friends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 213Wesley and His Chaise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 213Incidents in Ireland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 214A Neglected School . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 215Mobbed by Masons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 215Wesley at Derry and Armagh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 216The Speaking Statue Again. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 216The Earthquake at Madeley. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 217A Man of Seventy Preaches to 30,000 People . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 218A Monster Elm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

p. 218Chapter 17. Wesley Arrested; A Terrible Ride; A Methodist Isaac Newton;Wesley and the American War. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

p. 218Wesley Arrested in Edinburgh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 219Wesley's Terrible Ride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 220A Collier's Remarkable Escape. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 220Wesley at Corfe Castle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 221A Methodist Isaac Newton. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 222Wesley in the Fens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 223Wesley's Coach Upset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 223Wesley and the American War . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 224Preaching from the Stocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 225'A Very Extraordinary Genius' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 226Neat and Elegant Banff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 226A Town of Beggars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 227Wesley Criticizes the Scotch Universities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 227Smuggling in Cornwall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

p. 228Chapter 18. On the Isle of Man; City Road Chapel; Wesley Visits LorgGeorge Gordon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

p. 228In Bethnal Green Hamlet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 228City Road Chapel Begun . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 229Wesley in the Isle of Man . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 230The Manx Men . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 230'Taught by a Chaise Boy'. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 231Are the Methodists a Fallen People? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 231Wesley Starts a Magazine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 231Wesley Discusses Old Sermons. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 232Among the Ruins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 232City Road Chapel Opened. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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p. 233Wesley Goes North . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 234Wesley Attended by Felons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 234'Make Your Will before You Sleep'. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 235Wesley at the German Settlement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 236The Bishop of Durham's Tapestry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 236Wesley on 'Boston Stump'. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 237Wesley at Sevenoaks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 237Wesley Visits Lord George in the Tower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

p. 238Chapter 19. An Ideal Circuit; Wesley in his Eighties; Wesley Visits Holland;Incidents in Scotland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

p. 238A Rough Voyage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 239In the Isle of Man . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 240Preaching at Peel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 240An Ideal Circuit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 241'A Low, Soft, Solemn Sound' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 242Wesley Enters His Eightieth Year . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 243No Repose for Wesley . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 243A Christian Bishop's Furniture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 244'The Tide Is Now Turned' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 244Wesley Visits Holland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 245The Reverent Dutch. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 246The Beautiful Hague . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 246At Leyden and Amsterdam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 247The Warmly Affectionate Dutch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 247Wesley at Utrecht . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 248Two Hours with Dr. Johnson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 248Wesley and Early Rising . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 249Remarkable Escape from Prison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 249The Banks of the Spey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 250Twelve and a Half Miles in Heavy Rain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 250Incidents in Scotland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 251Wesley at 81 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 251Burglary at Wesley's House . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

p. 252Chapter 20. Wesley Collects Money for the Poor; Visits the House of Lords;His Reasons for his Long Life; 'How is the Tide Turned;' Last Entries. . . .

p. 252Wesley at Eighty-one Begs f 200. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 253Fifty Years Growth of Methodism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 253Wesley Visits the House of Lords. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 254Wesley Visits Hatfield House . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 255Wesley's Threat to Deptford . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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p. 255Wesley Visits the Irish Parliament House. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 256A Visit to the Channel Islands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 256'A Little Circ*mstance'. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 257At the Governor's House. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 257'Because I Have Lived so Many Years'. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 258Detained by Contrary Winds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 258Sails for Penzance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 259Wesley on His Old Age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 259Wesley's Reasons for His Long Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 261An Important Conference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 262'The Gentle Steps of Age'. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 262Wesley Sits to Romney. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 263Wesley Explains Methodism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 263Wesley Describes Himself at Eighty-five. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 264'How Is the Tide Turned!'. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 264Wesley's Eighty-sixth Christmas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 265The Last Year of the Journal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 266A Backsliding Innkeeper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 266'I Am Become an Honorable Man' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 267Wesley's Last Entries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 267WESLEY'S LAST HOURS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 270Indexes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 270Index of Scripture References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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THE TYNDALE SERIESOF GREAT BIOGRAPHIES

THE JOURNALOF

JOHN WESLEYWith an Introduction

byHUGH PRICE HUGHES, M.A.

Appreciation of the Journalby

AUGUSTINE BIRRELL, K.C.Edited by

PERCY LIVINGSTONE PARKERCHICAGO

MOODY PRESS1951

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EDITOR’S NOTE

WHEN JOHN WESLEY prepared his Journal for publication he prefaced it with the followingaccount of its origin:

“It was in pursuance of an advice given by Bishop Taylor, in his Rules for Holy Living andDying, that, about fifteen years ago, I began to take a more exact account than I had done before,of the manner wherein I spent my time, writing down how I had employed every hour.

“This I continued to do, wherever I was, till the time of my leaving England for Georgia. Thevariety of scenes which I then passed through induced me to transcribe, from time to time, the morematerial parts of my diary, adding here and there such little reflections as occurred to my mind.

“Of this Journal thus occasionally compiled, the following is a short extract: it not being mydesign to relate all those particulars which I wrote for my own use only, and which would answerno valuable end to others, however important they were to me.”

Rev. John Telford, one of Wesley’s biographers, says that “the earlier parts of the Journal werepublished in the interest of Methodism, that the calumny and slander then rife might be silencedby a plain narrative of the facts as to its founding, and its purpose. The complete Journals, stillpreserved in twenty-six bound volumes, have never been printed. Copious extracts were made byWesley himself, and issued in twenty-one parts, the successive installments being eagerly expectedby a host of readers.”

The published Journal makes four volumes, each about the size of the present book. But thoughI have had to curtail it by three-quarters I have tried to retain the atmosphere of tremendous activitywhich is one of its most remarkable features.

Mr. Birrell, in his “appreciation,” has focused in a very striking way the interest, actuality, andcharm of Wesley’s Journal, and all I have had to do was to select those portions which best illustratethem.

The wonder is that it has not been done before. Edward FitzGerald once wrote to ProfessorNorton, “Had I any interest with publishers I would get them to reprint parts of it,” for he was agreat lover of the Journal.

Writing to another friend about Wesley’s Journal, FirzGerald said, “If you don’t know it, doknow it. It is curious to think of this diary running coevally with Walpole’s letters—diary—thetwo men born and dying too within a few miles of one another, and with such different lives torecord. And it is remarkable to read pure, unaffected, undying English, while Addison and Johnsonare tainted with a style which all the world imitated.”

Macaulay’s estimate of Wesley may also be recalled. Wesley, he said, was “a man whoseeloquence and logical acuteness might have made him eminent in literature, whose genius forgovernment was not inferior to that of Richelieu, and who, whatever his errors may have been,devoted all his powers in defiance of obloquy and derision, to what he sincerely considered as thehighest good of his species.”

Wesley is one of the most strenuous ethical figures in history, and literature has no other suchrecord of personal endeavor as that contained in these pages. To make that record accessible toevery one is the object of this edition.

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INTRODUCTION

BY THE REV. HUGH PRICE HUGHES, M.A.

He who desires to understand the real history of the English people during the seventeenth,eighteenth and nineteenth centuries should read most carefully three books: George Fox’s Journal,John Wesley’s Journal, and John Henry Newman’s Apologia pro Vita Sua.

As Lord Hugh Cecil has recently said in a memorable speech, the religious question cannot beignored. It is the question; in the deepest sense it is the only question. It has always determinedthe course of history everywhere. In all ages the skeptical literary class has tried to ignore it, as theRoman historians, poets, and philosophers ignored Christianity until the time when Christianitybecame triumphant and dominant throughout the Roman Empire.

But, however much ignored or boycotted by literary men, the growth or decline of religionultimately settles everything. Has not Carlyle said that George Fox making his own clothes is themost remarkable event in our history? George Fox was the very incarnation of that individualismwhich has played, and will yet play, so great a part in the making of modern England. If you wantto understand “the dissidence of Dissent and the Protestantism of the Protestant religion,” read theJournal of George Fox.

Then came John Wesley and his “helpers.” They were the first preachers since the days of theFranciscan Friars in the Middle Ages who ever reached the working classes. In England, as inFrance, Germany, and everywhere else, the Reformation was essentially a middle-class movement.It never captured either the upper classes or the working classes. That explains its limitations.

As Dr. Rigg has shown, Wesley’s itineraries were deliberately planned to bring him into directcontact neither with the aristocracy nor with the dependent or poverty-stricken poor, but with theindustrious self-supporting workmen in town and country. The ultimate result was that “the manin the street” became Methodist in his conception of Christianity, whatever his personal conductand character might be. A profound French critic said, fifty years ago, that modern England wasMethodist, and the remark applies equally to the United States and to our colonies. The doctrinesof the Evangelical Revival permeated the English-speaking world.

Then Newman appeared on the scene and a tremendous change began. The Anglican Churchrevived, and revived in Newman’s direction. We witness today on every side the vast results of theNewman era. Many of these results are beneficial in the extreme; others cannot be welcome tothose who belong to the schools of George Fox and John Wesley.

The whole future of the British Empire depends upon this question of questions—Will GeorgeFox and John Wesley on the one hand, or John Henry Newman on the other, ultimately prevail?And the best way to arrive at the true inwardness of the issue is to read, ponder, and inwardly digestWesley’s Journal and Newman’s Apologia.

It is a great advantage that Mr. Parker has secured permission to republish Mr. AugustineBirrell’s “Appreciation.” That brilliant writer demonstrates that there is no book in existence thatgives you so exact and vivid a description of the eighteenth century in England as Wesley’s Journal.It is an incalculably more varied and complete account of the condition of the people of Englandthan Boswell’s Johnston. As Mr. Birrell says, Wesley was himself “the greatest force of theeighteenth century in England. No man lived nearer the center than John Wesley. Neither Clive

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nor Pitt, neither Mansfield nor Johnson. No single figure influenced so many minds, no single voicetouched so many hearts. No other man did such a life’s work for England.” Wesley has demonstratedthat a true prophet of God has more influence than all the politicians and soldiers and millionairesput together. He is the incalculable and unexpected element that is always putting all the devicesof the clever to naught.

I do not understand what Mr. Birrell means by saying that “as a writer Wesley has not achieveddistinction. He was no Athanasius, no Augustine; he was ever a preacher.” It is true that Wesley’smain business was not to define metaphysical theology, but to cultivate friendly relations withChristians of all schools, and to save living men from sin. But he gave a deathblow to the destructivedogma of limited salvation with which the names of Augustine and Calvin will be forever associated.

No doubt, like Oliver Cromwell, Wesley was essentially a “man of action,” and he deliberatelysacrificed the niceties of literary taste to the greater task of making Englishmen on both sides ofthe Atlantic real Christians. Even so, the style of some of his more literary productions is a modelof lucidity and grace.

But my main point here is to echo Mr. Birrell’s final statement, that “we can learn better fromWesley’s Journal than from anywhere else what manner of man Wesley was, and the character ofthe times during which he lived and moved and had his being.” My co-religionists and all who lovethe most characteristic qualities of modern English life are under a deep debt of obligation to myfriend Mr. Parker and His publishers for giving them an opportunity of studying the eventfuleighteenth century of English history at its center and fountainhead.

The fact that this edition of the work has been condensed is no drawback. The Journal, asoriginally published, was itself condensed by Wesley….For popular purposes Mr. Parker’s editionwill answer all important ends, and will give English readers for the first time an opportunity ofreading in a handy form one of the most important, instructive, and entertaining books ever publishedin the English language.

Of course Mr. Parker alone is responsible for the selection of the portions of the Journal whichappear in this volume.

HUGH PRICE HUGHES

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AN APPRECIATION OF JOHN WESLEY’S JOURNAL

BY AUGUSTINE BIRRELL, KING’S COUNSEL

JOHN WESLEY, born as he was in 1703 and dying as he did in 1791, covers as nearly as mortalman may, the whole of the eighteenth century, of which he was one of the most typical and certainlythe most strenuous figures.

He began his published Journal on October 14, 1735, and its last entry is under date Sunday,October 24, 1790, when in the morning he explained to a numerous congregation in SpitalfieldsChurch “The Whole Armor of God,” and in the afternoon enforced to a still larger audience in St.Paul’s, Shadwell, the great truth, “One thing is needful,” the last words of the Journal being “I hopemany even then resolved to choose the better part.”

Between those two Octobers there lies the most amazing record of human exertion ever pennedor endured.

I do not know whether I am likely to have among my readers anyone who has ever contestedan English or Scottish county in a parliamentary election since household suffrage. If I have, thattired soul will know how severe is the strain of its three weeks, and how impossible it seemed atthe end of the first week that you should be able to keep it going for another fortnight, and howwhen the last night arrived you felt that had the strife been accidentally prolonged another sevendays you must have perished by the wayside.

Contesting the Three Kingdoms

Well, John Wesley contested the three kingdoms in the cause of Christ during a campaign whichlasted forty years.

He did it for the most part on horseback. He paid more turnpikes than any man who ever bestrodea beast. Eight thousand miles was his annual record for many a long year, during each of which heseldom preached less frequently than one thousand times. Had he but preserved his scores at allthe inns where he lodged, they would have made by themselves a history of prices. And throughoutit all he never knew what depression of spirits meant—though he had much to try him, suits inchancery and a jealous wife.

In the course of this unparalleled contest Wesley visited again and again the most out-of-the-waydistricts—the remotest corners of England—places which today lie far removed even from thesearcher after the picturesque.

Today, when the map of England looks like a gridiron of railways, none but the sturdiest ofpedestrians, the most determined of cyclists can retrace the steps of Wesley and his horse, and standby the rocks and the natural amphitheaters in Cornwall and Northumberland, in Lancashire andBerkshire, where he preached his gospel to the heathen.

REV. JOHN WESLEYGrandfather of John Wesley

REV. SAMUEL WESLEYFather of John Wesley

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Exertion so prolonged, enthusiasm so sustained, argues a remarkable man, while the organizationhe created, the system he founded, the view of life he promulgated, is still a great fact among us.No other name than Wesley’s lies embalmed as his does. Yet he is not a popular figure. Our standardhistorians have dismissed him curtly. The fact is, Wesley puts your ordinary historian out of conceitwith himself.

How much easier to weave into your page the gossip of Horace Walpole, to enliven it with aheartless jest of George Selwyn’s, to make it blush with sad stories of the extravagance of Fox, toembroider it with the rhetoric of Burke, to humanize it with the talk of Johnson, to discuss the riseand fall of administrations, the growth and decay of the constitution, than to follow John Wesleyinto the streets of Bristol, or on to the bleak moors near Burslem, when he met, face to face in alltheir violence, all their ignorance, and all their generosity the living men, women, and children whomade up the nation.

A Book of Plots, Plays and Novels

It has perhaps also to be admitted that to found great organizations is to build your tomb—asplendid tomb, it may be, a veritable sarcophagus, but none the less a tomb. John Wesley’s chapelslie a little heavily on John Wesley. Even so do the glories of Rome make us forgetful of the gravein Syria.

It has been said that Wesley’s character lacks charm, that mighty antiseptic. It is not easy todefine charm, which is not a catalog of qualities, but a mixture. Let no one deny charm to Wesleywho has not read his Journal. Southey’s Life is a dull, almost a stupid book which happily thereis no need to read. Read the Journal, which is a book full of plots and plays and novels, whichquivers with life and is crammed full of character.

Wesley’s Family Stock

John Wesley came of a stock which had been much harrassed and put about by our unhappyreligious difficulties. Politics, business, and religion are the three things Englishmen are said toworry themselves about. The Wesleys early took up with religion. John Wesley’s great-grandfatherand grandfather were both ejected from their livings in 1662, and the grandfather was so bulliedand oppressed by the Five Mile act that he early gave up the ghost. Whereupon his remains wererefused what is called Christian burial, though a holier and more primitive man never drew breath.This poor, persecuted spirit left two sons according to the flesh, Matthew and Samuel; and Samuelit was who in his turn became the father of John and Charles Wesley.

Samuel Wesley, though minded to share the lot hard though that lot was, of his progenitors,had the moderation of mind, the Christian conservatism which ever marked the family, and beingsent to a dissenting college, became disgusted with the ferocity and bigotry he happened there toencounter. Those were the days of the Calf’s Head Club and feastings on the twenty-ninth ofJanuary, graceless meals for which Samuel Wesley had no stomach. His turn was for the thingsthat are “quiet, wise, and good.” He departed from the dissenting seminary and in 1685 enteredhimself as a poor scholar at Exeter College, Oxford. He brought f 2 6s. with him, and as for prospects,he had none. Exeter received him.

During the eighteenth century our two universities, famous despite their faults, were alwaysopen to the poor scholar who was ready to subscribe, not to boat clubs or cricket clubs, but to the

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Thirty-nine Articles. Three archbishops of Canterbury during the eighteenth century were the sonsof small tradesmen. There was, in fact, much less snobbery and money-worship during the centurywhen the British empire was being won than during the century when it is being talked about.

Samuel Wesley was allowed to remain at Oxford, where he supported himself by devices knownto his tribe, and when he left the university to be ordained he had clear in his pouch, after discharginghis few debts, f 10 15s. He had thus made f 8 9s. out of his university, and had his education, as itwere, thrown in for nothing. He soon obtained a curacy in London and married a daughter of thewell-known ejected clergyman, Dr. Annesley, about whom you may read in anothereighteenth-century book, The Life and Errors of John Dunton.

Wesley’s Mother

The mother of the Wesleys was a remarkable woman, though cast in a mold not much to ourminds nowadays. She had nineteen children and greatly prided herself on having taught them, oneafter another, by frequent chastisem*nts to—what do you think? to cry softly. She had theories ofeducation and strength of will, and of arm too, to carry them out.

She knew Latin and Greek, and though a stern, forbidding, almost an unfeeling, parent, she wassuccessful in winning and retaining not only the respect but the affection of such of her huge familyas lived to grow up. But out of the nineteen, thirteen early succumbed. Infant mortality was one ofthe great facts of the eighteenth century whose Rachels had to learn to cry softly over their deadbabes. The mother of the Wesleys thought more of her children’s souls than of their bodies.

A Domestic Squall

The revolution of 1688 threatened to disturb the early married life of Samuel Wesley and hisspouse.

The husband wrote a pamphlet in which he defended revolution principles, but the wife secretlyadhered to the old cause; nor was it until a year before Dutch William’s death that the rector madethe discovery that the wife of his bosom, who had sworn to obey him and regard him as her over-lord,was not in the habit of saying Amen to his fervent prayers on behalf of his suffering sovereign. Anexplanation was demanded and the truth extracted, namely, that in the opinion of the rector’s wifeher true king lived over the water. The rector at once refused to live with Mrs. Wesley any longeruntil she recanted. This she refused to do, and for a twelvemonth the couple dwelt apart, whenWilliam III having the good sense to die, a reconciliation became possible. If John Wesley wasoccasionally a little pig-headed, need one wonder?

The story of the fire at Epworth Rectory and the miraculous escape of the infant John was oncea tale as well known as Alfred in the neat-herd’s hut, and pictures of it still hang up in many acollier’s home.

John Wesley received a sound classical education at Charterhouse and Christ Church, andremained all his life very much the scholar and the gentleman. No company was too good for JohnWesley, and nobody knew better than he did that had he cared to carry his powerful intelligence,his flawless constitution, and his infinite capacity for taking pains into any of the markets of theworld, he must have earned for himself place, fame, and fortune.

Coming, however, as he did of a theological stock, having a saint for a father and a notabledevout woman for a mother, Wesley from his early days learned to regard religion as the business

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of his life, just as the young Pitt came to regard the House of Commons as the future theater of hisactions.

“My Jack is Fellow of Lincoln”

After a good deal of heart-searching and theological talk with his mother, Wesley was ordaineda deacon by the excellent Potter, afterward Primate, but then (1725) Bishop of Oxford. In thefollowing year Wesley was elected a Fellow of Lincoln, to the great delight of his father. “WhateverI am,” said the good old man, “my Jack is Fellow of Lincoln.”

* * * *Wesley’s motive never eludes us. In his early manhood, after being greatly affected by Jeremy

Taylor’s Holy Living and Dying and the Imitatio Christi, and by Law’s Serious Call and ChristianPerfection, he met “a serious man” who said to him, “Sir, you wish to serve God and go to heaven.Remember you cannot serve Him alone. You must therefore find companions or make them. TheBible knows nothing of solitary religion.”

He was very confident, this serious man, and Wesley never forgot his message. “You must findcompanions or make them. The Bible knows nothing of solitary religion.” These words foreversounded in Wesley’s ears, determining his theology, which rejected the stern individualism ofCalvin, and fashioning his whole polity, his famous class meetings and generally gregarious methods.

Therefore to him it was givenMany to save with himself.We may continue the quotation and apply to Wesley the words of Mr. Arnold’s memorial to

his father:Languor was not in his heart,Weakness not in his word, Weariness not on his brow.If you ask what is the impression left upon the reader of the Journal as to the condition of

England Question, the answer will vary very much with the tenderness of the reader’s conscienceand with the extent of his acquaintance with the general behavior of mankind at all times and in allplaces.

No Sentimentalist

Wesley himself is no alarmist, no sentimentalist, he never gushes, seldom exaggerates, andalways writes on an easy level. Naturally enough he clings to the supernatural and is always disposedto believe in the bona fides of ghosts and the diabolical origin of strange noises, but outside thisrealm of speculation, Wesley describes things as he saw them. In the first published words of hisfriend, Dr. Johnson, “he meets with no basilisks that destroy with their eyes, his crocodiles devourtheir prey without tears, and his cataracts fall from the rocks without deafening the neighbouringinhabitants.”

Wesley’s humor is of the species donnish, and his modes and methods quietly persistent.

Wesley’s Humor

“On Thursday, May 20 (1742), I set out. The next afternoon I stopped a little at Newport Pagnelland then rode on till I over took a serious man with whom I immediately fell into conversation. He

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presently gave me to know what his opinions were, therefore I said nothing to contradict them. Butthat did not content him. He was quite uneasy to know ‘whether I held the doctrines of the decreesas he did’; but I told him over and over ‘We had better keep to practical things lest we should beangry at one another.’ And so we did for two miles till he caught me unawares and dragged meinto the dispute before I knew where I was. He then grew warmer and warmer; told me I was rottenat heart and supposed I was one of John Wesley’s followers. I told him ‘No. I am John Wesleyhimself.’ Upon which

Improvisum aspris Veluti qui sentibus

anguem Presset---he would gladly have run away outright. But being the better mounted of the two I kept close

to his side and endeavored to show him his heart till we came into the street of Northampton.”What a picture have we here of a fine May morning in 1742, the unhappy Calvinist trying to

shake off the Arminian Wesley! But he cannot do it! John Wesley is the better mounted of the two,and so they scamper together into Northampton.

The England described in the Journal is an England still full of theology; all kinds of queerfolk abound; strange subjects are discussed in odd places. There was drunkenness and co*ckfighting,no doubt, but there were also Deists, Mystics, Swedenborgians, Antiomians, Necessitarians,Anabaptists, Quakers, nascent heresies, and slow-dying delusions. Villages were divided into rivalgroups, which fiercely argued the nicest points in the aptest language. Nowadays in one’s ramblesa man is as likely to encounter a grey badger as a black Calvinist.

England in Wesley’s Day

The clergy of the Established Church were jealous of Wesley’s interference in their parishes,nor was this unnatural—he was not a Nonconformist but a brother churchman. What right had heto be so peripatetic? But Wesley seldom records any instance of gross clerical misconduct. Of onedrunken parson he does indeed tell us, and he speaks disapprovingly of another whom he foundone very hot day consuming a pot of beer in a lone ale-house.

When Wesley, with that dauntless courage of his, a courage which never forsook him, whichhe wore on every occasion with the delightful ease of a soldier, pushed his way into fierce districts,amid rough miners dwelling their own village communities almost outside the law, what moststrikes one with admiration, not less in Wesley’s Journal than in George Fox’s (a kindred thoughearlier volume), is the essential fitness for freedom of our rudest populations. They were coarseand brutal and savage, but rarely did they fail to recognize the high character and lofty motives ofthe dignified mortal who had traveled so far to speak to them.

The Mobs He Met

Wesley was occasionally hustled, and once or twice pelted with mud and stones, but at no timewere his sufferings at the hands of the mob to be compared with the indignities it was long thefashion to heap upon the heads of parliamentary candidates. The mob knew and appreciated thedifference between a Bubb Dodington and a John Wesley.

I do not think any ordinary Englishman will be much horrified at the demeanor of the populace.If there was a disturbance it was usually quelled. At Norwich two soldiers who disturbed a

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congregation were seized and carried before their commanding officer, who ordered them to besoundly whipped. In Wesley’s opinion they richly deserved all they got. He was no sentimentalist,although an enthusiast.

Where the reader of the Journal will be shocked is when his attention is called to the publicside of the country—to the state of the gaols—to Newgate, to Bethlehem, to the criminal code—tothe brutality of so many of the judges, and the harshness of the magistrates, to the supineness ofthe bishops, to the extinction in high places of the missionary spirit—in short, to the heavy slumberof humanity.

Wesley was full of compassion, of a compassion wholly free from hysterics and like exaltative.In public affairs his was the composed zeal of a Howard. His efforts to penetrate the dark placeswere long in vain. He says in his dry way: “They won’t let me go to Bedlam because they say Imake the inmates mad, or into Newgate because I make them wicked.” The reader of the Journalwill be at no loss to see what these sapient magistrates meant.

Wesley was a terriby exciting preacher, quiet though his manner was. He pushed matters homewithout flinching. He made people cry out and fall down, nor did it surprise him that they should.

* * * *

Ever a Preacher

If you want to get into the last century, to feel its pulses throb beneath your finger, be contentsometimes to leave the letters of Horace Walpole unturned, resist the drowsy temptation to wasteyour time over the learned triflers who sleep in the seventeen volumes of Nichols, nay even denyyourself your annual reading of Boswell or your biennial retreat with Sterne, and ride up and downthe country with the greatest force of the eighteenth century in England.

No man lived nearer the center than John Wesley. Neither Clive nor Pitt, neither Mansfieldnor Johnson. You cannot cut him out of our national life. No single figure influenced so manyminds, no single voice touched so many hearts. No other man did such a life’s work for England.

As a writer he has not achieved distinction, he was no Athanasius, no Augustine, he was evera preacher and an organizer, a laborer in the service of humanity; but happily for us his Journalsremain, and from them we can learn better than from anywhere else what manner of man he was,and the character of the times during which he lived and moved and had his being.

augustine birrell

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

“So fine an old man I never saw! The happiness of his mind beamed forth in his countenance.Every look showed how fully he enjoyed ‘the gay remembrance of a life well spent.’”

alexander knox of john wesleyLike the others of the Epworth family, John Wesley was small in stature. Barely five feet six andweighing only one hundred and twenty-two pounds, he was yet muscular and strong. Bright hazeleyes, fine features, an aquiline nose, a fine forehead, and a clear complexion combined to makehis face arresting. Contemporaries have said that his eyes retained their bright and penetratingquality even to his last years. Meticulous as to personal appearance and habits, he never appearedother than neatly dressed—narrow plaited stock, coat with a small upright collar, and three-corneredhat. “I dare no more write in a fine style,” said he, “than wear a fine coat.” “Exactly so,” remarkedCanon Overton, “but, then, he was particular about his coats. He was most careful never to beslovenly in his dress, always to be dressed in good taste….It is just the same with his style; it isnever slovenly, never tawdry.”

Henry Moore, who lived with Wesley in his latter years, says that he never saw a misplacedbook or a scrap of paper lying about in Wesley’s study. His exactness and punctuality made itpossible for him to carry the tremendous burden of work that fell to his lot, and to do it with perfectpoise. He carefully weighed the value of his time and was never hurried in mind or manner. “Hehad no time to mend anything that he either wrote or did. He therefore always did everything notonly with quietness, but with what might be thought slowness.” (Henry Moore)

Himself a delightful companion, Wesley disliked having people around who were in a badhumor, and if he did find himself in such company, he did his utmost to soothe ruffled tempers.“Wherever Wesley went he diffused a portion of his own felicity. Easy and affable in his demeanor,he accommodated himself to every sort of company and showed how happily the most finishedcourtesy may be blended with the most perfect piety. In his conversation we might be at a losswhether to admire most his fine classical taste, his extensive knowledge of men and things, or hisoverflowing goodness of heart. While the grave and serious were charmed with his wisdom, hissportive sallies of innocent mirth delighted even the young and thoughtless; and both saw in hisuninterrupted cheerfulness the excellency of true religion. No cynical remarks on the levity of youthembittered his discourses. No applausive retrospect to past times marked his present discontent.In him even old age appeared delightful, like an evening without a cloud; and it was impossible toobserve him without wishing fervently, ‘May my latter end be like his!’” (Knox)

Once when Wesley and one of his itinerant preachers were taking lunch at a wealthy home, anincident occurred which showed the great man’s tact. The daughter of the house, a beautiful girl,was much impressed with Mr. Wesley’s preaching. While conversing with the young lady, Wesley’sitinerant noticed that she was wearing a number of rings; holding her hand up for Mr. Wesley tosee, he said, “What do you think of this sir, for a Methodist’s hand?” (Wesley’s aversion for thewearing of jewelry was well known.) The girl blushed and no doubt felt ill at ease, but withcharacteristic poise Wesley only smiled and said, “The hand is very beautiful.” The young ladyappeared at the next service without her gems, and became a devoted Christian.

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Robert Southey, one of Wesley’s biographers, gives us a glimpse of his love for children. “Iwas in a house in Bristol where Wesley was. When a mere child, on running downstairs before himwith a beautiful little sister of my own, whose ringlets were floating over her shoulders, he overtookus on the landing and took my sister in his arms and kissed her. Placing her on her feet again, hethen put his hand upon my head and blessed me, and I feel as though I had the blessing of that goodman upon me at the present moment.”

We are indebted to the daughter of Charles Wesley for the following glimpses of the man inhis family relationships. She was aware that her famous uncle had been represented as stern andstoical. “It behooves a relative to render this justice to his private virtues and attest from experiencethat no human being was more alive to all the tender charities of domestic life than John Wesley.His indifference to calumny and inflexible perseverance in what he believed his duty have beenthe cause of this idea….”

His nephew was attracted in early life to an amiable girl of low birth. This was much opposedby his mother and her family, who mentioned it with concern to John Wesley. Finding that thiswas the chief objection, Wesley observed, “Then there is no family, but I hear the girl is good.”“Nor any fortune, either,” said the mother, “and she is a dawdle.” Wesley’s niece continues, “Hemade no reply, but sent my brother fifty pounds for his wedding dinner, and, I believe, sincerelyregretted he was crossed in his inclination (as she married another). But he always showed peculiarsympathy to young persons in love."

In April, 1749, after the marriage of Charles Wesley to Miss Sarah Gwynne, daughter of aWelsh magistrate, his brother writes, “It was a solemn day, such as became the dignity of a Christianmarriage.” At this time, John Wesley was himself looking forward to a happy marriage. DuringAugust of the previous year, while he was preaching at Newcastle, he had been nursed through abrief illness by Grace Murray, a widow thirty-two years of age and an outstanding Christian woman.She was a native of Newcastle, but had moved to London. There she met and married a sailor, theson of a prominent Scotch family. Sorrow over the death of her young child had led Mrs. Murrayto hear the Methodist preachers. At first her husband strongly opposed her in her new belief, butshe succeeded in winning him to the same faith.

After her husband’s death at sea in 1742, Grace Murray returned to Newcastle, where she latertook charge of the Orphan House. Her willingness to expend herself in looking after the hundredmembers in her classes, meeting a “band” every day of the week, and traveling to the nearby hamletsto read and pray with people, called forth John Wesley’s high praise: “[She was] indefatigablypatient and inexpressibly tender; quick, cleanly, and skillful; of an engaging behavior, and of amild, sprightly, cheerful, and yet serious temper; while, lastly, her gifts for usefulness were suchas he had not seen equaled.”

When he proposed to her in August, 1748, she answered, “This is too great a blessing for me;I can’t tell how to believe it. This is all I could have wished for under heaven.” Since she did notwant to be separated from him, he took her with him on a trip through Yorkshire and Derbyshire,where “she was unspeakably useful both to him and to the societies.” But she remained for a timein John Bennet’s circuit, at Bolton. Bennet was also in love with Grace Murray, so much so thatshe wrote Wesley that she thought it her duty to marry Bennet. However, she later went to Irelandwith Wesley and was not only a worker among the women—forming women’s bands, visiting thesick, and praying with the penitent—but was also an adviser to Wesley in matters of his own

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behavior. Daily his love and esteem for her increased, and when in Dublin they made definite plansto be married.

Back in England again, they found they could not lightly dismiss John Bennet and his concerns.Bennet presented himself to Wesley at Epworth saying that Grace Murray had sent him all Wesley’sletters. Being convinced then that she should marry Bennet, Wesley wrote her to that effect; butshe vacillated again and declared that Wesley was the one she really loved. They might have marriedthen, but Wesley wanted first to satisfy Bennet, gain Charles’ approval, and tell the Methodistsocieties of his plan. Charles Wesley was perturbed by the thought of his brother’s marrying onewho had been a servant; he first hastened to persuade John from a course which he said wouldcause their preachers to leave them and the societies to be scattered. John assured him that he wasnot marrying Grace for her birth, but for her own worth. Unsuccessful in changing his brother’smind, Charles determined to persuade the lady herself. Meeting her at Hineley Hill, he greeted herwith, “Grace Murray, you have broken my heart!” He prevailed upon her to ride with him toNewcastle; there she fell at Bennet’s feet and begged forgiveness for treating him so badly. Withina week she married him.

The loss of Grace Murray was Wesley’s deepest personal sorrow. The following letter revealshis heart:

“Leeds, October 7, 1749“My dear Brother,---Since I was six years old, I never met with such a severe trial as for some

days past. For ten years God has been preparing a fellow laborer for me by a wonderful train ofprovidences. Last year I was convinced of it; therefore I delayed not, but, as I thought, made allsure beyond a danger of disappointment. But we were soon after torn asunder by a whirlwind. Ina few months the storm was over; I then used more precaution than before and fondly told myselfthat the day of evil would return no more. But it too soon returned. The waves rose again since Icame out of London. I fasted and prayed and strove all I could; but the sons of Zeruiah were toohard for me. The whole world fought against me, but above all my own familiar friend. Then wasthe word fulfilled, ‘Son of man, behold, I take from thee the desire of thine eyes at a stroke; yetshalt thou not lament, neither shall thy tears run down.’

“The fatal, irrevocable stroke was struck on Tuesday last. Yesterday I saw my friend (that was)and him to whom she is sacrificed. I believe you never saw such a scene. But ‘why should a livingman complain, a man for the punishment of his sins?’

“I am, yours affectionately, “John Wesley”

Wesley did not see her again until 1788. Bennet separated from him shortly after his marriage,speaking bitterly of him and even accusing him of popery. He became pastor of a Calvinistic churchat Warburton, where he died at the early age of forty-five.

Again we refer to Henry Moore for a word about the last meeting of Wesley and Mrs. Bennet:“The meeting was affecting; but Mr. Wesley preserved more than his usual self-possession. It waseasy to see, notwithstanding the many years which had intervened, that both in sweetness of spirit,and in person and manners she was a fit subject for the tender regrets expressed in his verses. Theinterview did not continue long, and I do not remember that I ever heard Mr. Wesley mention hername afterward.”

Had Wesley married Grace Murray, he would have escaped the matrimonial disaster thatovertook him when he married Mrs. Vazeille, wealthy widow of a London merchant. The most

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charitable construction that can be placed on her malicious, unreasonable behavior is that she wasat times mentally unbalanced. She took papers and letters from his desk, changed the wording inhis letters, then put them into the hands of his enemies or had them published in the newspapers.She is known to have driven a hundred miles in a jealous rage to see who was traveling with him.One of Wesley’s preachers, John Hampson, said, after observing one of her tantrums, “More thanonce she laid violent hands upon him, and tore those venerable locks…..”

One of Charles Wesley’s biographers, Jackson, states that Wesley’s letters to his wife show“the utmost tenderness of affection, such as few female hearts could have withstood; and justifythe opinion that, had it been his happiness to be married to a person who was worthy of him, hecould have been one of the most affectionate husbands that ever lived. Those who think that hewas constitutionally cold and repulsive utterly mistake his character.”

Even in his domestic trials, the man who “did not remember to have felt lowness of spirits forone quarter of an hour since he was born” saw the bright side. He believed that even this workedout for his good: had Mrs. Wesley been a delightful companion, he says, he might have neglectedhis work at times to please her.

Always believing the best of his fellow men, he was many times sadly disappointed in theirbehavior. Incapable of malice, he was quick to forgive even his cruelest enemies.

Alexander Knox, among others, has proved that there was no taint of ambition, pride, selfishness,or personal gratification in Wesley’s motives. His ability to rule men Wesley himself considereda trust, and he never abused it.

Perhaps the best estimate of Wesley’s character and career was given by Bishop Asbury in hisJournal: “When we consider his plain and nervous writings, his uncommon talent for sermonizingand journalizing….his knowledge as an observer; his attainments as a scholar; his experience as aChristian; I conclude his equal is not to be found among all the sons he hath brought up, nor hissuperior among all the sons of Adam he may have left behind.”

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The Journal of John Wesley

Chapter 1. Wesley as a Missionary to Georgia

The first entry in Wesley’s Journal is that of October 14, 1735. But the following letter, whichWesley published with the first edition of his Journal, precedes it, as it describes the incidentswhich led to the formation of the Holy Club and to the social activities from which, as the Journalshows, Methodism has evolved.

The letter was written from Oxford in 1732 to Mr. Morgan, whose son is mentioned. It runsthus:

Wesley Begins his Work

In November, 1729, at which time I came to reside at Oxford, your son [Mr. Morgan], mybrother, myself, and one more agreed to spend three or four evenings in a week together. Our designwas to read over the classics, which we had before read in private, on common nights, and onSunday some book in divinity. In the summer following, Mr. M. told me he had called at the gaolto see a man who was condemned for killing his wife; and that, from the talk he had with one ofthe debtors, he verily believed it would do much good if anyone would be at the pains of now andthen speaking with them.

This he so frequently repeated that on August 24, 1730, my brother and I walked with him tothe castle. We were so well satisfied with our conversation there that we agreed to go thither onceor twice a week; which we had not done long before he desired me to go with him to see a poorwoman in the town, who was sick. In this employment too, when we came to reflect upon it, webelieved it would be worth while to spend an hour or two in a week; provided the minister of theparish, in which any such person was, were not against it. But that we might not depend wholly onour own judgments, I wrote an account to my father of our whole design; withal begging that he,who had lived seventy years in the world and seen as much of it as most private men have everdone, would advise us whether we had yet gone too far and whether we should now stand still orgo forward.

Origin of the Holy Club

In pursuance of [his] directions, I immediately went to Mr. Gerald, the Bishop of Oxford’schaplain, who was likewise the person that took care of the prisoners when any were condemnedto die (at other times they were left to their own care); I proposed to him our design of serving themas far as we could and my own intention to preach there once a month, if the bishop approved ofit. He much commended our design and said he would answer for the bishop’s approbation, towhom he would take the first opportunity of mentioning it. It was not long before he informed me

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he had done so and that his lordship not only gave his permission, but was greatly pleased with theundertaking and hoped it would have the desired success.

Soon after, a gentleman of Merton College, who was one of our little company, which nowconsisted of five persons, acquainted us that he had been much rallied the day before for being amember of the Holy Club; and that it was become a common topic of mirth at his college, wherethey had found out several of our customs, to which we were ourselves utter strangers. Upon thisI consulted my father again.

* * * *Upon [his] encouragement we still continued to meet together as usual; and to confirm one

another, as well as we could, in our resolutions to communicate as often as we had opportunity(which is here once a week); and do what service we could to our acquaintance, the prisoners, andtwo or three poor families in the town.

* * * *

Wesley Sails for America

1735. Tuesday, October 14.—Mr. Benjamin Ingham, of Queen College, Oxford; Mr. CharlesDelamotte, son of a merchant, in London, who had offered himself some days before; my brother,Charles Wesley, and myself, took boat for Gravesend, in order to embark for Georgia.

Our end in leaving our native country was not to avoid want (God having given us plenty oftemporal blessings) nor to gain the dung or dross of riches or honor; but singly this—to save oursouls; to live wholly to the glory of God. In the afternoon we found the “Simmonds” off Gravesendand immediately went on board.

Friday, 17.—I began to learn German in order to converse with the Germans, six-and-twentyof whom we had on board. On Sunday, the weather being fair and calm, we had the morning serviceon quarterdeck. I now first preached extempore and then administered the Lord’s Supper to six orseven communicants.

Monday, 20.—Believing the denying ourselves, even in the smallest instances, might, by theblessing of God, be helpful to us, we wholly left off the use of flesh and wine and confined ourselvesto vegetables food—chiefly rice and biscuit.

Tuesday, 21.—We sailed from Gravesend. When we were past about half the Goodwin Sands,the wind suddenly failed. Had the calm continued till ebb, the ship had probably been lost. Butthe gale sprang up again in an hour, and carried us into the Downs.

We now began to be a little regular. Our common way of living was this: From four in themorning till five each of us used private prayer. From five to seven we read the Bible together,carefully comparing it (that we might not lean to our own understandings) with the writings of theearliest ages. At seven we breakfasted. At eight were the public prayers. From nine to twelve Iusually learned German, and Mr. Delamotte, Greek. My brother wrote sermons, and Mr. Inghaminstructed the children. At twelve we met to give an account of one another what we had done sinceour last meeting, and what we designed to do before our next. About one we dined.

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Life on Board

The time from dinner to four we spent in reading to those whom each of us had taken in charge,or in speaking to them severally, as need required. At four were the evening prayers; when eitherthe second lesson was explained (as it always was in the morning), or the children were catechizedand instructed before the congregation. From five to six we again used private prayer. From six toseven I read in our cabin to two or three of the passengers (of whom there were about eighty Englishon board), and each of my brethren to a few more in theirs.

At seven I joined with the Germans in their public service, while Mr. Ingham was readingbetween the decks to as many as desired to hear. At eight we met again to exhort and instruct oneanother. Between nine and ten we went to bed, where neither the roaring of the sea nor the motionof the ship could take away the refreshing sleep which God gave us.

Friday, 31.—We sailed out of the Downs. At eleven at night I was waked by a great noise. Isoon found there was no danger. But the bare apprehension of it gave me a lively conviction whatmanner of men those ought to be who are every moment on the brink of eternity.

Saturday, November 1.—We came to St. Helen’s harbor, and the next day into Cowes road.The wind was fair, but we waited for the man-of-war which was to sail with us. This was a happyopportunity of instructing our fellow travelers.

Sunday, 23.—At night I was awakened by the tossing of the ship and roaring of the wind, andplainly showed I was unfit, for I was unwilling, to die.

Wednesday, December 10.—We sailed from Cowes, and in the afternoon passed the Needles.Here the ragged rocks, with the waves dashing and foaming at the foot of them, and the white sideof the island rising to such a height, perpendicular from the beach, gave a strong idea of “Him thatspanneth the heavens, and holdeth the waters in the hollow of His hand!”

1736. Thursday, January 15.—Complaint being made to Mr. Oglethorpe of the unequaldistribution of the water among the passengers, he appointed new officers to take charge of it. Atthis the old ones and their friends were highly exasperated against us, to whom they imputed thechange.

Saturday, 17.—Many people were very impatient at the contrary wind. At seven in the eveningthey were quieted by a storm. It rose higher and higher till nine. About nine the sea broke over usfrom stem to stern; burst through the windows of the state cabin, where three or four of us were,and covered us all over, though a bureau sheltered me from the main shock. About eleven I laydown in the great cabin and in a short time fell asleep, though very uncertain whether I should wakealive and much ashamed of my unwillingness to die. Oh, how pure in heart must he be, who wouldrejoice to appear before God at a moment’s warning! Toward morning, “He rebuked the winds andthe sea; and there was a great calm” [Matt. 8:26].

Memorable Atlantic Storms

Friday, 23.—In the evening another storm began. In the morning it increased so that they wereforced to let the ship drive. I could not but say to myself, “How is it that thou hast no faith?” beingstill unwilling to die. About one in the afternoon, almost as soon as I had stepped out of the great

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cabin-door, the sea did not break as usual, but came with a full, smooth tide over the side of theship. I was vaulted over with water in a moment, and so stunned that I scarcely expected to lift upmy head again till the sea should give up her dead. But thanks be to God, I received no hurt at all.About midnight the storm ceased.

Sunday, 25.—At noon our third storm began. At four it was more violent than before. At sevenI went to the Germans. I had long before observed the great seriousness of their behavior. Of theirhumility they had given a continual proof by performing those servile offices for the other passengers,which none of the English would undertake; for which they desired and would receive no pay,saying, “it was good for their proud hearts,” and “their loving Saviour had done more for them.”And every day had given them an occasion of showing a meekness which no injury could move.If they were pushed, struck, or thrown down, they rose again and went away; but no complaint wasfound in their mouth. There was now an opportunity of trying whether they were delivered fromthe spirit of fear, as well as from that of pride, anger and revenge.

In the midst of the psalm wherewith their service began, the sea broke over, split the mainsailin pieces, covered the ship, and poured in between the decks, as if the great deep had alreadyswallowed us up. A terrible screaming began among the English. The Germans calmly sang on. Iasked one of them afterward, “Were you not afraid?” He answered, “I thank God, no.” I asked,“But were not your women and children afraid?” He replied, mildly, “No; our women and childrenare not afraid to die.”

Friday, 30.—We had another storm, which did us no other harm than splitting the foresail. Ourbed being wet, I laid me down on the floor and slept soundly till morning. And, I believe, I shallnot find it needful to go to bed (as it is called) any more.

Sunday, February 1.—We spoke with a ship of Carolina; and Wednesday, 4, came withinsoundings. About noon, the trees were visible from the masts and in the afternoon from the maindeck. In the evening lesson were these words: “A great door, and effectual, is opened.” Oh, let noone shut it!

Thursday, 5.—Between two and three in the afternoon, God brought us all safe into the Savannahriver. We cast anchor near Tybee Island, where the groves of pines, running along the shore, madean agreeable prospect, showing, as it were, the bloom of spring in the depth of winter.

Wesley Arrives in Georgia

Friday, 6.—About eight in the morning, we first set foot on American ground. It was a smalluninhabited island, over against Tybee. Mr. Oglethorpe led us to a rising ground where we allkneeled down to give thanks. He then took boat for Savannah. When the rest of the people werecome on shore, we called our little flock together to prayers.

Saturday, 7.—Mr. Oglethorpe returned from Savannah with Mr. Spangenberg, one of the pastorsof the Germans. I soon found what spirit he was of and asked his advice with regard to my ownconduct. He said, “My brother, I must first ask you one or two questions. Have you the witnesswithin yourself? Does the Spirit of God bear witness with your spirit that you are a child of God?”I was surprised, and knew not what to answer. He observed it and asked, “Do you know JesusChrist?” I paused and said, “I know He is the Saviour of the world.” “True,” replied he; “but do

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you know He has saved you?” I answered, “I hope He has died to save me.” He only added, “Doyou know yourself?” I said, “I do.” But I fear they were vain words.

Saturday, 14.—About one, Tomo Chachi, his nephew, Thleeanouhee, his wife Sinauky, withtwo more women, and two or three Indian children, came on board. As soon as we came in, theyall rose and shook us by the hand; and Tomo Chachi (one Mr. Musgrove interpreted) spoke asfollows:

“I am glad you are come. When I was in England, I desired that some would speak the greatWord to me and my nation then desired to hear it; but now we are all in confusion. Yet I am gladyou are come. I will go up and speak to the wise men of our nation; and I hope they will hear. Butwe would not be made Christians as the Spaniards make Christians: we would be taught, beforewe are baptized."

I answered, “There Is but One, He that sitteth in heaven, who is able to teach man wisdom.Though we are come so far, we know not whether He will please to teach you by us or no. If Heteaches you, you will learn wisdom, but we can do nothing.” We then withdrew.

Thursday, 19.—My brother and I took boat, and passing by Savannah, went to pay our firstvisit in America to the poor heathens.

Begins His Ministry at Savannah

Sunday, March 7.—I entered upon my ministry at Savannah, by preaching on the epistle forthe day, being the thirteenth of First Corinthians. In the second lesson (Luke 18) was our Lord’sprediction of the treatment which He Himself (and, consequently, His followers) was to meet withfrom the world. “Verily I say unto you, There is no man that hath left house, or friends, or brethren,or wife, or children, for the kingdom of God’s sake, who shall not receive manifold more in thispresent time, and in the world to come life everlasting.”

Yet, notwithstanding these declarations of our Lord—notwithstanding my own repeatedexperience—notwithstanding the experience of all the sincere followers of Christ whom I haveever talked with, read or heard of; nay, and the reason of the thing evincing to a demonstration thatall who love not the light must hate Him who is continually laboring to pour it in upon them; I dohere bear witness against myself that when I saw the number of people crowding into the church,the deep attention with which they received the Word, and the seriousness that afterward sat on alltheir faces; I could scarcely refrain from giving the lie to experience and reason and Scripture alltogether.

I could hardly believe that the greater, the far greater part of this attentive, serious people wouldhereafter trample under foot that Word and say all manner of evil falsely of him that spake it.

Monday, 15.—Mr. Quincy going for Carolina, I removed into the minister’s house. It is largeenough for a larger family than ours and has many conveniences, besides a good garden.

Tuesday, 30.—Mr. Ingham, coming from Frederica, brought me letters, pressing me to gothither. The next day Mr. Delamotte and I began to try whether life might not as well be sustainedby one sort as by variety of food. We chose to make the experiment with bread; and were nevermore vigorous and healthy than while we tasted nothing else.

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“I Waked Under Water”

Sunday, April 4.—About four in the afternoon I set out for Frederica in a pettiawga—a sort offlat-bottomed barge. The next evening we anchored near Skidoway Island, where the water, atflood, was twelve or fourteen feet deep. I wrapped myself up from head to foot in a large cloak, tokeep off the sandflies, and lay down on the quarterdeck. Between one and two I waked under water,being so fast asleep that I did not find where I was till my mouth was full of it. Having left mycloak, I know not how, upon deck, I swam around to the other side of the pettiawga, where a boatwas tied, and climbed up by the rope without any hurt, more than wetting my clothes.

Saturday, 17.—Not finding as yet any door open for the pursuing our main design, we consideredin what manner we might be most useful to the little flock at Savannah. And we agreed 1) to advisethe more serious among them to form themselves into a sort of little society, and to meet once ortwice a week, in order to reprove, instruct and exhort one another; 2) to select out of these a smallernumber for a more intimate union with each other, which might be forwarded, partly by ourconversing singly with each and partly by inviting them all together to our house; and this,accordingly, we determined to do every Sunday in the afternoon.

Monday, May 10.—I began visiting my parishioners in order, from house to house; for whichI set apart the time when they cannot work because of the heat, namely, from twelve till three inthe afternoon.

Thursday, June 17.—An officer of a man-of-war, walking just behind us with two or three ofhis acquaintance, cursed and swore exceedingly; but upon my reproving him, seemed much movedand gave me many thanks.

Tuesday, 22.—Observing much coldness in M ----‘s behaviour, I asked him the reason of it.He answered, “I like nothing you do. All your sermons are satires upon particular persons, thereforeI will never hear you more; and all the people are of my mind; for we won’t hear ourselves abused.

“Besides, they say, they are Protestants. But as for you, they cannot tell what religion you areof. They never heard of such a religion before. They do not know what to make of it. And thenyour private behaviour: all the quarrels that have been here since you came, have been ‘long ofyou. Indeed there is neither man nor woman in the town who minds a word you say. And so youmay preach long enough; but nobody will come to hear you.”

He was too warm for hearing an answer. So I had nothing to do but to thank him for his opennessand walk away.

Talks to the Indians

Wednesday, 30.—I hoped a door was opened for going up immediately to the Choctaws, theleast polished, that is, the least corrupted, of all the Indian nations. But upon my informing Mr.Oglethorpe of our design, he objected, not only the danger of being intercepted or killed by theFrench there; but much more, the inexpediency of leaving Savannah destitute of a minister. Theseobjections I related to our brethren in the evening, who were all of opinion, “We ought not to goyet.”

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Thursday, July 1.—The Indians had an audience; and another on Saturday, when Chicali, theirhead man, dined with Mr. Oglethorpe. After dinner, I asked the grey-headed old man what hethought he was made for. He said, “He that is above knows what He made us for. We know nothing.We are in the dark. But white men know much. And yet white men build great houses, as if theywere to live forever. But white men cannot live forever. In a little time, white men will be dust aswell as I.” I told him, “If red men will learn the Good Book, they may know as much as white men.But neither we nor you can understand that Book unless we are taught by Him that is above: andHe will not teach you unless you avoid what you already know is not good.” He answered, “I believethat. He will not teach us while our hearts are not white. And our men do what they know is notgood: they kill their own children. And our women do what they know is not good: they kill thechild before it is born. Therefore He that is above does not send us the Good Book.”

Monday, 26.—My brother and I set out for Charleston, in order to his embarking for England;but the wind being contrary, we did not reach Port Royal, forty miles from Savannah, till Wednesdayevening. The next morning we left it. But the wind was so high in the afternoon, as we were crossingthe neck of St. Helena’s sound, that our oldest sailor cried out, “Now everyone must take care ofhimself.” I told him, “God will take care for us all.” Almost as soon as the words were spoken, themast fell. I kept on the edge of the boat, to be clear of her when she sank (which we expected everymoment), though with little prospect of swimming ashore against such a wind and sea. But “Howis it that thou hadst no faith?” The moment the mast fell, two men caught it and pulled it into theboat; the other three rowed with all their might, and “God gave command to the wind and seas”;so that in an hour we were safe on land.

Fearless of Rains and Dews

Monday, August 2.—I set out for the Lieutenant Governor’s seat, about thirty miles fromCharleston, to deliver Mr. Oglethorpe’s letters. It stands very pleasantly on a little hill with a valeon either side, in one of which is a thick wood; the other is planted with rice and Indian corn. Idesigned to have gone back by Mr. Skeen’s, who has about fifty Christian negroes. But my horsetiring, I was obliged to return the straight way to Charleston.

I had sent the boat we came in back to Savannah, expecting a passage thither myself in ColonelBull’s. His not going so soon, I went to Ashley Ferry on Thursday, intending to walk to Port Royal.But Mr. Belinger not only provided me a horse, but rode with me himself ten miles, and sent hisson with me to Cumbee Ferry, twenty miles farther; whence, having hired horses and a guide, Icame to Beaufort (or Port Royal) the next evening. We took boat in the morning; but, the windbeing contrary and very high, did not reach Savannah till Sunday, in the afternoon.

Finding Mr. Oglethorpe was gone, I stayed only a day at Savannah; and leaving Mr. Inghamand Delamotte there, set out on Tuesday morning for Frederica. In walking to Thunderbolt I wasin so heavy a shower that all my clothes were as wet as if I had gone through the river. On whichoccasion I cannot but observe that vulgar error concerning the hurtfulness of the rains and dews ofAmerica. I have been thoroughly wet with these rains more than once, yet without any harm at all.And I have lain many nights in the open air and received all the dews that fell; and so, I believe,might anyone, if his constitution was not impaired by the softness of a genteel education.

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Desires to Go Among the Indians

Tuesday, November 23.—Mr. Oglethorpe sailed for England, leaving Mr. Ingham, Mr.Delamotte, and me at Savannah, but with less prospect of preaching to the Indians than we had thefirst day we set foot in America. Whenever I mentioned it, it was immediately replied, “You cannotleave Savannah without a minister.”

To this indeed my plain answer was, “I know not that I am under any obligation to the contrary.I never promised to stay here one month. I openly declared both before, at, and ever since, mycoming hither that I neither would nor could take charge of the English any longer than till I couldgo among the Indians.” If it was said, “But did not the trustees of Georgia appoint you to be ministerof Savannah?” I replied, “They did; but it was not done by my solicitation: it was done withouteither my desire or knowledge. Therefore, I cannot conceive that appointment to lay me under anyobligation of continuing there any longer than till a door is opened to the heathens; and this Iexpressly declared at the time I consented to accept of that appointment.”

But though I had no other obligation not to leave Savannah now, yet that of love, I could notbreak through: I could not resist the importunate request of the more serious parishioners, “to watchover their souls yet a little longer, till someone came who might supply my place.” And this I themore willingly did, because the time was not come to preach the gospel of peace to the heathens,all their nations being in a ferment; and Paustoobee and Mingo Mattaw having told me, in terms,in my own house, “Now our enemies are all about us, and we can do nothing but fight; but if thebeloved ones should ever give us to be at peace, then we would hear the great Word.”

Wednesday, December 23.—Mr. Delamotte and I, with a guide, set out to walk to the Cowpen.When we had walked two or three hours, our guide told us plainly he did not know where we were.However, believing it could not be far off, we though it best to go on. In an hour or two we cameto a cypress swamp, which lay directly across our way; there was not time to walk back to Savannahbefore night, so we walked through it, the water being about breast high.

By the time we had gone a mile beyond it, we were out of all path; and it being now past sunset,we sat down, intending to make a fire and to stay there till morning; but finding our tinder wet, wewere at a stand. I advised to walk on still; but my companions, being faint and weary, were forlying down, which we accordingly did about six o’clock; the ground was as wet as our clothes,which it being a sharp frost, were soon frozen together; however, I slept till six in the morning.There fell a heavy dew in the night which covered us over as white as snow. Within an hour aftersunrise, we came to a plantation, and in the evening, without any hurt, to Savannah.

Chapter 2. Troubles in Georgia; Return to England; Peter Bohler; “I Felt myHeart Strangely Warmed”

Begins to Learn Spanish

1737. Friday, March 4.—I wrote the trustees for Georgia an account of our year’s expense,from March 1, 1736, to March 1, 1737; which, deducting extraordinary expenses, such as repairing

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the parsonage house and journeys to Frederica, amounted, for Mr. Delamotte and me, to f 44/4s.4d.

Monday, April 4.—I began learning Spanish in order to converse with My Jewish parishioners;some of whom seem nearer the mind that was in Christ than many of those who called Him Lord.

Tuesday, 12.—Being determined, if possible, to put a stop to the proceedings of one in Carolina,who had married several of my parishioners without either banns or license and declared he woulddo so still, I set out in a sloop for Charleston. I landed there on Thursday, and related the case toMr. Garden, the Bishop of London’s commissary, who assured me he would take care no suchirregularity should be committed for the future.

Sunday, July 3.—Immediately after the holy communion, I mentioned to Mrs. Williamson (Mr.Causton’s niece) some things which I thought reprovable in her behavior. At this she appearedextremely angry; said she did not expect such usage from me; and at the turn of the street, throughwhich we were walking home, went abruptly away. The next day Mrs. Causton endeavored toexcuse her; told me she was exceedingly grieved for what had passed the day before and desiredme to tell her in writing what I disliked; which I accordingly did the day following.

But first I sent Mr. Causton the following note:“Sir,“To his hour you have shown yourself my friend; I ever have and ever shall acknowledge it.

And it is my earnest desire that He who hath hitherto given me this blessing would continue it still.“But this cannot be, unless you will allow me one request, which is not so easy a one as it

appears: do not condemn me for doing, in the execution of my office, what I think it my duty todo.

“If you can prevail upon yourself to allow me this, even when I act without respect of persons,I am persuaded there will never be, at least not long, any misunderstanding between us. For eventhose who seek it shall, I trust, find no occasion against me, ‘except it be concerning the law of myGod.’

“July 5, 1737.”Wednesday, 6.—Mr. Causton came to my house, with Mr. Bailiff Parker and Mr. Recorder,

and warmly asked, “How could you possibly think I should condemn you for executing any partof your office?” I said short, “Sir, what if I should think it the duty of my office to repel one ofyour family from the holy communion?” He replied, “If you repel me or my wife, I shall require alegal reason. But I shall trouble myself about none else. Let them look to themselves.”

Warrant for Wesley’s Arrest

Sunday, August 7.—I repelled Mrs. Williamson from the holy communion. and Monday, [July]8, Mr. Recorder, of Savannah, issued out the warrant following:

“Georgia. Savannah ss.“To all Constables, Tithingmen, and others, whom these may concern:“You, and each of you, are hereby required to take the body of John Wesley, Clerk:“And bring him before one of the Bailiffs of the said town to answer the complaint of William

Williamson and Sophia, his wife, for defaming the said Sophia, and refusing to administer to her

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the sacrament of the Lord’s supper in a public congregation without cause; by which the saidWilliam Williamson is damaged one thousand pound sterling; and for so doing, this is your warrant,certifying what you are to do in the premises. Given under my hand and seal the 8th day of August,Anno. dom. 1737.

Tho. Christie.”Tuesday, 9.—Mr. Jones, the constable, served the warrant, and carried me before Mr. Bailiff

Parker and Mr. Recorder. My answer to them was that the giving or refusing the Lord’s supperbeing a matter purely ecclesiastical, I could not acknowledge their power to interrogate me uponit. Mr. Parker told me: “However, you must appear at the next Court, holden for Savannah.” Mr.Williamson, who stood by, said: “Gentlemen, I desire Mr. Wesley may give bail for his appearance.”But Mr. Parker immediately replied: “Sir, Mr. Wesley’s word is sufficient.”

Thursday, 11.—Mr. Causton came to my house and, among many other sharp words, said:“Make an end of this matter; thou hadst best. My niece to be used thus! I have drawn the swordand I will never sheath it till I have satisfaction.”

Soon after, he added: “Give the reasons of your repelling her before the whole congregation.”I answered: “Sir, if you insist upon it, I will; and so you may be pleased to tell her.” He said, “Writeto her, and tell her so yourself.” I said, “I will”; and after he went I wrote as follows:

“To Mrs. Sophia Williamson“At Mr. Causton’s request, I write once more. The rules whereby I proceed are these:“’So many as intend to be partakers of the holy communion, shall signify their names to the

curate, at least some time the day before.’ This you did not do.“’And if any of these have done any wrong to his neighbors, by word or deed, so that the

congregation be thereby offended, the curate shall advertise him that in any wise he presume notto come to the Lord’s table until he hath openly declared himself to have truly repented.’

“If you offer yourself at the Lord’s table on Sunday, I will advertise you (as I have done morethan once) wherein you have done wrong. And when you have openly declared yourself to have

truly repented, I will administer to you the mysteries of God. style="#_ftn1" name="_ftnref1">[1]

“John Wesley“August 11, 1737”

Mr. Delamotte carrying this, Mr. Causton said, among many other warm sayings: “I am theperson that is injured. The affront is offered to me; and I will espouse the cause of my niece. I amill used, and I will have satisfaction, if it be to be had in the world.”

Which way this satisfaction was to be had, I did not yet conceive; but on Friday and Saturdayit began to appear; Mr. Causton declared to many persons that “Mr. Wesley had repelled Sophyfrom the holy communion purely out of revenge, because he had made proposals of marriage toher which she rejected, and married Mr. Williamson.”

The Jury’s Charge against Wesley

Tuesday, 16.—Mrs. Williamson swore to and signed an affidavit insinuating much more thanit asserted; but asserting that Mr. Wesley had many times proposed marriage to her, all which

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proposals she rejected. Of this I desire a copy. Mr. Causton replied: “Sir, you may have one fromany of the newspapers in America.”

On Thursday and Friday was delivered out a list of twenty-six men, who were to meet as agrand jury on Monday, the twenty-second. But this list was called in the next day, and twenty-fournames added to it. Of this grand jury (forty-four of whom only met), one was a Frenchman, whodid not understand English; one a Papist, one a professed infidel, three Baptists, sixteen or seventeenother Dissenters, and several others who had personal quarrels against me and had openly vowedrevenge.

To this grand jury, on Monday, 22, Mr. Causton gave a long and earnest charge “to beware ofspiritual tyranny, and to oppose the new, illegal authority which was usurped over their consciences.”Then Mrs. Williamson’s affidavit was read; after which, Mr. Causton delivered to the grand jurya paper, entitled:

“A List of grievances, presented by the grand jury for Savannah, this day of August, 1737.”This the majority of the grand jury altered in some particulars, and on Thursday, September 1,

delivered it again to the court, under the form of two presentments, containing ten bills, which werethen read to the people.

Herein they asserted, upon oath, “That John Wesley, clerk, had broken the laws of the realm,contrary to the peace of our Sovereign Lord the King, his crown and dignity.

“1. By speaking and writing to Mrs. Williamson against her husband’s consent.“2. By repelling her from the holy communion.“3. By not declaring his adherence to the Church of England.“4. By dividing the morning service on Sundays.“5. By refusing to baptize Mr. Parker’s child, otherwise than by dipping, except the parents

would certify it was weak and not able to bear it.“6. By repelling William Gough from the holy communion.“7. By refusing to read the burial service over the body of Nathaniel Polhill.“8. By calling himself Ordinary of Savannah.“9. By refusing to receive William Aglionby as a godfather, only because he was not a

communicant.“10. By refusing Jacob Matthews for the same reason; and baptizing an Indian trader’s child

with only two sponsors.” (This, I own, was wrong; for I ought, at all hazards, to have refusedbaptizing it till he had procured a third.)

Friday, September 2.—Was the third court at which I appeared since my being carried beforeMr. P. and the Recorder.

I now moved for an immediate hearing on the first bill, being the only one of a civil nature; butit was refused. I made the same motion in the afternoon, but was put off till the next court-day.

On the next court-day I appeared again, as also at the two courts following, but could not beheard, because (the Judge said) Mr. Williamson was gone out of town.

The sense of the minority of the grand jurors themselves (for they were by no means unanimous)concerning these presentments may appear from the following paper, which they transmitted to thetrustees:

To the Honorable the Trustees for Georgia.“Whereas two presentments have been made: the one of August 23, the other of August 31, by

the grand jury for the town and county of Savannah, in Georgia, against John Wesley, Clerk.

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“We whose names are underwritten, being members of the said grand jury, do humbly begleave to signify our dislike of the said presentments; being, by many and divers circ*mstances,thoroughly persuaded in ourselves that the whole charge against Mr. Wesley is an artifice of Mr.Causton’s, designed rather to blacken the character of Mr. Wesley than to free the colony fromreligious tyranny, as he was pleased, in his charge to us, to term it. But as these circ*mstances willbe too tedious to trouble your Honors with, we shall only beg leave to give the reasons of our dissentfrom the particular bills…..”

Friday, October 7.—I consulted my friends as to whether God did not call me to return toEngland. The reason for which I left it had now no force, there being no possibility as yet ofinstructing the Indians; neither had I, as yet, found or heard of any Indians on the continent ofAmerica who had the least desire of being instructed. And as to Savannah, having never engagedmyself, either by word or letter, to stay there a day longer than I should judge convenient, nor evertaken charge of the people any otherwise than as in my passage to the heathens, I looked uponmyself to be fully discharged therefrom, by the vacating of that design. Besides, there was aprobability of doing more service to that unhappy people in England, than I could do in Georgia,by representing, without fear or favor, to the trustees the real state the colony was in. After deeplyconsidering these things, they were unanimous that I ought to go, but not yet. So I laid the thoughtsof it aside for the present; being persuaded that when the time was come, God would “make theway plain before my face.”

Why Wesley left Georgia

Thursday, November 3.—I appeared again at the court, holden on that day; and again, at thecourt held Tuesday, November 22. On which day Mr. Causton desired to speak with me. He thenread me some affidavits which had been made September 15, last past; in one of which it wasaffirmed that I then abused Mr. Causton in his own house, calling him liar, villain, and so on. Itwas now likewise repeated before several persons, which indeed I had forgotten, that I had beenreprimanded at the last court, for an enemy to, and hinderer of, the public peace.

I again consulted my friends who agreed with me that the time we looked for was now come.And the next morning, calling on Mr. Causton, I told him I designed to set out for Englandimmediately. I set up an advertisem*nt in the Great Square to the same effect and quietly preparedfor my journey.

Friday, December 2.—I proposed to set out for Carolina about noon, the tide then serving. Butabout ten, the magistrates sent for me and told me I must not go out of the province; for I had notanswered the allegations laid against me. I replied, “I have appeared at six or seven courtssuccessively, in order to answer them. But I was not suffered so to do, when I desired it time aftertime.” Then they said, however, I must not go, unless I would give security to answer thoseallegations at their court. I asked, “What security?” After consulting together about two hours, therecorder showed me a kind of bond, engaging me, under a penalty of fifty pounds, to appear at theircourt when I should be required. He added, “But Mr. Williamson too has desired of us that youshould give bail to answer his action.” I then told him plainly, “Sir, you use me very ill, and so you

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do the trustees. I will give neither any bond nor any bail at all. You know your business, and I knowmine.”

In the afternoon, the magistrates published an order, requiring all the officers and sentinels toprevent my going out of the province and forbidding any person to assist me so to do. Being nowonly a prisoner at large, in a place where I know by experience that every day would give freshopportunity to procure evidence of words I never said and actions I never did; I saw clearly thehour was come for leaving this place: and as soon as evening prayers were over, about eight o’clock,the tide then serving, I shook off the dust of my feet and left Georgia, after having preached thegospel there (not as I ought, but as I was able) one year and nearly nine months.

Saturday, 3.—We came to Purrysburg early in the morning and endeavored to procure a guideto Port Royal. but none being to be had, we set out without one, an hour before sunrise. Afterwalking two or three hours, we met with an old man who led us into a small path, near which wasa line of blazed tees (that is, marked by cutting off part of the bark), by following which, he said,we might easily come to Port Royal in five or six hours.

Lost in the Woods

We were four in all; one intended to go to England with me, the other two to settle in Carolina.About eleven we came into a large swamp, where we wandered about till near two. We then foundanother blaze and pursued it till it divided into two; one of these we followed through an almostimpassable thicket, a mile beyond which it ended. We made through the thicket again, and tracedthe other blaze till that ended too. It now grew toward sunset; so we sat down, faint and weary,having had no food all day, except a gingerbread cake, which I had taken in my pocket. A third ofthis we had divided among us at noon; another third we took now; the rest we reserved for themorning; but we had met with no water all the day. Thrusting a stick into the ground, and findingthe end of it moist, two of our company fell a-digging with their hands, and, at about three feetdepth, found water. We thanked God, drank, and were refreshed. The night was sharp; however,there was no complaining among us; but after having commended ourselves to God, we lay downclose together and (I at least) slept till near six in the morning.

Sunday, 4.—God renewed our strength, we arose neither faint nor weary, and resolved to makeone trial more, to find out a path to Port Royal. We steered due east; but finding neither path norblaze, and the woods growing thicker and thicker, we judged it would be our best course to return,if we could, by the way we came. The day before, in the thickest part of the wood, I had brokenmany young trees, I knew not why, as we walked along; these we found a great help in severalplaces where no path was to be seen; and between one and two God brought us safe to BenjaminArieu’s house, the old man we left the day before.

In the evening I read French prayers to a numerous family, a mile from Arieu’s; one of whomundertook to guide us to Port Royal. In the morning we set out. About sunset, we asked our guideif he knew where he was; who frankly answered, “No.” However, we pushed on till, about seven,we came to a plantation; and the next evening, after many difficulties and delays, we landed onPort Royal island.

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Wednesday, 7.—We walked to Beaufort, where Mr. Jones, the minister of Beaufort with whomI lodged during my short stay here, gave me a lively idea of the old English hospitality. On ThursdayMr. Delamotte came; with whom, on Friday, 9, I took boat for Charleston. After a slow passage,by reason of contrary winds and some conflict (our provisions falling short) with hunger as wellas cold, we came thither early in the morning, on Tuesday, 13.

Farewell to America

Thursday, 22.--I took my leave of America (though, if it please God, not forever), going onboard the "Samuel," Captain Percy, with a young gentleman who had been a few months in Carolina,one of my parishioners of Savannah, and a Frenchman, late of Purrysburg, who was escaped thenceby the skin of his teeth.

Saturday, 24--We sailed over Charleston bar, and about noon lost sight of land.The next day the wind was fair, but high, as it was on Sunday 25, when the sea affected me

more than it had done in the sixteen weeks of our passage to America. I was obliged to lie downthe greatest part of the day, being easy only in that posture.

Monday, 26.--I began instructing a Negro lad in the principles of Christianity. The next day Iresolved to break off living delicately and return to my old simplicity of diet; and after I did so,neither my stomach nor my head much complained of the motion of the ship.

1738. Sunday, January 1.--All in the ship, except the captain and steersman, were present bothat the morning and evening service and appeared as deeply attentive as even the poor people ofFrederica did, while the Word of God was new to their, ears. And it may be, one or two amongthese likewise may "bring forth fruit with patience."

Monday, 2.--Being sorrowful and very heavy (though I could give no particular reason for it),and utterly unwilling to speak close to any of my little flock (about twenty persons), I was in doubtwhether my neglect of them was not one cause of my own heaviness. In the evening, therefore, Ibegan instructing the cabin boy; after which I was much easier.

I went several times the following days, with a design to speak to the sailors, but could not. Imean, I was quite averse to speaking; I could not see how to make an occasion, and it seemed quiteabsurd to speak without. Is not this what men commonly mean by, "I could not speak"? And isthis a sufficient cause of silence, or no? Is it a prohibition from the Good Spirit? or a temptationfrom nature, or the evil one?

Saturday, 7.--I began to read and explain some passages of the Bible to the young Negro. Thenext morning, another Negro who was on board desired to be a hearer too. From them I went tothe poor Frenchman, who, understanding no English, had none else in the ship with whom he couldconverse. And from this time, I read and explained to him a chapter in the Testament every morning.

The Voyage to England

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Friday, 13.--We had a thorough storm, which obliged us to shut all close, the sea breaking overthe ship continually. I was at first afraid but cried to God and was strengthened. Before ten, I laydown: I bless God, without fear. About midnight we were awakened by a confused noise of seasand wind and men’s voices the like of which I had never heard before. The sound of the sea breakingover and against the sides of tile ship I could compare to nothing but large cannon, or Americanthunder. The rebounding, starting, quivering motion of the ship much resembled what is said ofearthquakes.

The captain was upon deck in an instant. But his men could not hear what he said. It blew aproper hurricane; which beginning at southwest, then went west, northwest, north, and, in a quarterof an hour, round by the east to the southwest point again. At the same time the sea running, asthey term it, mountain-high, and that from many different points at once, the ship would not obeythe helm; nor indeed could the steersman, through the violent rain, see the compass. So he wasforced to let her run before the wind, and in half an hour the stress of the storm was over.

Tuesday, 24.--We spoke with two ships, outward bound, from whom we had the welcome newsof our wanting but one hundred and sixty leagues of the Land’s End. My mind was now full ofthought; part of which I wrote down as follows:

"I went to America, to convert the Indians; but oh! who shall convert me? who, what is he thatwill deliver me from this evil heart of mischief? I have a fair summer religion. I can talk well; nay,and believe myself, while no danger is near; but let death look me in the face, and my spirit istroubled. Nor can I say, 'To die is gain!'

I have a sin of fear, that when I've spun

My last thread, I shall perish on the shorel"I think, verily, if the gospel be true, I am safe: for I not only have given, and do give, all my

goods to feed the poor; I not only give my body to be burned, drowned, or whatever God shallappoint for me; but I follow after charity (though not as I ought, yet as I can), if haply I may attainit. I now believe the gospel is true. ‘I show my faith by my works’ by staking my all upon it. Iwould do so again and again a thousand times, if the choice were still to make.

"Whoever sees me, sees I would be a Christian. Therefore ‘are my ways not like other men'sways.' Therefore I have been, I am, I am content to be, 'a by-word, a proverb of reproach.' But ina storm I think, 'What, if the gospel be not true? Then thou art of all men most foolish. For whathast thou given thy goods, thine ease, thy friends, thy reputation, thy country, thy life? For whatart thou wandering over the face of the earth?--A dream! a cunningly devised fable!'

"Oh! who will deliver me from this fear of death? What shall I do? Where shall I fly from it?Should I fight against it by thinking, or by not thinking of it? A wise man advised me some timesince, 'Be still and go on.’ Perhaps this is best, to look upon it as my cross; when it comes to let ithumble me and quicken all my good resolutions, especially that of praying without ceasing; andat other times to take no thought about it, but quietly to go on ‘in the work of the Lord.’”

Lands at Deal

We went on with a small, fair wind, till Thursday in the afternoon; and then sounding, found awhitish sand at seventy-five fathom; but having had no observation for several days, the captain

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began to be uneasy, fearing we might either get unawares into the Bristol Channel, or strike in thenight on the rocks of Scilly.

Saturday, 28.—Was another cloudy day; but about ten in the morning, the wind continuingsoutherly, the clouds began to fly just contrary to the wind, and, to the surprise of us all, sank sounder the sun so that at noon we had an exact observation; and by this we found we were as wellas we could desire, about eleven leagues south of Scilly.

Sunday, 29.--We saw English land once more; which, about noon, appeared to be the LizardPoint. We ran by it with a fair wind; and at noon the next day made the west end of the Isle ofWight.

Here the wind turned against us and in the evening blew fresh so that we expected (the tidebeing likewise strong against us) to be driven some leagues backward in the night; but in morning,to our great surprise, we saw Beach Head just before us, and found we had gone forwards nearforty miles.

Toward evening was a calm; but in the tight a strong north wind brought us safe into the Downs.The day before, Mr. Whitefield had sailed out, neither of us then knowing anything of the other.At four in the morning we took boat, and in half an hour landed at Deal; it was Wednesday, February1, the anniversary festival inGeorgia for Mr. Oglethorpe's landing there.

It is now two years and almost four months since I left my native country in order to teach theGeorgian Indians the nature of Christianity. But what have I learned myself in the meantime? Why(what I the least of all suspected), that I who went to America to convert others was never myselfconverted to God. 1 “I am not mad,” though I thus speak; but "I speak the words of truth andsoberness”; if haply some of those who still dream may awake and see that as I am, so are they.

In London Again

Wednesday, February 1.—After reading prayers and explaining a portion of Scripture to a largecompany at the inn, I left Deal and came in the evening to Feversham.

I here read prayers and explained the second lesson to a few of those who were called Christians,but were indeed more savage in their behavior than the wildest Indians I have yet met with.

Friday, 3.—I came to Mr. Delamotte’s, at Blendon, where I expected a cold reception. But Godhad prepared the way before me; and I no sooner mentioned my name than I was welcomed in sucha manner as constrained me to say: “Surely God is in this place, and I knew it not! Blessed be yeof the Lord! Ye have shown more kindness in the latter end than in the beginning.”

In the evening I came once more to London, whence I had been absent two years and nearlyfour months.

Many reasons I have to bless God, though the design I went upon did not take effect, for myhaving been carried into that strange land, contrary to all my preceding resolutions. Hereby I trustHe hath in some measure “humbled me and proved me, and shown me what was in my heart”[Deut. 8:2]. Hereby I have been taught to “beware of men.” Hereby I am come to know assuredlythat if “in all our ways we acknowledge God, he will,” where reason fails, “direct our path” by lot

1 I am not sure of this.

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or by the other means which He knoweth. Hereby I am delivered from the fear of the sea, which Ihad both dreaded and abhorred from my youth.

Hereby God has given me to know many of His servants, particularly those of the Church ofHerrnhut [the Moravians]. Hereby my passage is opened to the writings of holy men in the German,Spanish, and Italian tongues. I hope, too, some good may come to others hereby. All in Georgiahave heard the Word of God. Some have believed and have begun to run well. A few steps havebeen taken toward publishing the glad tidings both to the African and American heathens. Manychildren have learned “how they ought to serve God” and to be useful to their neighbor. And thosewhom it most concerns have an opportunity of knowing the true state of their infant colony andlaying a firmer foundation of peace and happiness to many generations.

Saturday, 4.—I told my friends some of the reasons which a little hastened my return to England.They all agreed it would be proper to relate them to the trustees of Georgia.

Accordingly, the next morning I waited on Mr. Oglethorpe but had not time to speak on thathead. In the afternoon I was desired to preach at St. John the Evangelist’s. I did so on those strongwords, “If any man be in Christ, he is a new creature” [II Cor. 5:17]. I was afterward informedmany of the best in the parish were so offended that I was not to preach there any more.

Monday, 6.—I visited many of my old friends, as well as most of my relations. I find the timeis not yet come when I am to be “hated of all men.” Oh, may I be prepared for that day!

Wesley Meets Peter Bohler

Tuesday, 7.—(A day much to be remembered.) At the house of Mr. Weinantz, a Dutch merchant,I met Peter Bohler, Schulius Richter, and Wensel Neiser, just then landed from Germany. Findingthey had no acquaintance in England, I offered to procure them a lodging and did so near Mr.Hutton’s, where I then was. And from this time I did not willingly lose any opportunity of conversingwith them while I stayed in London.

Wednesday, 8.—I went to Mr. Oglethorpe again but had no opportunity of speaking as I designed.Afterward I waited on the board of trustees and gave them a short but plain account of the state ofthe colony; an account, I fear, not a little differing from those which they had frequently receivedbefore, and for which I have reason to believe some of them have not forgiven me to this day.

Sunday, 12.—I preached at St. Andrew’s, Holborn on “Though I give all my goods to feed thepoor, and though I give my body to be burned, and have not charity, it profiteth me nothing” [ICor. 13:3]. Oh, hard sayings! Who can hear them? Here, too, it seems, I am to preach no more.

Friday, 17.—I set out for Oxford with Peter Bohler, where we were kindly received by Mr.Sarney, the only one now remaining here of many who, at our embarking for America, were usedto “take sweet counsel together” and rejoice in “bearing the reproach of Christ.”

Saturday, 18.—We went to Stanton Harcourt. The next day I preached once more at the castlein Oxford, to a numerous and serious congregation.

All this time I conversed much with Peter Bohler, but I understood him not; and least of allwhen he said, “My brother, my brother, that philosophy of yours must be purged away.”

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Monday, 20.—I returned to London. On Tuesday I preached at Great St. Helen’s on “If anyman will come after me, let him deny himself, and take up his cross daily, and follow me” [Luke9:23].

Sunday, 26.—I preached at six, at St. Lawrence’s; at ten, in St. Catherine Cree’s Church; andin the afternoon, at St. John’s, Wapping. I believe it pleased God to bless the first sermon most,because it gave most offense; being, indeed, an open defiance of that mystery of iniquity which theworld calls “prudence,” grounded on those words of St. Paul to the Galatians, “As many as desireto make a fair show in the flesh, they constrain you to be circumcised; only lest they should sufferpersecution for the cross of Christ” [Gal. 6:12].

Monday, 27.—I took coach for Salisbury and had several opportunities of conversing seriouslywith my fellow travelers.

Tuesday, 28.—I saw my mother once more. The next day I prepared for my journey to mybrother at Tiverton. But on Thursday morning, March 2, a message that my brother Charles wasdying at Oxford obliged me to set out for that place immediately. Calling at an odd house in theafternoon, I found several persons there who seemed well-wishers to religion, to whom I spakeplainly; as I did in the evening both to the servants and strangers at my inn.

Wesley’s Four Resolutions

With regard to my own behavior, I now renewed and wrote down my former resolutions.1. To use absolute openness and unreserve with all I should converse with.2. To labor after continual seriousness, not willingly indulging myself in any the least levity of

behavior, or in laughter; no, not for a moment.3. To speak no word which does not tend to the glory of God; in particular, not to talk of worldly

things. Others may, nay, must. But what is that to thee? And,4. To take no pleasure which does not tend to the glory of God; thanking God every moment

for all I do take, and therefore rejecting every sort and degree of it which I feel I cannot so thankHim in and for.

Saturday, March 4.—I found my brother at Oxford, recovering from his pleurisy; and with himPeter Bohler; by whom, in the hand of the great God, I was, on Sunday, the fifth, clearly convincedof unbelief, of the want of that faith whereby alone we are saved.

Immediately it struck into my mind, “Leave off preaching. How can you preach to others, whohave not faith yourself?” I asked Bohler whether he thought I should leave it off or not. He answered,“By no means.” I asked, “But what can I preach?” He said, “Preach faith till you have it; and then,because you have it, you will preach faith.”

Accordingly, Monday, 6, I began preaching this new doctrine, though my soul started backfrom the work. The first person to whom I offered salvation by faith alone was a prisoner undersentence of death. His name was Clifford. Peter Bohler had many times desired me to speak to himbefore. But I could not prevail on myself so to do; being still, as I had been many years, a zealousasserter of the impossibility of a deathbed repentance.

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Incidents on the Manchester Road

Tuesday, 14.—I set out for Manchester with Mr. Kinchin, fellow of Corpus Christi, and Mr.Fox, late a prisoner in the city prison.

About eight, it being rainy and very dark, we lost our way; but before nine, came to Shipston,having ridden over, I know not how, a narrow footbridge, which lay across a deep ditch near thetown. After supper I read prayers to the people of the inn and explained the second lesson; I hopenot in vain.

The next day we dined at Birmingham; and, soon after we left it, were reproved for ournegligence there, in letting those who attended us go without either exhortation or instruction, bya severe shower of hail.

In the evening we came to Stafford. The mistress of the house joined with us in family prayer.The next morning one of the servants appeared deeply affected, as did the hostler, before we went.Soon after breakfast, stepping into the stable, I spoke a few words to those who were there. Astranger who heard me said, “Sir, I wish I were to travel with you”; and when I went into the house,followed me and began abruptly, “Sir, I believe you are a good man, and I come to tell you a littleof my life.” The tears stood in his eyes all the time he spoke; and we hoped not a word which wassaid to him was lost.

At Newcastle, whither we came about ten, some to whom we spoke at our inn were very attentive;but a gay young woman waited on us, quite unconcerned: however, we spoke on. When we wentaway, she fixed her eyes and neither moved nor said one word but appeared as much astonishedas if she had seen one risen from the dead.

Coming to Holms Chapel about three, we were surprised at being shown into a room where acloth and plates were laid. Soon after two men came in to dinner, Mr. Kinchin told them, if theypleased, that gentleman would ask a blessing for them. They stared and, as it were, consented; butsat still while I did it, one of them with his hat on. We began to speak on turning to God, and wenton, though they appeared utterly regardless. After a while their countenances changed, and one ofthem stole off his hat; laying it down behind him, he said that all we said was true; but he had beena grievous sinner and not considered it as he ought; but he was resolved, with God’s help, now toturn to Him in earnest. We exhorted him and his companion, who now likewise drank in everyword, to cry mightily to God that He would “send them help from his holy place.”

Late at night we reached Manchester.

Companions on Horseback

Friday, 17.—Early in the morning we left Manchester, taking with us Mr. Kinchin’s brother,for whom we came, to be entered at Oxford. We were fully determined to lose no opportunity ofawakening, instructing, or exhorting any whom we might meet with in our journey. At Knutsford,where we first stopped, all we spake to thankfully received the word of exhortation. But atTalk-on-the-hill, where we dined, she with whom we were was so much of a gentlewoman that fornearly an hour our labor seemed to be in vain. However, we spoke on. Upon a sudden, she looked

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as one just awakened out of a sleep. Every word sank into her heart. Nor have I seen so entire achange both in the eyes, face, and manner of speaking of anyone in so short a time.

About five, Mr. Kinchin riding by a man and woman double-horsed, the man said, ”Sir, youought to thank God it is a fair day; for if it rained, you would be sadly dirty with your little horse.”Mr. Kinchin answered, “True; and we ought to thank God for our life, and health, and food, andraiment, and all things.” He then rode on, Mr. Fox following, the man said, “Sir, my mistress wouldbe glad to have some more talk with that gentleman.” We stayed, and when they came up, beganto search one another’s hearts. They came to us again in the evening, at our inn at Stone, where Iexplained both to them and many of their acquaintance who were come together, that greattruth-–godliness hath the promise both of this life and of that which is to come.

Tuesday, 21.—Between nine and ten we came to Hedgeford. In the afternoon one overtook uswhom we soon found more inclined to speak than to hear. However, we spoke and spared not. Inthe evening we overtook a young man, a Quaker, who afterward came to us, to our inn at Henley,whither he sent for the rest of his family, to join with us in prayer; to which I added, as usual, theexposition of the second lesson. Our other companion went with us a mile or two in the morning;and then not only spoke less than the day before but took in good part a serious caution againsttalkativeness and vanity.

An hour after we were overtaken by an elderly gentleman who said he was going to enter hisson at Oxford. We asked, “At what college?” He said he did not know, having no acquaintancethere on whose recommendation he could depend. After some conversation, he expressed a deepsense of the good providence of God; and told us he knew God had cast us in his way in answer tohis prayer. In the evening we reached Oxford, rejoicing in our having received so many freshinstances of that great truth, “In all thy ways acknowledge him, and he shall direct thy paths” [Prov.3:6].

Preaches in Oxford Castle

Thursday, 23.—I met Peter Bohler again, who now amazed me more and more by the accounthe gave of the fruits of living faith—the holiness and happiness which he affirmed to attend it. Thenext morning I began the Greek Testament again, resolving to abide by “the law and the testimony”;I was confident that God would hereby show me whether this doctrine was of God.

Monday, 27.—Mr. Kinchin went with me to the castle, where, after reading prayers and preachingon “It is appointed unto men once to die,” we prayed with the condemned man, first in severalforms of prayer and then in such words as were given us in that hour. He kneeled down in muchheaviness and confusion, having “no rest in” his “bones, by reason of” his “sins." After a space herose up, and eagerly said, “I am now ready to die. I know Christ has taken away my sins; and thereis no more condemnation for me.” The same composed cheerfulness he showed when he was carriedto execution; and in his last moments he was the same, enjoying a perfect peace, in confidence thathe was “accepted in the Beloved.”

Sunday, April 2.—Being Easter day, I preached in our college chapel on “The hour cometh,and now is, when the dead shall hear the voice of the son of God: and they that hear shall live”

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[John 5:25]. I preached in the afternoon, first at the castle, and then at Carfax, on the same words.I see the promise, but it is afar off.

Believing it would be better for me to wait for the accomplishment of it in silence and retirement,on Monday, 3, I complied with Mr. Kinchin’s desire and went to him at Dummer, in Hampshire.But I was not suffered to stay here long, being earnestly pressed to come up to London, if it wereonly for a few days. Thither, therefore, I returned, on Tuesday, 18.

Talks with Bohler

I asked P. Bohler again whether I ought not to refrain from teaching others. He said, “No; donot hide in the earth the talent God hath given you.” Accordingly, on Tuesday, 25, I spoke clearlyand fully at Blendon to Mr. Delamotte’s family of the nature and fruits of faith. Mr. Broughton andmy brother were there. Mr. Broughton’s great objection was he could never think that I had notfaith, who had done and suffered such things. My brother was very angry and told me I did notknow what mischief I had done by talking thus. And, indeed, it did please God then to kindle a fire,which I trust shall never be extinguished.

On Wednesday, 26, the day fixed for my return to Oxford, I once more waited on the trusteesfor Georgia; but, being straitened for time, was obliged to leave the papers for them, which I haddesigned to give into their own hands. One of these was the instrument whereby they had appointedme minister of Savannah; which, having no more place in those parts, I thought it not right to keepany longer.

P. Bohler walked with me a few miles and exhorted me not to stop short of the grace of God.At Gerard’s Cross I plainly declared to those whom God gave into my hands the faith as it is inJesus: as I did next day to a young man I overtook on the road and in the evening to our friends atOxford. A strange doctrine, which some who did not care to contradict yet knew not what to makeof; but one or two, who were thoroughly bruised by sin, willingly heard and received it gladly.

In the day or two following, I was much confirmed in the “truth that is after godliness” byhearing the experiences of Mr. Hutchins, of Pembroke College, and Mrs. Fox: two living witnessesthat God can (at least, if He does not always) give that faith whereof cometh salvation in a moment,as lightning falling from heaven.

Monday, May 1.—The return of my brother’s illness obliged me again to hasten to London. Inthe evening I found him at James Hutton’s, better as to his health than I expected; but stronglyaverse to what he called “the new faith.”

This evening our little society began, which afterward met in Fetter Lane.Wednesday, 3.—My brother had a long and particular conversation with Peter Bohler. And it

now pleased God to open his eyes so that he also saw clearly what was the nature of that one trueliving faith, whereby alone, “through grace, we are saved.”

Thursday, 4.—Peter Bohler left London in order to embark for Carolina. Oh, what a work hathGod begun since his coming into England! Such a one as shall never come to an end till heavenand earth pass away.

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Sunday, 7.—I preached at St. Lawrence’s in the morning, and afterward at St. Katherine Cree’sChurch. I was enabled to speak strong words at both; and was therefore the less surprised at beinginformed that I was not to preach any more in either of those churches.

Sunday, 14.—I preached in the morning at St. Ann’s, Aldersgate; and in the afternoon at theSavoy Chapel, free salvation by faith in the blood of Christ. I was quickly apprised that at St. Ann’s,likewise, I am to preach no more.

Friday, 19.—My brother had a second return of his pleurisy. A few of us spent Saturday nightin prayer. The next day, being Whitsunday, after hearing Dr. Heylyn preach a truly Christian sermon(on “They were all filled with the Holy Ghost.” “And so,” said he, “may all you be, if it is not yourown fault”), and assisting him at the holy communion (his curate being taken ill in the church), Ireceived the surprising news that my brother had found rest to his soul. His bodily strength returnedalso from that hour. “Who is so great a God as our God?”

I preached at St. John’s, Wapping at three and at St. Bennett’s, Paul’s Wharf, in the evening.At these churches, likewise, I am to preach no more. at St. Antholin’s I preached on the Thursdayfollowing.

Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday, I had continual sorrow and heaviness in my heart.Wednesday, May 24.—I think it was about five this morning that I opened my Testament on

those words, “There are given unto us exceeding great and precious promises, even that ye shouldbe partakers of the divine nature” [II Peter 1:4]. Just as I went out, I opened it again on those words,“Thou art not far from the kingdom of God” [Mark 12:34]. In the afternoon I was asked to go toSt. Paul’s. The anthem was, “Out of the deep have I called unto Thee, O Lord: Lord, hear my voice.Oh, let Thine ears consider well the voice of my complaint. If Thou, Lord, wilt be extreme to markwhat is done amiss, O Lord, who may abide it? For there is mercy with Thee; therefore shalt Thoube feared. O Israel, trust in the Lord: for with the Lord there is mercy, and with Him is plenteousredemption. And He shall redeem Israel from all his sins.”

“I Felt My Heart Strangely Warmed”

In the evening I went very unwillingly to a society in Aldersgate Street, where one was readingLuther’s preface to the Epistle to the Romans. About a quarter before nine, while he was describingthe change which God works in the heart through faith in Christ, I felt my heart strangely warmed.I felt I did trust in Christ, Christ alone, for salvation; and an assurance was given me that He hadtaken away my sins, even mine, and saved me from the law of sin and death.

I began to pray with all my might for those who had in a more especial manner despitefullyused me and persecuted me. I then testified openly to all there what I now first felt in my heart. Butit was not long before the enemy suggested, “This cannot be faith; for where is thy joy?” Then wasI taught that peace and victory over sin are essential to faith in the Captain of our salvation; butthat, as to the transports of joy that usually attend the beginning of it, especially in those who havemourned deeply, God sometimes giveth, sometimes withholdeth, them according to the counselsof His own will.

After my return home, I was much buffeted with temptations, but I cried out, and they fledaway. They returned again and again. I as often lifted up my eyes, and He “sent me help from his

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holy place.” And herein I found the difference between this and my former state chiefly consisted.I was striving, yea, fighting with all my might under the law, as well as under grace. But then I wassometimes, if not often, conquered; now, I was always conqueror.

Thursday, 25.—The moment I awakened, “Jesus, Master,” was in my heart and in my mouth;and I found all my strength lay in keeping my eye fixed upon Him and my soul waiting on Himcontinually. Being again at St. Paul’s in the afternoon, I could taste the good word of God in theanthem which began, “My song shall be always of the loving-kindness of the Lord: with my mouthwill I ever be showing forth thy truth from one generation to another.” Yet the enemy injected afear, “If thou dost believe, why is there not a more sensible change? I answered (yet not I), “ThatI know not. But, this I know, I have ‘now peace with God.’ And I sin not today, and Jesus myMaster has forbidden me to take thought for the morrow.”

Wednesday, June 7.—I determined, if God should permit, to retire for a short time into Germany.I had fully proposed, before I left Georgia, so to do if it should please God to bring me back toEurope. And I now clearly saw the time was come. My weak mind could not bear to be thus sawnasunder. And I hoped the conversing with those holy men who were themselves living witnessesof the full power of faith, and yet able to bear with those that are weak, would be a means, underGod, of so establishing my soul that I might go on from faith to faith, and from “strength to strength.”

[The next three months Wesley spent in Germany visiting the Moravians.]

Wesley Preaches in Newgate Gaol

Sunday, September 17. (London).—I began again to declare in my own country the glad tidingsof salvation, preaching three times and afterward expounding the Holy Scripture, to a large companyin the Minories. On Monday I rejoiced to meet with our little society, which now consisted ofthirty-two persons.

The next day I went to the condemned felons in Newgate and offered them free salvation. Inthe evening I went to a society in Bear Yard and preached repentance and remission of sins. Thenext evening I spoke the truth in love at a society in Aldersgate Street: some contradicted at first,but not long; nothing but love appeared at our parting.

Friday, November 3.—I preached at St. Antholin’s; Sunday, 5, in the morning, at St. Botolph’s,Bishopsgate; in the afternoon, at Islington; and in the evening, to such a congregation as I neversaw before, at St. Clement’s, in the Strand. As this was the first time of my preaching here, I supposeit is to be the last.

Sunday, December 3 (Oxford).—I began reading prayers at Bocardo (the city prison), a practicewhich had been long discontinued. In the afternoon I received a letter, earnestly desired me topublish my account of Georgia; and another, as earnestly dissuading me from it “because it wouldbring much trouble upon me.” I consulted God in His Word, and received two answers: the first,Ezekiel 33:2—6; the other, “Thou therefore endure hardship, as a good soldier of Jesus Christ” [IITim. 2:3].

Tuesday, 5.—I began reading prayers and preaching in Gloucester Green workhouse; and onThursday, in that belonging to St. Thomas’s parish. On both days I preached at the castle. At St.Thomas’s was a young woman, raving mad, screaming and tormenting herself continually. I had

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a strong desire to speak to her. The moment I began she was still. The tears ran down her cheeksall the time I was telling her, “Jesus of Nazareth is able and willing to deliver you.”

Monday, 11.—Hearing Mr. Whitefield was arriving from Georgia, I hastened to London fromOxford; and on Tuesday, 12, God gave us once more to take sweet counsel together.

Chapter 3. Field-Preaching; "All the World my Parish"; Whitefield; Wales;Experience with Demons

Wesley Begins Field-preaching

1739. March 15.—During my stay [in London] I was fully employed, between our own societyin Fetter Lane and many others where I was continually desired to expound; I had no thought ofleaving London, when I received, after several others, a letter from Mr. Whitefield and anotherfrom Mr. Seward entreating me, in the most pressing manner, to come to Bristol without delay.This I was not at all forward to do.

Wednesday, 28.—My journey was proposed to our society in Fetter Lane. But my brotherCharles would scarcely bear the mention of it; till appealing to the Oracles of God, he receivedthose words as spoken to himself and answered not again: “Son of man, behold, I take from theethe desire of thine eyes with a stroke: yet shalt thou not mourn or weep, neither shall thy tears rundown” [Ezek. 24:16]. Our other brethren, however, continuing the dispute, without any probabilityof their coming to one conclusion, we at length all agreed to decide it by lot. And by this it wasdetermined I should go.

Thursday, 29.—I left London and in the evening expounded to a small company at Basingstoke,Saturday, 31. In the evening I reached Bristol and met Mr. Whitefield there. I could scarcelyreconcile myself at first to this strange way of preaching in the fields, of which he set me an exampleon Sunday; I had been all my life (till very lately) so tenacious of every point relating to decencyand order that I should have thought the saving of souls almost a sin if it had not been done in achurch.

April 1.—In the evening (Mr. Whitefield being gone) I began expounding our Lord’s Sermonon the Mount (one pretty remarkable precedent of field-preaching, though I suppose there werechurches at that time also), to a little society which was accustomed to meet once or twice a weekin Nicholas Street.

Monday, 2.—At four in the afternoon, I submitted to be more vile and proclaimed in thehighways the glad tidings of salvation, speaking from a little eminence in a ground adjoining tothe city, to about three thousand people. The Scripture on which I spoke was this (is it possibleanyone should be ignorant that it is fulfilled in every true minister of Christ?): “The Spirit of theLord is upon me, because he hath anointed me to preach the gospel to the poor; he hath sent me toheal the broken-hearted, to preach deliverance to the captives, and recovering of sight to the blind,to set at liberty them that are bruised, to proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord” [see Isa. 61:1,2; Luke 4:18, 19].

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Sunday, 8.—At seven in the morning I preached to about a thousand persons at Bristol, andafterward to about fifteen hundred on the top of Hannam Mount in Kingswood. I called to them,in the words of the evangelical prophet, “Ho! every one that thirsteth, come ye to the waters;.…come,and buy wine and milk without money and without price” [Isa. 55:1]. About five thousand were inthe afternoon at Rose Green (on the other side of Kingswood); among whom I stood and cried inthe name of the Lord, “If any man thirst, let him come unto me and drink. He that believeth on me,as the Scripture hath said, out of his belly shall flow rivers of living water” [John 7:38].

Tuesday, 17.—At five in the afternoon I was at a little society in the Back Lane. The room inwhich we were was propped beneath, but the weight of people made the floor give way; so that inthe beginning of expounding, the post which propped it fell down with a great noise. But the floorsank no farther; so that, after a little surprise at first, they quietly attended to the things that werespoken.

Monday, May 7.—I was preparing to set out for Pensford, having now had leave to preach inthe church, when I received the following note:

“Sir,“Our minister, having been informed you are beside yourself, does not care that you should

preach in any of his churches.”—I went, however; and on Priestdown, about half a mile fromPensford, preached Christ our “wisdom, righteousness, sanctification, and redemption.”

Tuesday, 8.—I went to Bath, but was not suffered to be in the meadow where I was before,which occasioned the offer of a much more convenient place, where I preached Christ to about athousand souls.

Wednesday, 9.—We took possession of a piece of ground near St. James’s churchyard, in theHorse Fair, Bristol, where it was designed to build a room large enough to contain both the societiesof Nicholas and Baldwin Street and such of their acquaintance as might desire to be present withthem, at such times as the Scripture was expounded. And on Saturday, 12, the first stone was laidwith the voice of praise and thanksgiving.

The First Methodist Building

I had not at first the least apprehension or design of being personally engaged either in theexpense of this work or in the direction of it, having appointed eleven feoffees on whom I supposedthese burdens would fall, of course; but I quickly found my mistake. First, with regard to theexpense: for the whole undertaking must have stood still had not I immediately taken upon myselfthe payment of all the workmen; so that before I knew where I was, I had contracted a debt of morethan a hundred and fifty pounds. And this I was to discharge as I could, the subscriptions of bothsocieties not amounting to one quarter of the sum.

And as to the direction of the work, I presently received letters from my friends in London, Mr.Whitefield in particular, backed with a message by one just come from thence, that neither he northey would have anything to do with the building, neither contribute anything toward it, unless Iwould instantly discharge all feoffees and do everything in my own name. Many reasons they gavefor this; but one was enough, namely, “that such feoffees always would have it in their power tocontrol me; and, if I preached not as they liked, to turn me out of the room I had built.” I accordingly

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yielded to their advice, and calling all the feoffees together canceled (no man opposing) theinstrument made before, and took the whole management into my own hands. Money, it is true, Ihad not, nor any human prospect or probability of procuring it; but I knew “the earth is the Lord’s,and the fullness thereof,” and in His name set out, nothing doubting.

Sunday, 13.—My ordinary employment in public was now as follows: Every morning I readprayers and preached at Newgate. Every evening I expounded a portion of Scripture at one or moreof the societies. On Monday, in the afternoon, I preached abroad, near Bristol; on Tuesday, at Bathand Two Mile Hill alternately; on Wednesday, at Baptist Mills; every other Thursday, near Pensford;every other Friday, in another part of Kingswood; on Saturday in the afternoon, and Sunday morning,in the Bowling Green (which lies near the middle of the city); on Sunday, at eleven, near HannamMount; at two, at Clifton; and at five, on Rose Green. and hitherto, as my days so my strength hathbeen.

Wesley’s Living Arguments

Sunday, 20.—Seeing many of the rich at Clifton Church, my heart was much pained for themand I was earnestly desirous that some even of them might “enter into the kingdom of heaven.”But full as I was, I knew not where to begin in warning them to flee from the wrath to come till myTestament opened on these words: "I came not to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance”[Mark 2:17]; in applying which my soul was so enlarged that methought I could have cried out (inanother sense than poor vain Archimedes), “Give me where to stand, and I will shake the earth.”God’s sending forth lightning with the rain did not hinder about fifteen hundred from staying atRose Green. Our Scripture was, “It is the glorious God that maketh the thunder. The voice of theLord is mighty in operation; the voice of the Lord is a glorious voice” [see Ps. 29:3, 4]. In theevening He spoke to three whose souls were all storm and tempest, and immediately there was agreat calm.

During this whole time I was almost continually asked, either by those who purposely came toBristol to inquire concerning this strange work, or by my old or new correspondents, “How canthese things be?” And innumerable cautions were given me (generally grounded on grossmisrepresentations of things) not to regard visions or dreams, or to fancy people had remission ofsins because of their cries, or tears, or bare outward professions. To one who had many times writtento me on this head, the sum of my answer was as follows:

“The question between us turns chiefly, if not wholly, on matter of fact. You deny that Goddoes now work these effects; at least, that He works them in this manner. I affirm both, because Ihave heard these things with my own ears and have seen with my eyes. I have seen (as far as athing of this kind can be seen very many persons changed in a moment from the spirit of fear,horror, despair, to the spirit of love, joy, and peace; and from sinful desire, till then reigning overthem, to a pure desire of doing the will of God. These are matters of fact whereof I have been, andalmost daily am, an eye- or ear-witness.

“What I have to say touching visions or dreams, is this: I know several persons in whom thisgreat change was wrought in a dream, or during a strong representation to the eye of their mind,of Christ either on the cross or in the glory. This is the fact; let any judge of it as they please. And

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that such a change was then wrought appears (not from their shedding tears only, or falling intofit, or crying out; these are not the fruits, as you seem to suppose, whereby I judge, but) from thewhole tenor of their life, till then many ways wicked; from that time holy, just, and good.

“I will show you him that was a lion till then and is now a lamb; him that was a drunkard andis now exemplarily sober; the whor*monger that was who now abhors the very ‘garment spottedby the flesh.’ These are my living arguments for what I assert, namely, ‘that God does now, asaforetime, give remission of sins and the gift of the Holy Ghost even to us and to our children; yea,and that always suddenly as far as I have known, and often in dreams or in the visions of God.’ Ifit be not so, I am found a false witness before God. For these things I do, and by His grace, willtestify.”

Beau Nash Argues with Wesley

Tuesday, June 5.—There was great expectation at Bath of what a noted man was to do to methere; and I was much entreated not to preach because no one knew what might happen. By thisreport I also gained a much larger audience, among whom were many of the rich and great. I toldthem plainly the Scripture had concluded them all under sin—high and low, rich and poor, onewith another. Many of them seemed to be a little surprised and were sinking apace into seriousness,when their champion appeared and, coming close to me, asked by what authority I did these things.

I replied, “By the authority of Jesus Christ, conveyed to me by the (now) Archbishop ofCanterbury, when he laid hands upon me and said, ‘Take thou authority to preach the gospel.’” Hesaid, “This is contrary to Act of Parliament: this is a conventicle.” I answered, “Sir, the conventiclesmentioned in that Act (as the preamble shows) are seditious meetings; but this is not such; here isno shadow of sedition; therefore it is not contrary to that Act.” He replied, “I say it is: and beside,your preaching frightens people out of their wits.”

“Sir, did you ever hear me preach?” “No.” “How, then, can you judge of what you never heard?”“Sir, by common report.” “Common report is not enough. Give me leave, Sir, to ask, is not yourname Nash?” “My name is Nash.” “Sir, I dare not judge of you by common report: I think it notenough to judge by.” Here he paused awhile and, having recovered himself, said, “I desire to knowwhat this people comes here for”: on which one replied, “Sir, leave him to me: let an old womananswer him. You, Mr. Nash, take care of your body; we take care of our souls; and for the food ofour souls we come here.” He replied not a word, but walked away.

As I returned, the street was full of people, hurrying to and from and speaking great words. Butwhen any of them asked, “Which is he?” and I replied, “I am he,” they were immediately silent.Several ladies following me into Mr. Merchant’s house, the servant told me there were some wantedto speak to me. I went to them and said, “I believe, ladies, the maid mistook: you wanted only tolook at me.” I added, “I do not expect that the rich and great should want either to speak with meor to hear me; for I speak the plain truth—a thing you hear little of and do not desire to hear.” Afew more words passed between us, and I retired.

Monday, 1.—I received a pressing letter from London (as I had several others before), to comethither as soon as possible, our brethren in Fetter Lane being in great confusion for want of mypresence and advice. I therefore preached in the afternoon on these words: “I take you to record

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this day, that I am pure from the blood of all men. For I have not shunned to declare unto you allthe counsel of God” [Acts 20: 26, 27]. After sermon I commended them to the grace of God, inwhom they had believed. Surely God hath yea a work to do in this place. I have not found suchlove, no, not in England; nor so childlike, artless, teachable, a temper as He hath given to thispeople.

Yet during this whole time I had many thoughts concerning the unusual manner of my ministeringamong them. But after frequently laying it before the Lord and calmly weighing whatever objectionsI heard against it, I could not but adhere to what I had some time since written to a friend, who hadfreely spoken his sentiments concerning it. An extract of that letter I here subjoin that the mattermay be placed in a clear light.

“All the World My Parish”

“You say, you cannot reconcile some parts of my behavior with the character I have longsupported. No, nor ever will. Therefore I have disclaimed that character on every possible occasion.I told all in our ship, all at Savannah, all at Frederica, and that over and over, in express terms, ‘Iam not a Christian; I only follow after, if haply I may attain it.’

* * * *“If you ask on what principle I acted, it was this: ‘A desire to be a Christian; and a conviction

that whatever I judge conducive thereto that I am bound to do; wherever I judge I can best answerthis end, thither it is my duty to go.’ On this principle I set out for America; on this I visited theMoravian church; and on the same am I ready now (God being my helper) to go to Abyssinia orChina, or whithersoever it shall please God, by this conviction, to call me.

“As to your advice that I should settle in college, I have no business there, having now no officeand no pupils. And whether the other branch of your proposal be expedient for me, namely, ‘toaccept of a cure of souls,’ it will be time enough to consider when one is offered to me.

“But, in the meantime, you think I ought to sit still; because otherwise I should invade another’soffice, if I interfered with other people’s business and intermeddled with souls that did not belongto me. You accordingly ask, ‘How is it that I assemble Christians who are none of my charge, tosing psalms, and pray, and hear the Scriptures expounded?’ and think it hard to justify doing thisin other men’s parishes, upon catholic principles?

“Permit me to speak plainly. If by catholic principles you mean any other than scriptural, theyweigh nothing with me; I allow no other rule, whether of faith or practice, than the holy Scriptures.but on scriptural principles, I do not think it hard to justify whatever I do. God in Scripture commandsme, according to my power, to instruct the ignorant, reform the wicked, confirm the virtuous. Manforbids me to do this in another’s parish; that is, in effect, to do it at all, seeing I have now no parishof my own, nor probably ever shall. Whom then shall I hear, God or man?

* * * *“I look upon all the world as my parish; thus far I mean, that, in whatever part of it I am, I judge

it meet, right, and my bounden duty to declare unto all that are willing to hear, the glad tidings ofsalvation. This is the work which I know God has called me to; and sure I am that His blessingattends it. Great encouragement have I, therefore, to be faithful in fulfilling the work He hath given

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me to do. His servant I am, and, as such, am employed according to the plain direction of His Word,‘As I have opportunity, doing good unto all men’; and His providence clearly concurs with hisWord; which as disengaged me from all things else, that I might singly attend on this very thing,‘and go about doing good.’”

* * * *

Susanna Wesley and her Son

Wednesday, 13.—After receiving the holy communion at Islington, I had once more anopportunity of seeing my mother, whom I had not seen since my return from Germany.

I cannot but mention an odd circ*mstance here. I had read her a paper in June last year,containing a short account of what had passed in my own soul, till within a few days of that time.She greatly approved it, and said she heartily blessed God, who had brought me to so just a wayof thinking. While I was in Germany a copy of that paper was sent (without my knowledge) to oneof my relations. He sent an account of it to my mother, whom I now found under strange fearsconcerning me, being convinced “by an account taken from one of my own papers that I had greatlyerred from the faith.” I could not conceive what paper that should be; but, on inquiry, found it wasthe same I had read her myself. How hard is it to form a true judgment of any person or thing fromthe account of a prejudiced relater! yea, though he be ever so honest a man: for he who gave thisrelations was one of unquestionable veracity. And yet by his sincere account of a writing whichlay before his eyes, was the truth so totally disguised that my mother knew not the paper she hadheard from end to end, nor I that I had myself written.

Thursday, 14.—I went with Mr. Whitefield to Blackheath, where were, I believe, twelve orfourteen thousand people. He a little surprised me by desiring me to preach in his stead; which Idid (though nature recoiled) on my favorite subject, “Jesus Christ, who of God is made unto uswisdom, righteousness, sanctification, and redemption.”

I was greatly moved with compassion for the rich that were there, to whom I made a particularapplication. Some of them seemed to attend, while others drove away their coaches from so uncoutha preacher.

Sunday, 17.—I preached at seven in Upper Moorefields to (I believe) six or seven thousandpeople, on, “Ho, every one that thirsteth, come ye to the waters.”

At five I preached on Kennington Common to about fifteen thousand people on those words,“Look unto me, and be ye saved, all the ends of the earth’ [Isa. 45:22].

Monday, 18.—I left London early in the morning and the next evening reached Bristol andpreached (as I had appointed, if God should permit) to a numerous congregation. My text now alsowas “look unto me, and be ye saved, all the ends of the earth” [Isa. 45:22]. Howell Harris calledupon me an hour or two after. He said he had been much dissuaded from either hearing or seeingme by many who said all manner of evil of me. “But,” said he, “as soon as I heard you preach, Iquickly found what spirit you were of. And before you had done, I was so overpowered with joyand love that I had much ado to walk home.”

Sunday, 24.—As I was riding to Rose Green, in a smooth, plain part of the road, my horsesuddenly pitched upon his head, and rolled over and over. I received no other hurt than a little bruise

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on one side; which for the present I felt not, but preached without pain to six or seven thousandpeople on that important direction, “Whether ye eat or drink, or whatever you do, do all to the gloryof God” [see I Cor. 10:31].

Talks with Whitefield

Friday, July 6.—In the afternoon I was with Mr. Whitefield, just come from London, withwhom I went to Baptist Mills, where he preached concerning “the Holy Ghost, which all whobelieve are to receive”; not without a just, though severe, censure of those who preach as if therewere no Holy Ghost.

Saturday, 7.—I had an opportunity to talk with him of those outward signs which had so oftenaccompanied the inward work of God. I found his objections were chiefly grounded on grossmisrepresentations of matter of fact. But the next day he had an opportunity of informing himselfbetter: for no sooner had he begun (in the application of his sermon) to invite all sinners to believein Christ, than four persons sank down close to him, almost in the same moment. One of them laywithout either sense or motion. A second trembled exceedingly. The third had strong convulsionsall over his body, but made no noise unless by groans. The fourth, equally convulsed, called uponGod with strong cries and tears. From this time, I trust, we shall all suffer God to carry on His ownwork in the way that pleaseth Him.

Friday, 23.—On Friday, in the afternoon, I left Bristol with Mr. Whitefield, in the midst ofheavy rain. But the clouds soon dispersed so that we had a fair, calm evening and a seriouscongregation at Thornbury.

Tuesday, 17.—I rode to Bradford, five miles from Bath, whither I had been long invited tocome. I waited on the minister and desired leave to preach in his church. He said it was not usualto preach on the weekdays; but if I could come thither on a Sunday, he should be glad of myassistance. Thence I went to a gentleman in the town who had been present when I preached atBath and, with the strongest marks of sincerity and affection, wished me good luck in the name ofthe Lord. But it was past. I found him now quite cold. He began disputing on several heads and atlast told me plainly that one of our own college had informed him they always took me to be a littlecrack-brained at Oxford.

However, some persons who were not of his mind, having pitched on a convenient place (calledBear Field, or Bury Field), on the top of the hill under which the town lies; I there offered Christto about a thousand people, for “wisdom, righteousness, sanctification, and redemption.” ThenceI returned to Bath and preached on “What must I do to be saved?” to a larger audience than everbefore.

I was wondering the “god of this world” was so still; when, at my return from the place ofpreaching, poor R---d Merchant told me he could not let me preach any more in his ground. I askedhim why; he said, the people hurt his trees and stole things out of his ground. “And besides,” addedhe, “I have already, by letting thee be there, merited the displeasure of my neighbors.” O fear ofman! Who is above thee, but they who indeed “worship God in spirit and in truth”? Not even thosewho have one foot in the grave! Not even those who dwell in rooms of cedar and who have heapedup gold as the dust and silver as the sand of the sea.

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Press-gang Disturbs the Sermon

Saturday, 21.—I began expounding, a second time, our Lord’s Sermon on the Mount. In themorning, Sunday, 22, as I was explaining, “Blessed are the poor in spirit,” to about three thousandpeople, we had a fair opportunity of showing all men what manner of spirit we were of: for in themiddle of the sermon the press-gang came and seized on one of the hearers (ye learned in the law,what becomes of Magna Charta, and of English liberty and property? Are not these mere sounds,while, on any pretense, there is such a thing as a press-gang suffered in the land?), all the reststanding still and none opening his mouth or lifting up his hand to resist them.

Monday, September 3 (London).—I talked largely with my mother, who told me that, till ashort time since, she had scarcely heard such a thing mentioned as the having forgiveness of sinsnow, or God’s Spirit bearing witness with our spirit: much less did she imagine that this was thecommon privilege of all true believers. “Therefore,” said she, “I never durst ask for it myself. Buttwo or three weeks ago, while my son Hall was pronouncing those words, in delivering the cup tome, ‘The blood of our Lord Jesus Christ, which was given for thee,’ the words struck through myheart and I knew God for Christ’s sake had forgiven me all my sins.”

I asked whether her father (Dr. Annesley) had not the same faith and whether she had not heardhim preach it to others. She answered that he had had it himself; and had declared, a little beforehis death, that for more than forty years he had had no darkness, no fear, no doubt at all of his being“accepted in the Beloved.” But that, nevertheless, she did not remember to have heard him preach,no, not once, explicitly upon it: whence she supposed he also looked upon it as the peculiar blessingof a few, not as promised to all the people of God.

The New Name of Methodism

Sunday, 9.—I declared to about ten thousand, in Moorfields, what they must do to be saved.My mother went with us, about five, to Kennington, where were supposed to be twenty thousandpeople. I again insisted on that foundation of all our hope, “Believe in the Lord Jesus, and thoushalt be saved.” From Kennington I went to a society at Lambeth. The house being filled, the reststood in the garden. The deep attention they showed gave me a good hope that they will not all beforgetful hearers.

Sunday, 16.—I preached at Moorfields to about ten thousand, and at Kennington Common to,I believe, nearly twenty thousand, on those words of the calmer Jews to St. Paul, “We desire tohear of thee what thou thinkest: for as concerning this sect, we know that everywhere it is spokenagainst” [Acts 28:22]. At both places I described the real difference between what is generallycalled Christianity and the true old Christianity, which, under the new name of Methodism, is nowalso everywhere spoken against.

Sunday, 23.—I declared to about ten thousand, in Moorfields, with great enlargement of spirit,“The kingdom of God is not meat and drink; but righteousness, and peace, and joy in the HolyGhost” [Rom. 14:17]. At Kennington I enforced to about twenty thousand that great truth, “Onething is needful.” Thence I went to Lambeth and showed (to the amazement, it seemed, of manywho were present) how “he that is born of God doth not commit sin” [1 John 3:9].

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Monday, 24.—I preached once more at Plaistow and took my leave of the people of that place.In my return, a person galloping swiftly rode full against me and overthrew both man and horse,but without any hurt to either. Glory be to Him who saves both man and beast!

An Accident and a Long Sermon

Thursday, 27.—I went in the afternoon to a society at Deptford and thence, at six, came toTurner’s Hall, which holds (by computation) two thousand persons. The press both within andwithout was very great. In the beginning of the expounding, there being a large vault beneath, themain beam which supported the floor broke. The floor immediately sank, which event occasionedmuch noise and confusion among the people. But two or three days before, a man had filled thevault with hogsheads of tobacco. So that the floor, after sinking a foot or two, rested upon them,and I went on without interruption.

Sunday, October 7.—About eleven I preached at Runwick, seven miles from Gloucester. Thechurch was much crowded, though a thousand or upwards stayed in the churchyard. In the afternoonI explained further the same words, “What must I do to be saved?” I believe some thousands werethen present, more than had been in the morning.

Between five and six I called on all who were present (about three thousand) at Stanley, on alittle green near the town, to accept of Christ as their only “wisdom, righteousness, sanctification,and redemption.” I was strengthened to speak as I never did before; and continued speaking nearlytwo hours: the darkness of the night and a little lightning not lessening the number, but increasingthe seriousness, of the hearers. I concluded the day by expounding part of our Lord's Sermon onthe Mount to a small, serious company at Ebly.

Wesley in Wales

Monday, 15.—Upon a pressing invitation, some time since received, I set out for Wales. Aboutfour in the afternoon I preached on a little green at the foot of the Devauden (a high hill, two orthree miles beyond Chepstow) to three or four hundred plain people on “Christ our wisdom,righteousness, sanctification, and redemption.” After sermon, one who I trust is an old disciple ofChrist, willingly received us into his house: whither many following, I showed them their need ofa Saviour from these words, “Blessed are the poor in spirit.” In the morning I described more fullythe way to salvation—“Believe in the Lord Jesus, and thou shalt be saved”; and then, taking leaveof my friendly host, before two came to Abergavenny.

I felt in myself a strong aversion to preaching here. However, I went to Mr. W--- (the personin whose ground Mr. Whitefield preached) to desire the use of it. He said, with all his heart—if theminister was not willing to let me have the use of the church: after whose refusal (for I wrote a lineto him immediately), he invited me to his house. About a thousand people stood patiently (thoughthe frost was sharp, it being after sunset) while, from Acts 28:22, I simply described the plain, old

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religion of the Church of England, which is now almost everywhere spoken against, under the newname of Methodism.

Friday, 19.—I preached in the morning at Newport on “What must I do to be saved?” to themost insensible, ill-behaved people I have ever seen in Wales. One ancient man, during a great partof the sermon, cursed and swore almost incessantly; and, toward the conclusion, took up a greatstone, which he many times attempted to throw. But that he could not do.—Such the champions,such the arms against field-preaching!

At four I preached at the Shire Hall of Cardiff again, where many gentry, I found, were present.Such freedom of speech I have seldom had as was given me in explaining those words, “Thekingdom of God is not meat and drink; but righteousness, and peace, and joy in the Holy Ghost.”At six almost the whole town (I was informed) came together, to whom I explained the six lastbeatitudes. But my heart was so enlarged I knew not how to give over, so that we continued threehours.

Saturday, 20.—I returned to Bristol. I have seen no part of England so pleasant for sixty orseventy miles together as those parts of Wales I have been in. And most of the inhabitants areindeed ripe for the gospel.

“A Terrible Sight”

Tuesday, 23.—In riding to Bradford I read over Mr. Law’s book on the new birth. Philosophical,speculative, precarious; Behemish, void, and vain!

Oh, what a fall is there!

At eleven I preached at Bearfield to about three thousand, on the spirit of nature, of bondage,and of adoption.

Returning in the evening, I was exceedingly pressed to go back to a young woman in Kingswood.(The fact I nakedly relate and leave every man to his own judgment of it.) I went. She was nineteenor twenty years old, but, it seems, could not write or read. I found her on the bed, two or threepersons holding her. It was a terrible sight. Anguish, horror, and despair above all descriptionappeared in her pale face. The thousand distortions of her whole body showed how the dogs of hellwere gnawing her heart. The shrieks intermixed were scarcely to be endured. But her stony eyescould not weep. She screamed out, as soon as words could find their way, “I am damned, damned;lost forever! Six days ago you might have helped me. But it is past. I am the devil’s now. I havegiven myself to him. His I am. Him I must serve. With him I must go to hell. I will be his. I willserve him. I will go with him to hell. I cannot be saved. I will not be saved. I must, I will, I will bedamned!” She then began praying to the devil. We began:

Arm of the Lord, awake, awake!She immediately sank down as sleep; but, as soon as we left off, broke out again, with

inexpressible vehemence: “Stony hearts, break! I am a warning to you. Break, break, poor stonyhearts! Will you not break? What can be done more for stony hearts? I am damned that you maybe saved. Now break, now break, poor stony hearts! You need not be damned, though I must.” Shethen fixed her eyes on the corner of the ceiling and said: “There he is: ay, there he is! come, good

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devil, come! Take me away. You said you would dash my brains out: come, do it quickly. I amyours. I will be yours. Come just now. Take me away.”

We interrupted her by calling again upon God, on which she sank down as before; and anotheryoung woman began to roar out as loud as she had done. My brother now came in, it being aboutnine o’clock. We continued in prayer till past eleven, when God in a moment spoke peace into thesoul, first of the first tormented, and then of the other. And they both joined in singing praise toHim who had “stilled the enemy and the avenger.”

“Yonder Comes Wesley, Galloping”

Saturday, 27.—I was sent for to Kingswood again, to one of those who had been so ill before.A violent rain began just as I set out, so that I was thoroughly wet in a few minutes. Just as thattime the woman (then three miles off) cried out, “Yonder comes Wesley, galloping as fast as hecan.” When I was come, I was quite cold and dead and fitter for sleep than prayer. She burst outinto a horrid laughter and said, “No power, no power; no faith, no faith. She is mine; her soul ismine. I have her and will not let her go.”

We begged of God to increase our faith. Meanwhile her pangs increased more and more so thatone would have imagined, by the violence of the throes, her body must have been shattered topieces. One who was clearly convinced this was no natural disorder said, “I think Satan is let loose.I fear he will not stop here.” He added, “I command thee, in the name of the Lord Jesus, to tell ifthou hast commission to torment any other soul.” It was immediately answered, “I have. L---y C---rand S---h J---s.” (Two who lived at some distance, and were then in perfect health.)

We betook ourselves to prayer again and ceased not till she began, about six o’clock, with aclear voice and composed, cheerful look:

Praise God, from whom all blessings flow.

Sunday, 28.—I preached once more at Bradford, at one in the afternoon. The violent rains didnot hinder more, I believe, than ten thousand from earnestly attending to what I spoke on thosesolemn words: “I take you to record this day that I am pure from the blood of all men. For I havenot shunned to declare unto you all the counsel of God.”

Returning in the evening, I called at Mrs. J---‘s, in Kingswood. S---h J---s and L---y C---r werethere. It was scarcely a quarter of an hour before L---y C---r fell into a strange agony; and presentlyafter, S---h J---s. The violent convulsions all over their bodies were such as words cannot describe.Their cries and groans were too horrid to be borne, till one of them, in a tone not to be expressed,said: “Where is your faith now? Come, go to prayers. I will pray with you. ‘Our Father, which artin heaven.’” We took the advice, from whomsoever it came, and poured out our souls before God,till L---y C---r’s agonies so increased that it seemed she was in the pangs of death. But in a momentGod spoke; she knew His voice, and both her body and soul were healed.

We continued in prayer till nearly one, when S---h J---‘s voice was also changed, and she beganstrongly to call upon God. This she did for the greatest part of the night. In the morning we renewedour prayers, while she was crying continually, “I burn! I burn! Oh, what shall I do? I have a firewithin me. I cannot bear it. Lord Jesus! Help!”—Amen, Lord Jesus! when Thy time is come.

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Tuesday, November 27.—I wrote Mr. D. (according to his request) a short account of what hadbeen done in Kingswood and of our present undertaking there. The account was as follows:

“Few persons have lived long in the west of England who have not heard of the colliers ofKingswood; a people famous, from the beginning hitherto, for neither fearing God nor regardingman: so ignorant of the things of God that they seemed but one move from the beasts that perish;and therefore utterly without desire of instruction as well as without the means of it.

The Colliers of Kingswood

“Many last winter used tauntingly to say of Mr. Whitefield, ‘If he will convert heathens, whydoes he not go to the colliers of Kingswood?’ In spring he did so. And as there were thousandswho resorted to no place of public worship, he went after them into their own wilderness, ‘to seekand save that which was lost.’ When he was called away others went into ‘the highways and hedges,to compel them to come in.’ And, by the grace of God, their labor was not in vain. The scene isalready changed. Kingswood does not now, as a year ago, resound with cursing and blasphemy. Itis no more filled with drunkenness and uncleanness and the idle diversions that naturally leadthereto. It is no longer full of wars and fightings, of clamor and bitterness, of wrath and envyings.Peace and love are there. Great numbers of the people are mild, gentle, and easy to be entreated.They ‘do not cry, neither strive’; and hardly is their ‘voice heard in the streets’; or, indeed, in theirown wood; unless when they are at their usual evening diversion—singing praise unto God theirSaviour.

“That their children too might know the things which make for their peace, it was some timesince proposed to build a house in Kingswood; and after many foreseen and unforeseen difficulties,in June last the foundation was laid. The ground made choice of was in the middle of the wood,between the London and Bath roads, not far from that called Two Mile Hill, about three measuredmiles from Bristol.

“Here a large room was begun for the school, having four small rooms at either end for theschoolmasters (and, perhaps, if it should please God, some poor children) to lodge in. Two personsare ready to teach, so soon as the house is fit to receive them, the shell of which is nearly finished;so that it is hoped the whole will be completed in spring or early in the summer.

“It is true, although the masters require no pay, yet this undertaking is attended with greatexpense.”

Chapter 4. Preaching Incidents; Wesley's Labor Colony; Dispute withWhitefield; Curious Interruptions; The Mother of the Wesleys

Wesley’s Correspondents

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1740. Thursday, January 3.—I left London and the next evening came to Oxford, where I spentthe two following days in looking over the letters which I had received for the sixteen or eighteenyears last past. How few traces of inward religion are here! I found but one among all mycorrespondents who declared (what I well remember, at that time I knew not how to understand),that God had “shed abroad his love in his heart” and had given him the “peace that passeth allunderstanding.” But who believed his report? Should I conceal a sad truth or declare it for the profitof others? He was expelled out of his society as a madman; and, being disowned by his friends anddespised and forsaken of all men, lived obscure and unknown for a few months, and then went toHim whom his soul loved.

Monday, 21.—I preached at Hannam, four miles from Bristol. In the evening I made a collectionin our congregation for the relief of the poor, without Lawford’s gate; who, having no work (becauseof the severe frost) and no assistance from the parish wherein they lived, were reduced to the lastextremity. I made another collection on Thursday and a third on Sunday, by which we were enabledto feed a hundred, sometimes a hundred and fifty, a day, of those whom we found to need it most.

A Sermon and a Riot

Tuesday, April 1 (Bristol).—While I was expounding the former part of the twenty-third chapterof the Acts (how wonderfully suited to the occasion! though not by my choice), the floods beganto lift up their voice. some or other of the children on Belial had labored to disturb us several nightsbefore: but now it seemed as if all the host of the aliens had come together with one consent. Notonly the court and the alleys, but all the street, upwards and downwards, was filled with people,shouting, cursing and swearing, and ready to swallow the ground with fierceness and rage. Themayor sent order that they should disperse. But they set him at nought. The chief constable camenext in person, who was, till then, sufficiently prejudiced against us. But they insulted him also inso gross a manner as I believe fully opened his eyes. At length the mayor sent several of his officerswho took the ringleaders into custody and did not go till all the rest were dispersed. Surely he hathbeen to us “the minister of God for good.”

Wednesday, 2.—The rioters were brought up to the court, the quarter sessions being held thatday. They began to excuse themselves by saying many things of me. But the mayor cut them allshort, saying, “What Mr. Wesley is, is nothing to you. I will keep the peace; I will have no riotingin this city.”

Calling at Newgate in the afternoon, I was informed that the poor wretches under sentence ofdeath were earnestly desirous to speak with me; but that it could not be, Alderman Beecher havingjust then sent an express order that they should not. I cite Alderman Beecher to answer for thesesouls at the judgment seat of Christ.

Sunday, September 14 (London).—As I returned home in the evening, I had no sooner steppedout of the coach than the mob, who were gathered in great numbers about my door, quite closedme in. I rejoiced and blessed God, knowing this was the time I had loon been looking for, andimmediately spake to those that were next me of “righteousness, and judgment to come.” At firstnot many heard, the noise round about us being exceedingly great. But the silence spread farther

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and farther till I had a quiet, attentive congregation; and when I left them, they all showed muchlove and dismissed me with many blessings.

Preaching Incidents

Sunday, 28.—I began expounding the Sermon on the Mount, at London. In the afternoon Idescribed to a numerous congregation at Kennington, the life of God in the soul. One person whostood on the mount made a little noise at first; but a gentleman, whom I knew not, walked up tohim, and, without saying one word, mildly took him by the hand and led him down. From that timehe was quiet till he went away.

When I came home I found an innumerable mob round the door who opened all their throatsthe moment they saw me. I desired my friends to go into the house; and then walking into the midstof the people, proclaimed, “the name of the Lord, gracious and merciful, and repenting him of theevil.” They stood staring one at another. I told them they could not flee from the face of this greatGod and therefore besought them that we might all join together in crying to Him for mercy. Tothis they readily agreed: I then commended them to His grace and went undisturbed to the littlecompany within.

Tuesday, 30.—As I was expounding the twelfth of the Acts, a young man, with some others,rushed in, cursing and swearing vehemently; he so disturbed all near him that, after a time, theyput him out. I observed it and called to let him come in, that our Lord might bid his chains fall off.As soon as the sermon was over, he came and declared before us all that he was a smuggler, thengoing on that work, as his disguise, and the great bag he had with him, showed. But he said he mustnever do this more, for he was now resolved to have the Lord for his God.

Wesley’s Labor Colony

Tuesday, November 25 (London).—After several methods proposed for employing those whowere out of business, we determined to make a trial of one which several of our brethrenrecommended to us. Our aim was, with as little expense as possible, to keep them at once fromwant and from idleness, in order to which 2 , we took twelve of the poorest and a teacher into thesociety room where they were employed for four months, till spring came on, in carding and spinningof cotton. And the design answered: they were employed and maintained with very little more thanthe produce of their own labor.

Friday, 28.—A gentleman came to me full of good-will, to exhort me not to leave the Church;or (which was the same thing in his account) to use extemporary prayer, which, said he, “I willprove to a demonstration to be no prayer at all. For you cannot do two things at once. But thinkinghow to pray and praying are two things. Ergo, you cannot both think and pray at once.” Now, may

2 Correct

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it not be proved by the salf-same 3 demonstration that praying by a form is no prayer at all? E.g.You cannot do two things at once. But reading and praying are two things. Ergo, you cannot bothread and pray at once.” Q.E.D.

Dispute with Whitefield

1741. Sunday, February 1.—A private letter, written to me by Mr. Whitefield, was printedwithout either his leave or mine, and a great numbers of copies were given to our people, both atthe door and in the Foundry itself. Having procured one of them, I related (after preaching) thenaked fact to the congregation and told them, “I will do just what I believe Mr. Whitefield would,were he here himself.” Upon which I tore it in pieces before them all. Everyone who had receivedit, did the same. So that in two minutes there was not a whole copy left.

Saturday, March 28.—Having heard much of Mr. Whitefield’s unkind behavior, since his returnfrom Georgia, I went to him to hear him speak for himself that I might know how to judge. I muchapproved of his plainness of speech. He told me that he and I preached two different gospels; andtherefore he not only would not join with or give me the right hand of fellowship, but was resolvedpublicly to preach against me and my brother, wheresoever he preached at all. Mr. Hall (who wentwith me) put him in mind of the promise he had made but a few days before, that, whatever hisprivate opinion was, he would never publicly preach against us. He said that promise was only aneffect of human weakness, and he was now of another mind.

Monday, April 6.—I had a long conversation with Peter Bohler. I marvel how I refrain fromjoining these men. I scarcely ever see any of them but my heart burns within me. I long to be withthem, and yet I am kept from them.

Thursday, May 7.—I reminded the United Society that many of our brethren and sisters hadnot needful food; many were destitute of convenient clothing; many were out of business, and thatwithout their own fault; and many sick and ready to perish: that I had done what in me lay to feedthe hungry, to clothe the naked, to employ the poor, and to visit the sick; but was not, alone, sufficientfor these things; and therefore desired all whose hearts were as my heart:

1. To bring what clothes each could spare to be distributed among those that wanted most.2. To give weekly a penny, or what they could afford, for the relief of the poor and sick.My design, I told them, is to employ for the present all the women who are out of business, and

desire it, in knitting.To these we will first give the common price for what work they do; and then add, according

as they need.Twelve persons are appointed to inspect these and to visit and provide things needful for the

sick.Each of these is to visit all the sick within her district every other day and to meet on Tuesday

evening, to give an account of what she has done and consult what can be done further.Friday, 8.—I found myself much out of order. However, I made shift to preach in the evening;

but on Saturday my bodily strength quite failed so that for several hours I could scarcely lift up my

3 Correct

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head. Sunday, 10. I was obliged to lie down most part of the day, being easy only in that posture.Yet in the evening my weakness was suspended while I was calling sinners to repentance. But atour love-feast which followed, beside the pain in my back and head and the fever which stillcontinued upon me, just as I began to pray I was seized with such a cough that I could hardly speak.At the same time came strongly into my mind, “These signs shall follow them that believe” [Mark16:17]. I called on Jesus aloud to “increase my faith” and to “confirm the word of his grace.” WhileI was speaking my pain vanished away; the fever left me; my bodily strength returned; and formany weeks I felt neither weakness nor pain. “Unto thee, O Lord, do I give thanks.”

Wesley at Northampton and Nottingham

Monday, June 8.—I set out from Enfield Chace for Leicestershire. In the evening we came toNorthampton, and the next afternoon to Mr. Ellis’s at Markfield, five or six miles beyond Leicester.

For these two days I had made an experiment which I had been so often and earnestly pressedto do—speaking to none concerning the things of God unless my heart was free to it. And whatwas the event? Why, 1.) that I spoke to none at all for fourscore miles together; no, not even to himthat traveled with me in the chaise, unless a few words at first setting out; 2.) that I had no crosseither to bear or to take up, and commonly, in an hour or two, fell fast asleep; 3.) that I had muchrespect shown me wherever I came, everyone behaving to me as to a civil, good-natured gentleman.Oh, how pleasing is all this to flesh and blood! Need ye “compass sea and land” to make “proselytes”to this?

Sunday, 14.—I rode to Nottingham and at eight preached at the market place, to an immensemultitude of people on “The dead shall hear the voice of the Son of God: and they that hear shalllive” [John 5:25]. I saw only one or two who behaved lightly, whom I immediately spoke to; andthey stood reproved. Yet, soon after, a man behind me began aloud to contradict and blaspheme;but upon my turning to him, he stepped behind a pillar and in a few minutes disappeared.

In the afternoon we returned to Markfield. The church was so excessively hot (being crowdedin ever corner), that I could not, without difficulty, read the evening service. Being afterwardinformed that abundance of people were still without who could not possibly get into the church,I went out to them and explained that great promise of our Lord, “I will heal their backslidings, Iwill love them freely” [Hos. 14:4]. In the evening I expounded in the church on her who “lovedmuch, because she had much forgiven.”

Monday, 15.—I set out for London, and read over in the way that celebrated book, MartinLuther’s comment on the Epistle to the Galatians. I was utterly ashamed. How have I esteemedthis book, only because I heard it so commended by others; or, at best, because I had read someexcellent sentences occasionally quoted from it! But what shall I say, now I judge for myself? nowI see with my own eyes? Why, not only that the author makes nothing out, clears up not oneconsiderable difficulty; that he is quite shallow in his remarks on many passages, and muddy andconfused almost on all; but that he is deeply tinctured with mysticism throughout and hence oftendangerously wrong.

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An Ox in the Congregation

Friday, July 10.—I rode to London and preached at Short’s Gardens on “the name of JesusChrist of Nazareth” [Acts 3:6]. Sunday, 12. While I was showing, at Charles’ Square, what it is “todo justly, to love mercy, and to walk humbly with our God” [see Micah 6:8], a great shout began.Many of the rabble had brought an ox, which they were vehemently laboring to drive among thepeople. But their labor was in vain; for in spite of them all, he ran round and round, one way andthe other, and at length broke through the midst of them clear away, leaving us calmly rejoicingand praising God.

Saturday, 25 (Oxford).—It being my turn (which comes about once in three years), I preachedat St. Mary’s, before the University. The harvest truly is plenteous. No numerous a congregation(from whatever motives they came) I have seldom seen at Oxford. My text was the confession ofpoor Agrippa, “Almost thou persuadest me to be a Christian” [Acts 26:28]. I have “cast my breadupon the waters.” Let me “find it again after many days!” [Eccles. 11:1].

Wednesday, August 26 (London).—I was informed of a remarkable conversation at which oneof our sisters was present a day or two before: a gentleman was assuring his friends that he himselfwas in Charles 4 Square when a person told Mr. Wesley to his face that he, Mr. Wesley, had paid

twenty pounds already on being convicted for selling Geneva; style="#_ftn6" name="_ftnref6">[1]

and that he now kept two popish priests in his house. This gave occasion to another to mentionwhat he had himself heard, at an eminent Dissenting teacher’s, namely, that it was beyond disputeMr. Wesley had large remittances from Spain in order to make a party among the poor; and that assoon as the Spaniards landed, he was to join them with twenty thousand men.

Wesley at Cardiff

Thursday, October 1.—We set out for Wales; but missing our passage over the Severn in themorning, it was sunset before we could get to Newport. We inquired there if we could hire a guideto Cardiff; but there was none to be had. A lad coming in quickly after, who was going (he said)to Lanissan, a little village two miles to the right of Cardiff, we resolved to go thither. At seven weset out: it rained pretty fast, and there being neither moon nor stars, we could neither see any road,nor one another, nor our own horses’ heads; but the promise of God did not fail; He gave His angelscharge over us. Soon after ten we came safe to Mr. William’s house at Lanissan.

Friday, 2.—We rode to Fonmon castle. We found Mr. Jones’s daughter ill of the smallpox; buthe could cheerfully leave her and all the rest in the hands of Him in whom he now believed. In theevening I preached at Cardiff in the shire-hall, a large and convenient place, on “God hath givenunto us eternal life, and this life is in his son” [I John 5:11]. There having been a feast in the townthat day, I believed it needful to add a few words upon intemperance: and while I was saying, “Asfor you, drunkards, you have no part in this life; you abide in death; you choose death and hell,” a

4 The apostrophe is left off here in the text.

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man cried out vehemently, “I am one; and thither I am going.” But I trust God at that hour beganto show him and others “a more excellent way.”

Sunday, November 22 (Bristol).—Being not suffered to go to church as yet [after a seriousfever], I communicated at home. I was advised to stay at home some time longer, but I could notapprehend it necessary. Therefore, on Monday, 23, went to the new room, where we praised Godfor all His mercies. And I expounded, for about an hour (without any faintness or weariness), on“What reward shall I give upon the Lord for all the benefits that he hath done unto me? I will receivethe cup of salvation, and call upon the name of the Lord” [see Ps. 116:12, 13].

I preached once every day this week and found no inconvenience by it. Sunday, 29. I thoughtI might go a little farther. So I preached both at Kingswood and at Bristol and afterward spent nearlyan hour with the society, and about two hours at the love feast. But my body could not yet keeppace with my mind. I had another fit of my fever the next day; but it lasted not long, and I continuedslowly to regain my strength.

A Curious Interruption

Monday, December 7.—I preached on “Trust ye in the Lord Jehovah; for in the Lord iseverlasting strength” [Isa. 26:4]. I was showing what cause we had to trust in the Captain of oursalvation, when one in the midst of the room cried out, “Who was your captain the other day, whenyou hanged yourself? I know the man who saw you when you were cut down.” This wise story, itseems, had been diligently spread abroad and cordially believed by many in Bristol. I desired theywould make room for the man to come nearer. But the moment he saw the way open, he ran awaywith all possible speed, not so much as once looking behind him.

Saturday, 12.—In the evening one desired to speak with me. I perceived him to be in the utmostconfusion so that for awhile he could not speak. At length, he said, “I am he that interrupted youat the new room, on Monday. I have had no rest since, day or night, nor could have till I had spokento you. I hope you will forgive me and that it will be a warning to me all the days of my life.”

Wesley’s Congregation Stoned

1742. Monday, January 25 (London).—While I was explaining at Long Lane, “He thatcommitteth sin is of the devil” [I John 3:8], his servants were above measure enraged: they notonly made all possible noise (although, as I had desired before, no man stirred from his place oranswered them a word); but violently thrust many persons to and fro, struck others, and broke downpart of the house. At length they began throwing large stones upon the house, which, forcing theirway wherever they came, fell down, together with the tiles, among the people, so that they werein danger of their lives. I then told them, “You must not go on thus; I am ordered by the magistrate,who is, in this respect, to us the minister of God, to inform him of those who break the laws of Godand the King: and I must do it if you persist herein; otherwise I am a partaker of your sin."

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When I ceased speaking they were more outrageous than before. Upon this I said, “Let threeor four calm men take hold of the foremost and charge a constable with him, that the law may takeits course.” They did so and brought him into the house, cursing and blaspheming in a dreadfulmanner. I desired five or six to go with him to Justice Copeland, to whom they nakedly related thefact. The justice immediately bound him over to the next sessions at Guildford.

I observed when the man was brought into the house that many of his companions were loudlycrying out, “Richard Smith, Richard Smith!” who, as it afterwards appeared, was one of theirstoutest champions. But Richard Smith answered not; he was fallen into the hands of One higherthan they. God had struck him to the heart; as also a woman, who was speaking words not fit to berepeated and throwing whatever came to hand, whom He overtook in the very act. She came intothe house with Richard Smith, fell upon her knees before us all, and strongly exhorted him neverto turn back, never to forget the mercy which God had shown to his soul. From this time we hadnever any considerable interruption or disturbance at Long Lane; although we withdrew ourpersecution upon the offender’s submission and promise of better behavior.

Tuesday, 26.—I explained at Chelsea the faith which worketh by love. I was very weak whenI went into the room; but the more “the beasts of the people” increased in madness and rage, themore was I strengthened, both in body and soul; so that I believe few in the house, which wasexceedingly full, lost one sentence of what I spoke. Indeed they could not see me, nor one anotherat a few yards distance, by reason of the exceedingly thick smoke, which was occasioned by thewildfire, and things of that kind, continually thrown into the room. But they who could praise Godin the midst of the fires were not to be affrighted by a little smoke.

Monday, February 15.—Many met together to consult on a proper method for discharging thepublic debt; it was at length agreed 1) that every member of the society, who was able, shouldcontribute a penny a week; 2) that the whole society should be divided into little companies orclasses—about twelve in each class; and 3) that one person in each class should receive thecontribution of the rest and bring it in to the stewards weekly.

Friday, March 10.—I rode once more to Pensford at the earnest request of serious people. Theplace where they desired me to preach was a little green spot near the town. But I had no soonerbegun than a great company of rabble, hired (as we afterwards found) for that purpose, camefuriously upon us, bringing a bull, which they had been baiting, and now strove to drive in amongthe people. But the beast was wiser than his drivers and continually ran either on one side of us orthe other, while we quietly sang praise to God and prayed for about an hour. The poor wretches,finding themselves disappointed, at length seized upon the bull, now weak and tired after havingbeen so long torn and beaten both by dogs and men; and, by main strength, partly dragged, andpartly thrust, him in among the people.

A Bull in the Congregation

When they had forced their way to the little table on which I stood, they strove several timesto throw it down by thrusting the helpless beast against it, who, of himself, stirred no more than alog of wood. I once or twice put aside his head with my hand that the blood might not drop uponmy clothes; intending to go on as soon as the hurry should be over. But the table falling down,

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some of our friends caught me in their arms, and carried me right away on their shoulders; whilethe rabble wreaked their vengeance on the table, which they tore bit from bit. We went a little wayoff, where I finished my discourse without any noise or interruption.

Sunday, 21.—In the evening I rode to Marshfield and on Tuesday, in the afternoon, came toLondon. Wednesday, 24. I preached for the last time in the French chapel at Waping on “If yecontinue in my word, then are ye my disciples indeed” [John 8:31].

Thursday, 25.—I appointed several earnest and sensible men to meet me, to whom I showedthe great difficulty I had long found of knowing the people who desired to be under my care. Aftermuch discourse, they all agreed there could be no better way to come to a sure, thorough knowledgeof each person than to divide them into classes, like those at Bristol, under the inspection of thosein whom I could most confide. This was the origin of our classes at London, for which I can neversufficiently praise God; the unspeakable usefulness of the institution having ever since been moreand more manifest.

Friday, April 9.—We had the first watch night in London. We commonly choose for this solemnservice the Friday night nearest the full moon, either before or after, that those of the congregationwho live at a distance may have light to their several homes. The service begins at half an hourpast eight and continues till a little after midnight. We have often found a peculiar blessing at theseseasons. There is generally a deep awe upon the congregation, perhaps in some measure owing tothe silence of the night, particularly in singing the hymn with which we commonly conclude:

Hearken to the solemn voice,The awful midnight cry!Waiting souls, rejoice, rejoice,And feel the Bridegroom nigh.Sunday, May 9.—I preached in Charles Square to the largest congregation I have ever seen

there. Many of the baser people would fain have interrupted, but they found, after a time, it waslost labor. One, who was more serious, was (as she afterwards confessed) exceedingly angry atthem. But she was quickly rebuked by a stone which lit upon her forehead and struck her down tothe ground. In that moment her anger was at an end, and love only filled her heart.

Wednesday, 12.—I waited on the Archbishop of Canterbury with Mr. Whitefield, and againon Friday; as also on the Bishop of London. I trust if we should be called to appear before princes,we should not be ashamed.

Wesley Was “the Better Mounted”

Monday, 17.—I had designed this morning to set out for Bristol but was unexpectedly prevented.In the afternoon I received a letter from Leicestershire, pressing me to come without delay and paythe last office of friendship to one whose soul was on the wing for eternity. On Thursday, 20, I setout. The next afternoon I stopped a little at Newport-Pagnell and then rode on till I overtook aserious man, with whom I immediately fell into conversation.

He presently gave me to know what his opinions were: therefore I said nothing to contradictthem. But that did not content him: he was quite uneasy to know whether I held the doctrine of thedecrees as he did; but I told him over and over, “We had better keep to practical things, lest we

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should be angry at one another.” And so we did for two miles, till he caught me unawares, anddragged me into the dispute before I knew where I was. He then grew warmer and warmer; toldme I was rotten at heart and supposed I was one of John Wesley’s followers. I told him, “No, I amJohn Wesley himself.” Upon which he would gladly have run away outright. But being the bettermounted of the two, I kept close to his side and endeavored to show him his heart, till we cameinto the street of Northampton.

A Big Crowd at Newcastle

Observing the people, when I had done, gaping and staring upon me with the most profoundastonishment, I told them, “If you desire to know who I am, my name is John Wesley. At five inthe evening, with God’s help, I design to preach here again.”

At five, the hill on which I designed to preach was covered from the top to the bottom. I neversaw so large a number of people together, either at Moorfields or at Kennington Common. I knewit was not possible for the one half to hear, although my voice was then strong and clear; and Istood so as to have them all in view, as they were ranged on the side of the hill. The Word of Godwhich I set before them was, “I will heal their backsliding, I will love them freely” [Hos. 14:4].After preaching, the poor people were ready to tread me under foot, out of pure love and kindness.It was some time before I could possibly get out of the press. I then went back another way than Ihad come; several got to our inn before me, by whom I was vehemently importuned to stay withthem at least a few days; or, however, one day more. But I could not consent, having given myword to be at Birstal, with God’s leave, on Tuesday night.

Wesley on His Father’s Tombstone

Saturday, June 5.—It being many years since I had been in Epworth before, I went to an inn inthe middle of the town, not knowing whether there were any left in it now who would not beashamed of my acquaintance. But an old servant of my father’s, with two or three poor women,presently found me out. I asked her, “Do you know any in Epworth who are in earnest to be saved?”She answered, “I am, by the grace of God; and I know I am saved through faith.” I asked, “Haveyou then the peace of God? Do you know that He has forgiven your sins?” She replied, “ I thankGod I know it well. And many here can say the same thing.”

Sunday, 6.—A little before the service began, I went to Mr. Romley, the curate, and offered toassist him either by preaching or reading prayers. But he did not care to accept of my assistance.The church was exceedingly full in the afternoon, a rumor being spread that I was to preach. Butthe sermon on “Quench not the Spirit” [I Thess. 5:19] was not suitable to the expectation of manyof the hearers. Mr. Romley told them one of the most dangerous ways of quenching the Spirit wasby enthusiasm; and enlarged on the character of an enthusiast in a very florid and oratorical manner.After sermon John Taylor stood in the churchyard and gave notice as the people were coming out,“Mr. Wesley, not being permitted to preach in the church, designs to preach here at six o’clock.”

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Accordingly at six I came and found such a congregation as I believe Epworth never saw before.I stood near the east end of the church, upon my father’s tombstone, and cried, “The kingdom ofheaven is not meat and drink; but righteousness, and peace, and joy in the Holy Ghost” [Rom.14:17].

“Let Them Convert the Scolds”

Wednesday, 9.—I rode over to a neighboring town to wait upon a justice of peace, a man ofcandor and understanding; before whom (I was informed) their angry neighbors had carried a wholewagonload of these new heretics. But when he asked what they had done, there was a deep silence;for that was a point their conductors had forgotten. At length one said, "Why they pretended to bebetter than other people; and besides, they prayed from morning to night.” Mr. S. asked, “But havethey done nothing besides?” “Yes, sir,” said an old man, “an’t 5 please your worship, they haveconvarted 6 my wife. Till she went among them, she had such a tongue! And now she is as quietas a lamb.” “Carry them back, carry them back,” replied the justice, “and let them convert all thescolds in the town.”

Saturday, 12.—I preached on the righteousness of the law and the righteousness of faith. WhileI was speaking, several dropped down as dead and among the rest such a cry was heard of sinnersgroaning for the righteousness of faith as almost drowned my voice. But many of these soon liftedup their heads with joy and broke out into thanksgiving, being assured they now had the desire oftheir soul—the forgiveness of their sins.

I observed a gentleman there who was remarkable for not pretending to be of any religion atall. I was informed he had not been at public worship of any kind for upwards of thirty years. Seeinghim stand as motionless as a statue, I asked him abruptly, “Sir, are you a sinner?” He replied, witha deep and broken voice, “Sinner enough”; and he continued staring upward till his wife and aservant or two, who were all in tears, put him into his chaise and carried him home.

Sunday, 13.—At seven I preached at Haxey on “What must I do to be saved?” Thence I wentto Wroote, of which (as well as Epworth) my father was rector for several years. Mr. Whitelamboffering me the church, I preached in the morning on “Ask, and it shall be given you”; in theafternoon, on the difference between the righteousness of the law and the righteousness of faith.But the church could not contain the people, many of whom came from far and, I trust, not in vain.

At six I preached for the last time in Epworth churchyard (planning to leave the town the nextmorning) to a vast multitude gathered together from all parts, on the beginning of our Lord’s Sermonon the Mount. I continued among them for nearly three hours, and yet we scarcely knew how topart. Oh, let none think his labor of love is lost because the fruit does not immediately appear!Nearly forty years did my father labor here, but he saw little fruit of all his labor. I took some painsamong this people too, and my strength also seemed spent in vain; but now the fruit appeared.There were scarcely any in the town on whom either my father or I had taken any pains formerlybut the seed, sown so long since, now sprang up, bringing forth repentance and remission of sins.

5 correct spelling6 correct spelling

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Death of Wesley’s Mother

I left Bristol in the evening of Sunday, July 18, and on Tuesday came to London. I found mymother on the borders of eternity. But she had no doubt or fear nor any desire but (as soon as Godshould call) “to depart and be with Christ.”

Friday, 23.—About three in the afternoon I went to my mother and found her change was near.I sat down on the bedside. She was in her last conflict, unable to speak but I believe quite sensible.Her look was calm and serene, and her eyes fixed upward while we commended her soul to God.From three to four the silver cord was loosing, and the wheel breaking at the cistern; and thenwithout any struggle, or sign, or groan, the soul was set at liberty. We stood round the bed andfulfilled her last request, uttered a little before she lost her speech: “Children, as soon as I amreleased, sing a psalm of praise to God.”

Sunday, August 1.—almost an innumerable company of people being gathered together, aboutfive in the afternoon, I committed to the earth the body of my mother, to sleep with her fathers.The portion of Scripture from which I afterward spoke was: “I saw a great white throne, and himthat sat on it, from whose face the earth and the heaven fled away; and there was found no placefor them. And I saw the dead, small and great, stand before God; and the books were opened: andanother book was opened, which is the book of life: and the dead were judged out of those thingswhich were written in the books, according to their works” [Rev. 20:11, 12]. It was one of the mostsolemn assemblies I ever saw or expect to see on this side eternity.

We set up a plain stone at the head of her grave, inscribed with the following words:Here lies the Body

of

MRS. SUSANNAH WESLEY,the youngest and last surviving daughter of

dr. samuel annesley.

_______

In sure and steadfast hope to rise,And claim her mansion in the skies,A Christian here her flesh laid down,The cross exchanging for a crown.

True daughter of affliction, she,Inured to pain and misery,Mourn’d a long night of griefs and fears,A legal night of seventy years.

The Father then reveal’d His Son,Him in the broken bread made known;She knew and felt her sins forgiven,And found the earnest of her heaven.

Meet for the fellowship above,She heard the call, “Arise, my love!’“I come,” her dying looks replied,

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And lamblike, as her Lord, she died.

Mrs. Wesley as Preacher

I cannot but further observe that even she (as well as her father, and grandfather, her husband,and her three sons) had been, in her measure and degree, a preacher of righteousness. This I learnedfrom a letter, written long since to my father, part of which I have here subjoined:

February 6, 1711-12

“___As I am a woman, so I am also mistress of a large family. and though the superior chargeof the souls contained in it lies upon you; yet, in your absence, I cannot but look upon every soulyou leave under my care as a talent committed to me under a trust by the great Lord of all thefamilies both of heaven and earth. And if I am unfaithful to Him or you in neglecting to improvethese talents, how shall I answer unto Him, when He shall command me to render an account ofmy stewardship?

“As these, and other such like thoughts, made me at first take a more than ordinary care of thesouls of my children and servants, so—knowing our religion requires a strict observation of theLord’s day, and not thinking that we fully answered the end of the institution by going to churchunless we filled up the intermediate spaces of time by other acts of piety and devotion—I thoughtit my duty to spend some part of the day in reading to and instructing my family: and such time Iesteemed spent in a way more acceptable to God than if I had retired to my own private devotions.

“This was the beginning of my present practice. Other people’s coming and joining with us

was merely accidental. Our style="#_ftn9" name="_ftnref9">[1] lad told his parents: they firstdesired to be admitted; then others that heard of it begged leave also: so our company increased toabout thirty, and it seldom exceeded forty last winter.

“But soon after you went to London last, I lit on the account of the Danish missionaries. I was,I think, never more affected with anything; I could not forbear spending style="#_ftn10"

name="_ftnref10">[1] good part of that evening in praising and adoring the divine goodness forinspiring them with such ardent zeal for His glory. For several days I could think or speak of littleelse. At last it came into my mind, Though I am not a man nor a minister, yet if my heart weresincerely devoted to God and I was inspired with a true zeal for his glory, I might do somewhatmore than I do. I thought I might pray more for them and might speak to those with whom I conversewith more warmth of affection. I resolved to begin with my own children; in which I observe thefollowing method: I take such a proportion of time as I can spare every night to discourse with eachchild apart. On Monday, I talk with Molly; on Tuesday, with Hetty; Wednesday, with Nancy;Thursday, with Jacky; Friday, with Patty; Saturday, with Charles; and with Emily and Suky togetheron Sunday.

She Speaks to Two Hundred

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“With those few neighbors that then came to me, I discoursed more freely and affectionately.I chose the best and most awakening sermons we have. And I spent somewhat more time with themin such exercises, without being careful about the success of my undertaking. Since this, our companyincreased every night; for I dare deny none that ask admittance.

“Last Sunday I believe we had above two hundred. And yet many went away for want of roomto stand.

“We banish all temporal concerns from our society. None is suffered to mingle any discourseabout them with our reading or singing. We keep close to the business of the day; and when it isover, all go home.

“I cannot conceive, why any should reflect upon you because your wife endeavors to drawpeople to church and to restrain them from profaning the Lord’s day by reading to them, and otherpersuasions. For my part, I value no censure upon this account. I have long since shaken handswith the world. And I heartily wish I had never given them more reason to speak against me.

“As to its looking particular, I grant it does. And so does almost anything that is serious, orthat may any way advance the glory of God or the salvation of souls.

“As for your proposal of letting some other person read: alas! you do not consider what a peoplethese are. I do not think one man among them could read a sermon, without spelling a good partof it. Nor has any of our family a voice strong enough to be heard by such a number of people.

“But there is one thing about which I am much dissatisfied; that is, their being present at familyprayers. I do not speak of any concern I am under, barely because so many are present; for thosewho have the honor of speaking to the Great and Holy God need not be ashamed to speak beforethe whole world; but because of my sex. I doubt if it is proper for me to present the prayers of thepeople to God. Last Sunday I would fain have dismissed them before prayers; but they begged soearnestly to stay, I durst not deny them.

How the Wesleys Were Brought up

For the benefit of those who are entrusted, as she was, with the care of a numerous family, Icannot but add one letter more, which I received many years ago:

July 24, 1732“To the Rev. Mr. Wesley,“In St. Margaret’s Churchyard, Westminster.”“Dear Son,“According to your desire, I have collected the principal rules I observed in educating my

family; which I now send you as they occurred to my mind, and you may (if you think they can beof use to any) dispose of them in what order you please.

“The children were always put into a regular method of living, in such things as they werecapable of, from their birth; as in dressing, undressing, changing their linen, and so on. The firstquarter commonly passes in sleep. After that, they were, if possible laid into their cradles awakeand rocked to sleep; and so they were kept rocking till it was time for them to awake. This wasdone to bring them to a regular course of sleeping, which at first was three hours in the morningand three in the afternoon; afterward two hours, till they needed none at all.

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“When turned a year old (and some before), they were taught to fear the rod and to cry softly;by which means they escaped abundance of correction they might otherwise have had; and thatmost odious noise of the crying of children was rarely heard in the house, but the family usuallylived in as much quietness as if there had not been a child among them.

“As soon as they were grown pretty strong, they were confined to three meals a day. At dinnertheir little table and chairs were set by ours, where they could be observed; and they were sufferedto eat and drink as much as they would but not to call for anything. If they wanted aught, they usedto whisper to the maid which attended them, who came and spoke to me; and as soon as they couldhandle a knife and fork, they were set to our table. They were never suffered to choose their meat,but always made to eat such things as were provided for the family.

“Mornings they had always spoon-meat; sometimes at nights. But whatever they had, they werenever permitted to eat, at those meals, of more than one thing; and of that sparingly enough. Drinkingor eating between meals was never allowed, unless in case of sickness, which seldom happened.Nor were they suffered to go into the kitchen to ask anything of the servants, when they were atmeat: if it was known they did, they were certainly beaten, and the servants severely reprimanded.

“At six, as soon as family prayers were over, they had their supper; at seven, the maid washedthem; and, beginning at the youngest, she undressed and got them all to bed by eight, at which timeshe left them in their several rooms awake; for there was no such thing allowed of in our house assitting by a child till it fell asleep.

“They were so constantly used to eat and drink what was given them that when any of themwas ill there was no difficulty in making them take the most unpleasant medicine: for they durstnot refuse it, though some of them would presently throw it up. This I mention to show that a personmay be taught to take anything, though it be never so much against his stomach.

“Conquer the Child’s Will”

“In order to form the minds of children, the first thing to be done is to conquer their will andbring them to an obedient temper. To inform the understanding is a work of time and must withchildren proceed by slow degrees as they are able to bear it: but the subjecting the will is a thingwhich must be done at once; and the sooner the better. For by neglecting timely correction, theywill contract a stubbornness and obstinacy which is hardly ever after conquered; and never, withoutusing such severity as would be as painful to me as to the child. In the esteem of the world theypass for kind and indulgent, whom I call cruel, parents, who permit their children to get habitswhich they know must be afterward broken. Nay, some are so stupidly fond as in sport to teachtheir children to do things which, in a while after, they have severely beaten them for doing.

“Whenever a child is corrected, it must be conquered; and this will be nor hard matter to do ifit be not grown headstrong by too much indulgence. And when the will of a child is totally subduedand it is brought to revere and stand in awe of the parents, then a great many childish follies and

inadvertences style="#_ftn11" name="_ftnref11">[1] may be passed by. Some should beoverlooked and taken no notice of, and others mildly reproved; but no willful transgression oughtever to be forgiven children without chastisem*nt, less or more, as the nature and circ*mstancesof the offense require.

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“I insist upon conquering the will of children betimes, because this is the only strong and rationalfoundation of a religious education; without which both precept and example will be ineffectual.But when this is thoroughly done, then a child is capable of being governed by the reason and pietyof its parents, till its own understanding comes to maturity and the principles of religion have takenroot in the mind.

“I cannot yet dismiss this subject. As self-will is the root of all sin and misery, so whatevercherishes this in children insures their after-wretchedness and irreligion; whatever checks andmortifies it promotes their future happiness and piety. This is still more evident if we further considerthat religion is nothing else than the doing the will of God and not our own: that the one grandimpediment to our temporal and eternal happiness being this self-will, no indulgencies of it can betrivial, no denial unprofitable. Heaven or hell depends on this alone. So that the parent who studiesto subdue it in his child works together with God in the renewing and saving a soul. The parentwho indulges it does the devil's work, makes religion impracticable, salvation unattainable; anddoes all that in him lies to damn his child, soul and body forever.

They Had Nothing They Cried For

“The children of this family were taught, as soon as they could speak, the Lord’s Prayer, whichthey were made to say at rising and bedtime constantly; to which, as they grew bigger, were addeda short prayer for their parents and some collects; a short catechism and some portion of Scripture,as their memories could bear.

“They were very early made to distinguish the Sabbath from other days, before they could wellspeak or go. They were as soon taught to be still at family prayers and to ask a blessing immediatelyafter, which they used to do by signs, before they could kneel or speak.

“They were quickly made to understand they might have nothing they cried for and instructedto speak handsomely for what they wanted. They were not suffered to ask even the lowest servantfor aught without saying, ‘Pray give me such a thing’; and the servant was chid 7 if she ever letthem omit that word. Taking God’s name in vain, cursing and swearing, profaneness, obscenity,rude, ill-bred names were never heard among them. Nor were they ever permitted to call each otherby their proper names without the addition of brother or sister.

“None of them were taught to read till five years old, except Kezzy, in whose case I wasoverruled; and she was more years learning than any of the rest had been months. The way ofteaching was this: The day before a child began to learn, the house was set in order, everyone’swork appointed them, and a charge given that none should come into the room from nine till twelve,or from two till five; which, you know, were our school hours. One day was allowed the childwherein to learn its letters; and each of them did in that time know all its letters, great and small,except Molly and Nancy, who were a day and a half before they knew them perfectly; for which Ithen thought them very dull; but since I have observed how long many children are learning thehornbook, I have changed my opinion.

7 Correct

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“But the reason why I thought them so then was because the rest learned so readily; and yourbrother Samuel, who was the first child I ever taught, learned the alphabet in a few hours. He wasfive years old on February 10; the next day he began to learn, and as soon as he knew the letters,began at the first chapter of Genesis. He was taught to spell the first verse, then to read it over andover, till he could read it offhand without any hesitation, so on to the second, and so on, till he tookten verses for a lesson, which he quickly did. Easter fell low that year, and by Whitsuntide he couldread a chapter very well; for he read continually and had such a prodigious memory that I cannotremember ever to have told him the same word twice.

Keeping the Wesley Children in Order

“What was yet stranger, any word he had learned in his lesson he knew wherever he saw it,either in his Bible or any other book; by which means he learned very soon to read an Englishauthor well.

“The same method was observed with them all. As soon as they knew the letters, they were putfirst to spell, and read one line, then a verse; never leaving till perfect in their lesson, were it shorteror longer. So one or other continued reading at schooltime, without any intermission; and beforewe left school, each child read what he had learned that morning; and ere we parted in the afternoon,what they had learned that day.

“There was no such thing as loud talking or playing allowed of; but everyone was kept closeto his business for the six hours of school: and it is almost incredible what a child may be taughtin a quarter of a year by a vigorous application, if it have but a tolerable capacity and good health.Every one of these, Kezzy excepted, could read better in that time than the most of women can doas long as they live.

“Rising out of their places or going out of the room was not permitted, unless for good cause;and running into the yard, garden, or street without leave was always esteemed a capital offense.

“For some years we went on very well. Never were children in better order. Never were childrenbetter disposed to piety or in more subjection to their parents till that fatal dispersion of them, afterthe fire, into several families. In those days they were left at full liberty to converse with servants,which before they had always been restrained from; and to run abroad and play with any children,good or bad. They soon learned to neglect a strict observation of the Sabbath and got knowledgeof several songs and bad things, which before they had no notion of. The civil behavior which madethem admired when at home by all which saw them, was, in great measure, lost; and a clownishaccent and many rude ways were learned which were not reformed without some difficulty.

“When the house was rebuilt, and the children all brought home, we entered upon a strict reform;and then was begun the custom of singing Psalms at beginning and leaving school, morning andevening. Then also that of a general retirement at five o’clock was entered upon; when the oldesttook the youngest that could speak, and the second the next, to whom they read the Psalms for theday and a chapter in the New Testament; as, in the morning, they were directed to read the Psalmsand a chapter in the Old: after which they went to their private prayers, before they got their breakfast,or came into the family. And, I thank God, the custom is still preserved among us.

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Susanna Wesley’s “By-laws”

“There were several by-laws observed among us, which slipped my memory, or else they hadbeen inserted in their proper place; but I mention them here because I think them useful.

“1. It had been observed that cowardice and fear of punishment often led children into lyingtill they get a custom of it which they cannot leave. To prevent this, a law was made that whoeverwas charged with a fault of which they were guilty, if they would ingenuously confess it and promiseto amend, should not be beaten. This rule prevented a great deal of lying and would have donemore if one in the family would have observed it. But he could not be prevailed on and thereforewas often imposed on by false colors and equivocations; which none would have used (except one),had they been kindly dealt with. And some, in spite of all, would always speak truth plainly.

“2. That no sinful action, as lying, pilfering, playing at church, or on the Lord’s day,disobedience, quarreling, and so forth, should ever pass unpunished.

“3. That no child should ever be chid or beaten twice for the same fault; and that if they amended,they should never be upbraided with it afterwards.

“4. That ever signal act of obedience, especially when it crossed upon their own inclinations,should be always commended and frequently rewarded according to the merits of the cause.

“5. That if ever any child performed an act of obedience or did anything with an intention toplease, though the performance was not well, yet the obedience and intention should be kindlyaccepted; and the child with sweetness directed how to do better for the future.

“6. That propriety be inviolably preserved and none suffered to invade the property of anotherin the smallest matter, though it were but of the value of a farthing or a pin; which they might nottake from the owner without, much less against, his consent. This rule can never be too muchinculcated on the minds of children; and from the want of parents or governors doing it as theyought proceeds that shameful neglect of justice which we may observe in the world.

“7. That promises be strictly observed; and a gift once bestowed, and so the right passed awayfrom the donor, be not resumed but left to the disposal of him to whom it was given; unless it wereconditional and the condition of the obligation not performed.

“8. That no girl be taught to work till she can read very well; and then that she be kept to herwork with the same application, and for the same time, that she was held to in reading. This rulealso is much to be observed; for the putting children to learn sewing before they can read perfectlyis the very reason why so few women can read fit to be heard and never to be well understood.”

______________Wednesday, December 1 (Newcastle).—We had several places offered on which to build a

room for the society; but none was such as we wanted. And perhaps there was a providence in ournot finding any as yet; for by this means I was kept at Newcastle, whether I would or no.

Saturday, 4.—I was both surprised and grieved at a genuine instance of enthusiasm. J--- B---,of Tunfield Leigh, who had received a sense of the love of God a few days before, came ridingthrough the town, hallooing and shouting and driving all the people before him; telling them Godhad told him he should be a king and should tread all his enemies under his feet. I sent him homeimmediately to his work and advised him to cry day and night to God that he might be lowly inheart, lest Satan should again get an advantage over him.

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Mr. Stephenson and Wesley

Today a gentleman called and offered me a piece of ground. On Monday an article was drawnwherein he agreed to put me into possession on Thursday, upon payment of thirty pounds.

Tuesday, 7.—I was so ill in the morning that I was obliged to send Mr. Williams to the room.He afterward went to Mr. Stephenson, a merchant in the town, who had a passage through theground we intended to buy. I was willing to purchase it. Mr. Stephenson told him, “Sir, I do notwant money; but if Mr. Wesley wants ground, he may have a piece of my garden, adjoining to theplace you mention. I am at a word. For forty pounds he shall have sixteen yards in breadth, andthirty in length.

Wednesday, 8.—Mr. Stephenson and I signed an article, and I took possession of the ground.But I could not fairly go back from my agreement with Mr. Riddel: so I entered on his ground atthe same time. The whole is about forty yards in length; in the middle of which we determined tobuild the house, leaving room for a small courtyard before, and a little garden behind, the building.

Monday, 13.—I removed into a lodging adjoining to the ground where we were preparing tobuild; but the violent frost obliged us to delay the work. I never felt so intense cold before. In aroom where a constant fire was kept, though my desk was fixed within a yard of the chimney, Icould not write for a quarter of an hour together without my hands being quite benumbed.

Newcastle’s First Methodist Room

Monday, 20.—We laid the first stone of the house. Many were gathered from all parts to seeit; but none scoffed or interrupted while we praised God and prayed that He would prosper thework of our hands upon us. Three or four times in the evening, I was forced to break off preachingthat we might pray and give thanks to God.

Thursday, 23.—It being computed that such a house as was proposed could not be finishedunder f 700, many were positive it would never be finished at all; others, that I should not live tosee it covered. I was of another mind; nothing doubting but, as it was begun for God’s sake, Hewould provide what was needful for the finishing it.

Chapter 5. Wesley Refused Sacraments at Epworth; Cornwall and the ScillyIsles; Natural Amphitheater at Gwennap; Wesley in Danger

1743. Saturday, January 1.—Between Doncaster and Epworth I overtook one who immediatelyaccosted me with so many and so impertinent questions that I was quite amazed. In the midst ofsome of them, concerning my travels and my journey, I interrupted him and asked, “Are you awarethat we are on a longer journey; that we are traveling toward eternity?” He replied instantly, “Oh,I find you! I find you! I know where you are! Is not your name Wesley? ‘Tis pity! ‘Tis great pity!Why could not your father’s religion serve you? Why must you have anew religion?” I was going

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to reply, but he cut me short by crying out in triumph, “I am a Christian! I am a Christian! I am aChurchman! I am a Churchman! I am none of your Culamites”; as plainly as he could speak; forhe was so drunk he could but just keep his seat. Having then clearly won the day, or as his phrasewas, “put them all down,” he began kicking his horse on both sides and rode off as fast as he could.

Wesley Refused the Sacrament at Epworth

In the evening I reached Epworth. Sunday, 2. At five I preached on “So is everyone that is bornof the Spirit.” About eight I preached from my father’s tomb on Hebrews 8:11. Many from theneighboring towns asked if it would not be well, as it was sacrament Sunday, for them to receiveit. I told them, “By all means: but it would be more respectful first to ask Mr. Romley, the curate’sleave.” One did so, in the name of the rest; to whom he said, “Pray tell Mr. Wesley, I shall not givehim the sacrament; for he is not fit.”

How wise a God is our God! There could not have been so fit a place under heaven where thisshould befall me first as my father’s house, the place of my nativity, and the very place where,“according to the straitest sect of our religion,” I had so long “lived a Pharisee”! It was also fit, inthe highest degree, that he who repelled me from that very table, where I had myself so oftendistributed the bread of life, should be one who owed his all in this world to the tender love whichmy father had shown to his, as well as personally to himself.

Tuesday, 22.—I went to South Biddick, a village of colliers seven miles southeast of Newcastle.The spot where I stood was just at the bottom of a semicircular hill, on the rising sides of whichmany hundreds stood; but fare more on the plain beneath. I cried to them in the words of the prophet,“O ye dry bones, hear the word of the Lord!” [Ezek. 37:4]. Deep attention sat on every face; sothat here also I believe it would be well to preach weekly.

Wesley and the co*ck-fighter

Wednesday, 23.—I met a gentleman in the streets cursing and swearing in so dreadful a mannerthat I could not but stop him. He soon grew calmer; told me he must treat me with a glass of wine;and that he would come and hear me, only he was afraid I should say something against fightingof co*cks.

April 1. (Being Good Friday.)—I had a great desire to visit a little village called Placey, aboutten measured miles north of Newcastle. It is inhabited by colliers only, and such as had been alwaysin the first rank for savage ignorance and wickedness of every kind. Their grand assembly used tobe on the Lord’s day; on which men, women, and children met together to dance, fight, curse andswear, and play at chuck ball, spanfarthing, or whatever came next to hand. I felt great compassionfor these poor creatures from the time I heard of them first; and the more, because all men seemedto despair of them.

Between seven and eight I set out with John Healy, my guide. The north wind, being unusuallyhigh, drove the sleet in our face, which froze as it fell and cased us over presently. When we cameto Placey, we could very hardly stand. As soon as we were a little recovered I went into the squareand declared Him who “was wounded for our transgressions” and “bruised for our iniquities.” Thepoor sinners were quickly gathered together and gave earnest heed to the things which were spoken.

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And so they did in the afternoon again, in spite of the wind and snow, when I besought them toreceive Him for their King; to “repent and believe the gospel.”

Wesley in Seven Dials

Sunday, May 29.—I began officiating at the chapel in West Street, near the Seven Dial, ofwhich (by a strange chain of providences) we have a lease for several years. I preached on thegospel for the day, part of the third chapter of St. John; and afterwards administered the lord’sSupper to some hundreds of communicants. I was a little afraid at first that my strength would notsuffice for the business of the day, when a service of five hours (for it lasted from ten to three) wasadded to my usual employment. But God looked to that: so I must think; and they that will call itenthusiasm may. I preached at the Great Gardens at five to an immense congregation on "“e mustbe born again"”[John 3:3]. Then the leaders met (who filled all the time that I was not speaking inpublic); and after them, the bands. At ten at night I was less weary than at six in the morning.

Sunday, July 10 (Newcastle).—I preached at eight on Chowden Fell on “Why will ye die, Ohouse of Israel?” [Ezek. 33:11]. Ever since I came to Newcastle the first time, my spirit had beenmoved within me at the crowds of poor wretches who were every Sunday in the afternoon saunteringto and fro on the Sandhill. I resolved, if possible, to find them a better employ; and as soon as theservice at All Saints was over, walked straight from the church to the Sandhill and gave out a verseof a Psalm. In a few minutes I had company enough, thousands upon thousands crowding together.But the prince of this world fought with all his might lest his kingdom should be overthrown. Indeed,the very mob of Newcastle, in the height of their rudeness, have commonly some humanity left. Iscarcely observed that they threw anything at all; neither did I receive the least personal hurt: butthey continued thrusting one another to and fro and making such a noise that my voice could notbe heard: so that, after spending nearly an hour in singing and prayer, I thought it best to adjournto our own house.

Wesley’s Horses Give Trouble

Monday, 18.—I set out from Newcastle with John Downes, of Horsley. We were four hoursriding to Ferry Hill, about twenty measured miles. After resting there an hour we rode softly on;and, at two o'clock, came to Darlington. I thought my horse was not well; he thought the same ofhis, though they were both young and were very well the day before. We ordered the hostler tofetch a farrier, which he did without delay; but before the men could determine what was the matter,both the horses lay down and died.

I hired a horse to Sandhutton and rode on, desiring John Downes to follow me. Thence I rodeto Boroughbridge on Tuesday morning and then walked on to Leeds.

Monday, August 22, 1743 (London).—After a few of us had joined in prayer, about four I setout, and rode softly to Snow Hill; where, the saddle slipping quite upon my mare’s neck, I fell overher head, and she ran back into Smithfield. Some boys caught her and brought her to me again,

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cursing and swearing all the way. I spoke plainly to them, and they promised to amend. I was settingforward when a man cried, “Sir, you have lost your saddle-cloth.” Two or three more would needshelp me to put it on; but these, too, swore at almost every word. I turned to one and another andspoke in love. They all took it well and thanked me much. I gave them two or three little books,which they promised to read over carefully.

Before I reached Kensington, I found my mare had lost a shoe. This gave me an opportunityof talking closely, for nearly half an hour, both to the smith and his servant. I mention these littlecirc*mstances to show how easy it is to redeem every fragment of time (if I may so speak), whenwe feel any love to those souls for which Christ died.

Wesley Goes to Cornwall

Friday, 26.—I set out for Cornwall. In the evening I preached at the cross in Taunton, on, “Thekingdom of God is not meat and drink; but righteousness, and peace, and joy in the Holy Ghost.”A poor man had posted himself behind in order to make some disturbance: but the time was notcome; the zealous wretches who “deny the Lord that bought them” had not yet stirred up the people.Many cried out, “Throw down that rascal there; knock him down; beat out his brains”: so that Iwas obliged to entreat for him more than once or he would have been but roughly handled.

Saturday, 27.—I reached Exeter in the afternoon; but as no one knew of my coming, I did notpreach that night, only to one poor sinner at the inn; who, after listening to our conversation for awhile, looked earnestly at us and asked whether it was possible for one who had in some measureknown “the power of the world to come,” and was “fallen away” (which she said was her case), tobe “renewed again to repentance.” We besought God in her behalf and left her sorrowing, yet notwithout hope.

Sunday, 28.—I preached at seven to a handful of people. The sermon we heard at church wasquite innocent of meaning: what that in the afternoon was, I know not; for I could not hear a singlesentence.

From church I went to the castle, where were gathered together (as some imagined) half thegrown persons in the city. It was an awful sight. So vast a congregation in that solemn amphitheater!And all silent and still while I explained at large and enforced that glorious truth, “Happy are theywhose iniquities are forgiven, and whose sins are covered” [see Ps. 31:1].

Monday, 29.—We rode forward. About sunset we were in the middle of the first great pathlessmoor beyond Launceston. About eight we were got quite out of the way; but we had not got farbefore we heard Bodmin bell. Directed by this we turned to the left and came to the town beforenine.

Tuesday, 30.—In the evening we reached St. Ives. At seven I invited all guilty, helpless sinnerswho were conscious they “had nothing to pay” to accept of free forgiveness. The room was crowdedboth within and without; but all were quiet and attentive.

Wednesday, 31.—I spoke severally with those of the society, who were about one hundred andtwenty. Nearly a hundred of these had found peace with God: such is the blessing of being persecutedfor righteousness’ sake! As we were going to church at eleven, a large company at the market place

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welcomed us with a loud huzza: wit as harmless as the ditty sung under my window (composed,one assured me, by a gentlewoman of their own town),

Charles Wesley is come to town,To try if he can pull the churches down.In the evening I explained “the promise of the Father.” After preaching, many began to be

turbulent; but John Nelson went into the midst of them, spoke a little to the loudest, who answerednot again but went quietly away.

The Cornish Tinners

Saturday, September 3.—I rode to the Three-cornered Down (so called), nine or ten miles eastof St. Ives, where we found two or three hundred tinners, who had been some time waiting for us.They all appeared quite pleased and unconcerned; and many of them ran after us to Gwennap (twomiles east), where their number was quickly increased to four or five hundred. I had much comforthere in applying these words, “He hath anointed me to preach the gospel to the poor” [Luke 4:18].One who lived near invited us to lodge at his house and conducted us back to the Green in themorning. We came thither just as the day dawned.

I strongly applied those gracious words, “I will heal their backslidings, I will love them freely,”to five or six hundred serious people. At Trezuthan Downs, five miles nearer St. Ives, we foundseven or eight hundred people, to whom I cried aloud, “Cast away all your transgressions; for whywill ye die, O house of Israel?” After dinner I preached again to about a thousand people on Himwhom “God hath exalted to be a Prince and a Saviour.” It was here first I observed a little impressionmade on two or three of the hearers; the rest, as usual, showing huge approbation and absoluteunconcern.

Friday, 9.—I rode in quest of St. Hilary owns, ten or twelve miles southeast of St. Ives. Andthe Downs I found, but no congregation—neither man, woman, nor child. But by that I had put onmy gown and cassock, about a hundred gathered themselves together, whom I earnestly called “torepent and believe the gospel.” And if but one heard, it was worth all the labor.

Saturday, 10.—There were prayers at St. Just in the afternoon, which did not end till four. Ithen preached at the Cross to, I believe, a thousand people, who all behaved in a quiet and seriousmanner.

At six I preached at Sennan, near the Land’s End; and appointed the little congregation(consisting chiefly of old, grey-headed men) to meet me again at five in the morning. But on Sunday,11, a great part of them were got together between three and four o’clock: so between four and fivewe began praising God; and I largely explained and applied, “I will heal their backslidings; I willlove them freely.”

We went afterwards down, as far as we could go safely, toward the point of the rocks at theLand’s End. It was an awful sight! But how will these melt away when God shall arise to judgment!The sea between does indeed “boil like a pot.” “One would think the deep to be hoary.” But “thoughthey swell, yet can they not prevail. He hath set their bounds, which they cannot pass” [see Ps.104:8].

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Between eight and nine I preached at St. Just, on the green plain near the town, to the largestcongregation (I was informed) that ever had been seen in these parts. I cried out, with all the authorityof love, “Why will ye die, O house of Israel?” The people trembled and were still. I had not knownsuch an hour before in Cornwall.

In the Scilly Isles

Monday, 12.—I had had for some time a great desire to go and publish the love of God ourSaviour, if it were but for one day, in the Isles of Scilly; and I had occasionally mentioned it toseveral. This evening three of our brethren came and offered to carry me thither if I could procurethe mayor’s boat, which, they said, was the best sailer 8 of any in the town. I sent, and he lent it meimmediately. So the next morning, Tuesday, 13, John Nelson, Mr. Shepherd, and I, with three menand a pilot, sailed from St. Ives. It seemed strange to me to attempt going in a fisher-boat, fifteenleagues upon the main ocean, especially when the waves began to swell and hang over our heads.But I called to my companions, and we joined together in singing lustily and with a good courage:

When passing through the watery deep,I ask in faith His promised aid;The waves an awful distance keep,And shrink from my devoted head;Fearless their violence I dare:They cannot harm—for God is there.About half an hour after one, we landed on St. Mary’s, the chief of the inhabited islands.We immediately waited upon the Governor, with the usual present, namely, a newspaper. I

desired him, likewise, to accept of an “Earnest Appeal.” The minister not being willing I shouldpreach in the church, I preached, at six, in the streets to almost all the town and many soldiers,sailors, and workmen on, “Why will ye die, O house of Israel?” It was a blessed time so that Iscarcely knew how to conclude. After the sermon I gave them some little books and hymns, whichthey were so eager to receive that they were ready to tear both them and me to pieces.

For what political reason such a number of workmen were gathered together and employed atso large an expense to fortify a few barren rocks, which whosoever would take, deserves to havethem for his pains, I could not possibly devise: but a providential reason was easy to be discovered.God might call them together to hear the gospel, which perhaps otherwise they might never havethought of.

At five in the morning I preached again on “I will heal their backslidings; I will love themfreely.” And between nine and ten, having talked with many in private and distributed both to themand others between two and three hundred hymns and little books, we left this barren, dreary placeand set sail for St. Ives, though the wind was strong and blew directly in our teeth. Our pilot saidwe should have good luck if we reached the land; but he knew not Him whom the winds and seasobey. Soon after three we were even with the Land’s End, and about nine we reached St. Ives.

8 Correct to the text.

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Remarkable Service at Gwennap

Tuesday, 20.—At Trezuthan Downs I preached to two or three thousand people on the “highway”of the Lord, the way of holiness. We reached Gwennap a little before six and found the plain coveredfrom end to end. It was supposed there were ten thousand people, to whom I preached Christ our“wisdom, righteousness, sanctification, and redemption.” I could not conclude till it was so darkwe could scarcely see one another. And there was on all sides the deepest attention; none speaking,stirring, or scarcely looking aside. Surely here, though in a temple not made with hands, was Godworshiped 9 in “the beauty of holiness.”

Wednesday, 21.—I was awakened between three and four by a large company of tinners who,fearing they should be too late, had gathered round the house and were singing and praising God.At five I preached once more on “Believe on the Lord Jesus Christ, and thou shalt be saved.” Theyall devoured the Word. Oh, may it be health to their soul and marrow unto their bones!

We rode to Launceston that day. Thursday, 22. As we were riding through a village calledSticklepath, one stopped me in the street and asked abruptly, “Is not thy name John Wesley?”Immediately two or three more came up and told me I must stop there. I did so; and before we hadspoken many words, our souls took acquaintance with each other. I found they were called Quakers:but that hurt not me, seeing the love of God was in their hearts.

A Mob at Wednesbury

Thursday, Oct. 20.—After preaching to a small, attentive congregation (at Birmingham), I roeto Wdnesbury. At twelve I preached in a ground near the middle of the town, to a far largercongregation than was expected, on “Jesus Christ, the same yesterday, and today, and forever”[Heb. 13:8]. I believe everyone present felt the power of God: and no creature offered to molestus, either going or coming; but the Lord fought for us, and we held our peace.

I was writing at Francis Ward’s, in the afternoon, when the cry arose that the mob had besetthe house. We prayed that God would disperse them; and it was so: one went this way, and anotherthat; so that, in half an hour, not a man was left. I told our brethren, “Now is the time for us to go”;but they pressed me exceedingly to stay. So, that I might not offend them, I sat down; though Iforesaw what would follow. Before five the mob surrounded the house again in greater numbersthan ever. The cry of one and all was “Bring out the minister; we will have the minister.”

I desired one to take their captain by the hand and bring him into the house. After a few sentencesinterchanged between us, the lion became a lamb. I desired him to go and bring one or two moreof the most angry of his companions. He brought in two who were ready to swallow the groundwith rage; but in two minutes they were as calm as he. I then bade them make way that I might goout among the people.

As soon as I was in the midst of them, I called for a chair; and standing up, asked, “What doany of you want with me?” Some said, “We want you to go with us to the justice.” I replied, “ThatI will, with all my heart.” I then spoke a few words, which God applied; so that they cried out, with

9 Correct to the text.

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might and main, “The gentleman is an honest gentleman, and we will spill our blood in his defense.”I asked, “Shall we go to the justice tonight, or in the morning?” Most of them cried, “Tonight,tonight”; on which I went before, and two or three hundred followed; the rest returning whencethey came.

The night came on before we had walked a mile, together with heavy rain. However, on wewent to Bentley Hall, two miles from Wednesbury. One or two ran before to tell Mr. Lane theyhad brought Mr. Wesley before his worship. Mr. Lane replied, “What have I to do with Mr. Wesley?Go and carry him back again.” By this time the main body came up and began knocking at thedoor. A servant told them Mr. Lane was in bed. His son followed and asked what was the matter.One replied, “Why, an’t 10 please you, they sing psalms all day; nay, and make folks rise at five inthe morning. And what would your worship advise us to do?” “To go home,” said Mr. Lane, “andbe quiet.”

Wesley in Danger

Here they were all at a full stop, till one advised to go to Justice Persehouse at Walsal. Allagreed to this; so we hastened on and about seven came to his house. But Mr. P--- likewise sentword that he was in bed. Now they were at a stand again; but at last they all thought it the wisestcourse to make the best of their way home. About fifty of them undertook to convoy me. But wehad not gone a hundred yards when the mob of Walsal came, pouring in like a flood, and bore downall before them. The Darlaston mob made what defense they could; but they were weary as wellas outnumbered: so that in a short time, many being knocked down, the rest ran away and left mein their hands.

To attempt speaking was vain; for the noise on every side was like the roaring of the sea. sothey dragged me along till we came to the town; where seeing the door of a large house open, Iattempted to go in; but a man, catching me by the hair, pulled me back into the middle of the mob.They made no more stop till they had carried me through the main street, from one end of the townto the other. I continued speaking all the time to those within hearing, feeling no pain or weariness.at the west end of the town, seeing a door half open, I made toward it and would have gone in; buta gentleman in the shop would not suffer me, saying they would pull the house down to the ground.However, I stood at the door, and asked, "“re you willing to hear me speak?” Many cried out, “No,no! knock his brains out; down with him; kill him at once.” Others said, “Nay, but we will hearhim first.” I began asking, “What evil have I done? Which of you all have I wronged in word ordeed?” And continued speaking for above a quarter of an hour, till my voice suddenly failed: thenthe floods began to lift up their voice again; many crying out, “Bring him away! bring him away!”

In the meantime my strength and my voice returned, and I broke out aloud in prayer. And nowthe man who just before headed the mob turned and said, “Sir, I will spend my life for you: followme, and not one soul here shall touch a hair of your head.” Two or three of his fellows confirmedhis words and got close to me immediately. At the same time, the gentleman in the shop cried out,“For shame, for shame! Let him go.”

10 Correct to the text.

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An honest butcher, who was a little farther off, said it was a shame they should do thus; and hepulled back four or five, one after another, who were running on the most fiercely. The peoplethen, as if it had been by common consent, fell back to the right and left, while those three or fourmen took me between them and carried me through them all. But on the bridge the mob ralliedagain: we therefore went on one side, over the milldam, and thence through the meadows; till, alittle before ten, God brought me safe to Wednesbury; I having lost only one flap of my waistcoatand a little skin from one of my hands.

His Presence of Mind

I never saw such a chain of providences before, so many convincing proofs that the hand ofGod is on every person and thing and overruling all as it seemeth Him good.

The poor woman of Darlaston, who had headed that mob and sworn that no one should touchme, when she saw her followers give way, ran into the thickest of the throng and knocked downthree or four men, one after another. But many assaulting her at once, she was soon overpoweredand had probably been killed in a few minutes (three men keeping her down and beating her withall their might) had not a man called to one of them, “Hold, Tom, hold!” “Who is there?” said Tom:“what, honest Munchin? Nay, then, let her go.” So they held their hand and let her get up and crawlhome as well as she could.

From the beginning to the end I found the same presence of mind as if I had been sitting in myown study. But I took no thought for one moment before another; only once it came into my mindthat if they should throw me into the river, it would spoil the papers that were in my pocket. Formyself, I did not doubt but I should swim across, having but a thin coat and a light pair of boots.

The circ*mstances that follow, I thought, were particularly remarkable: 1) that many endeavoredto throw me down while we were going downhill on a slippery path to the town; as well judging,that if I was once on the ground, I should hardly rise any more. But I made no stumble at all, northe least slip till I was entirely out of their hands. 2) That although many strove to lay hold on mycollar or clothes, to pull me down, they could not fasten at all: only one got fast hold of the flap ofmy waistcoat, which was soon left in his hand; the other flap, in the pocket of which was a banknote, was torn but half off. 3) That a lusty man just behind struck at me several times with a largeoaken stick, with which if he had struck me once on the back part of my head, it would have savedhim all further trouble. But every time the blow was turned aside, I know not how; for I could notmove to the right hand or left.

“What Soft Hair He Has”

4) That another came rushing through the press and, raising his arm to strike, on a sudden letit drop and only stroked my head, saying, “What soft hair he has!” 5) That I stopped exactly at themayor’s door, as if I had known it (which the mob doubtless thought I did), and found him standingin the shop [his presence giving] the first check to the madness of the people. 6) That the very first

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men whose hearts were turned were the heroes of the town, the captains of the rabble on all occasions,one of them having been a prizefighter at the bear-garden.

7) That from first to last, I heard none give a reviling word, or call me by any opporbious namewhatever; but the cry of one and all was: “The preacher! the preacher! the parson! the minister!”8) That no creature, at least within my hearing, laid anything to my charger, either true or false;having in the hurry quite forgotten to provide themselves with an accusation of any kind. And,lastly, that they were as utterly at a loss what they should do with me, none proposing any determinatething only “Away with him! Kill him at once!”

By how gentle degrees does God prepare us for His will! Two years ago a piece of brick grazedmy shoulders. It was a year after that the stone struck me between the eyes. Last month I receivedone blow, and this evening two; one before we came into the town and one after we had gone out;but both were as nothing: for though one man struck me on the breast with all his might, and theother on the mouth with such force that the blood gushed out immediately, I felt no more pain fromeither of the blows than if they had touched me with a straw.

It ought not to be forgotten that when the rest of the society made all haste to escape for theirlives, four only would not stir, William Sitch, Edward Slater, John Griffiths, and Joan Parks: thesekept with me, resolving to live or die together; and none of them received one blow but WilliamSitch, who held me by the arm from one end of the town to the other. He was then dragged awayand knocked down; but he soon rose and got to me again. I afterward asked him what he expectedwhen the mob came upon us. He said, “To die for Him who had died for us”: and he felt no hurryor fear but calmly waited till God should require his soul of him.

Wesley’s Defenders

I asked J. Parks if she was not afraid when they tore her from me. She said, “No; no more thanI am now. I could trust God for you, as well as for myself. From the beginning I had a full persuasionthat God would deliver you. I knew not how; but I left that to Him, and was as sure as if it werealready done.” I asked if the report was true that she had fought for me. She said, “No; I knew Godwould fight for His children.” And shall these souls perish at the last?

When I came back to Francis Ward’s I found many of our brethren waiting upon God. Manyalso whom I never had seen before came to rejoice with us. And the next morning, as I rode throughthe town in my way to Nottingham, everyone I met expressed such a cordial affection that I couldscarcely believe what I saw and heard.

The Sleepy Magistrates’ Proclamation

I cannot close this head without inserting as great a curiosity in its kind as, I believe, was everyet seen in England; which had its birth within a very few days of this remarkable occurrence atWalsal.

“Staffordshire

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“To all High Constables, Petty Constables, and other of his Majesty’s Peace Officers, withinthe said County, and particularly to the Constable of Tipton [near Walsal]:

“Whereas, we, his Majesty’s Justices of the Peace for the said County of Stafford, have receivedinformation that several disorderly persons, styling themselves Methodist preachers, go aboutraising routs and riots, to the great damage of his Majesty’s liege people, and against the peace ofour Sovereign Lord the King:

“These are, in his Majesty’s name, to command you and every one of you, within your respectivedistricts, to make diligent search after the said Methodist preachers, and to bring him or them beforesome of us his said Majesty’s Justices of the Peace, to be examined concerning their unlawfuldoings.

“Given under our hands and seals, this day of October, 1743“J. Lane“W. Persehouse”

N.B.—The very justices to whose houses I was carried and who severally refused to see me!Saturday, 22.—I rode from Nottingham to Epworth, and on Monday set out for Grimsby: but

at Ferry we were at a full stop, the boatmen telling us we could not pass the Trent; it was as muchas our lives were worth to put from shore before the storm abated. We waited an hour; but, beingafraid it would do much hurt if I should disappoint the congregation at Grimsby, I asked the menif they did not think it possible to get to the other shore. They said they could not tell; but if wewould venture our lives, they would venture theirs. So we put off, having six men, two women,and three horses in the boat.

Wesley Nearly Drowned

Many stood looking after us on the riverside; [when we reached] the middle of the river, in aninstant the side of the boat was under water and the horses and men rolling one over another. Weexpected the boat to sink every moment, but I did not doubt of being able to swim ashore. Theboatmen were amazed as well as the rest; but they quickly recovered and rowed for life. And soonafter, our horses leaping overboard, the boat was lightened, and we all came unhurt to land.

They wondered what was the matter I did not rise (for I lay alone in the bottom of the boat),and I wondered too, till upon examination I found that a large iron crow, which the boatmensometimes used, was (none knew how) run through the string of my boot, and was pinning medown 11 that I could not stir. If the boat had sunk, I should have been safe enough from swimmingany further.

The same day and, as near as we could judge, the same hour, the boat in which my brother wascrossing the Severn, at the New Passage, was carried away by the wind and in the utmost dangerof splitting upon the rocks. But the same God, when all human hope was past, delivered them aswell as us.

11 “So” is omitted in the text.

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Methodism on the Stage

Monday, 31.—We set out early in the morning, and in the evening came to Newcastle.Wednesday, November 2.—The following advertisem*nt was published:

FOR THE BENEFIT OF MR. ESTE.

By the Edinburgh Company of Comedians, on Friday, November 4, will be acted a Comedy, called,

THE CONSCIOUS LOVERS;To which will be added a Farce, called,

TRICK UPON TRICK, OR METHODISM DISPLAYEDOn Friday, a vast multitude of spectators were assembled in the Moot Hall to see this. It was

believed there could not be less than fifteen hundred people, some hundreds of whom sat on rowsof seats built upon the stage. Soon after the comedians had begun the first act of the play, on asudden all those seats fell down at once, the supporters of them breaking like a rotten sick. Thepeople were thrown one upon another, about five foot forward, but not one of them hurt. After ashort time the rest of the spectators were quiet, and the actors went on. In the middle of the secondact, all the shilling seats gave a crack, and sank several inches down. A great noise and shriekingfollowed, and as many as could readily get to the door, went out and returned no more.Notwithstanding this, when the noise was over, the actors went on with the play.

In the beginning of the third act the entire stage suddenly sank about six inches: the playersretired with great precipitation; yet in a while they began again. At the latter end of the third act,all the sixpenny seats, without any kind of notice, fell to the ground. There was now a cry on everyside; it being supposed that many were crushed in pieces. But, upon inquiry, not a singe person(such was the mercy of God!) was either killed or dangerously hurt. Two or three hundred remainingstill in the hall, Mr. Este (who was to act the Methodist) came upon the stage and told them thatfor all this he was resolved the farce should be acted. While he was speaking, the stage sank sixinches more; at this he ran back in the utmost confusion, and the people as fast as they could outthe door, none staying to look behind him.

Which is most surprising—that those players acted this farce the next week—or that somehundreds of people came again to see it?

Chapter 6. First Methodist Conference; Pressgangs and Mobs; Wesley's Protestagainst Ungodliness

The First Conference

1744. Monday, June 18.—I left Epworth; and on Wednesday, 20, in the afternoon, met mybrother in London.

Monday, 25, and the five following days we spent in conference with many of our brethren(come from several parts), who desire nothing but to save their own souls and those who hear them.And surely, as long as they continue thus minded, their labor shall not be in vain in the Lord.

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The next day we endeavored to purge the society of all that did not walk according to the gospel.By this means we reduced the number of members to less than nineteen hundred. But number isan inconsiderable circ*mstance. May God increase them in faith and love!

Friday, August 24.—(St. Bartholomew’s day.) I preached, I suppose the last time, at St. Mary’s[Oxford]. Be it so. I am now clear of the blood of these men. I have fully delivered my own soul.

The Beadle came to me afterwards and told me the Vice-Chancellor had sent him for my notes.I sent them without delay, not without admiring the wise providence of God. Perhaps few men ofnote would have given a sermon of mine the reading if I had put it into their hands; but by thismeans it came to be read, probably more than once, by every man of eminence in the University.

Wesley’s Chancery Bill

Thursday, December 27.—I called on the solicitor whom I had employed in the suit latelycommenced in chancery; and here I first saw that foul monster, a chancery bill! A scroll it was offorty-two pages, in large folio, to tell a story which needed not to have taken up forty lines! andstuffed with such stupid senseless, improbable lies (many of them, too, quite foreign to the question)as, I believe, would have cost the compiler his life in any heathen court of either Greece or Rome.And this is equity in a Christian country! This is the English method of redressing other grievances!

1745. Saturday, January 5.—I had often wondered at myself (and sometimes mentioned it toothers) that ten thousand cares, of various kinds, were no more weight and burden to my mind thanten thousand hairs were to my head. Perhaps I began to ascribe something of this to my own strength.And thence it might be that on Sunday, 13, that strength was withheld, and I felt what it was to betroubled about many things. One and another hurrying me continually, it seized upon my spiritmore and more till I found it absolutely necessary to fly for my life, and that without delay. So thenext day, Monday, 14, I took horse and rode away from Bristol.

Between Bath and Bristol I was earnestly desired to turn aside and call at the house of a poorman, William Shalwood. I found him and his wife sick in one bed, and with small hopes of therecovery of either. Yet (after prayer) I believed they would “not die, but live, and declare theloving-kindness of the Lord.” The next time I called he was sitting downstairs, and his wife ableto go abroad.

As soon as we came into the house at Bristol, my soul was lightened of her load, of thatinsufferable weight which had lain upon my mind, more or less, for several days. On Sunday,several of our friends from Wales and other parts joined with us in the great sacrifice of thanksgiving.And every day we found more and more cause to praise God and to give Him thanks for His stillincreasing benefits.

Monday, February 18.—I set out with Richard Moss from London for Newcastle.

Wesley’s Effective Letter

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Sunday, March 3.—As I was walking up Pilgrim Street, hearing a man call after me, I stoodstill. He came up and used much abusive language, intermixed with many oaths and curses. Severalpeople came out to see what was the matter; on which he pushed me twice or thrice and went away.

Upon inquiry, I found this man had signalized himself a long season by abusing and throwingstones at any of our family who went that way. Therefore I would not lose the opportunity, but onMonday, 4, sent him the following note:

“Robert Young,--I expect to see you, between this and Friday and to hear from you that youare sensible of your fault; otherwise, in pity to your soul, I shall be obliged to inform the magistratesof your assaulting me yesterday in the street.

“I am, “Your real friend, “John Wesley”Within two or three hours, Robert Young came and promised a quite different behavior. So did

this gentle reproof, if not save a soul from death, yet prevent a multitude of sins.Saturday, April 6.—Mr. Stephenson, of whom I bought the ground on which our house is built,

came at length, after delaying it more than two years, and executed the writings. So I am freed fromone more care. May I in everything make known my request to God!

Press Gang and Methodists

Wednesday, June 19 (Redruth).—Being informed here of what had befallen Mr. Maxfield, weturned aside toward Crowan churchtown. But in the way we received information that he had beenremoved from thence the night before. It seems that the valiant constables who guarded him, havingreceived timely notice that a body of five hundred Methodists was coming to take him away byforce, had, with great precipitation, carried him two miles further to the house of one Henry Tomkins.

Here we found him, nothing terrified by his adversaries. I desired Henry Tomkins to show methe warrant. It was directed by Dr. Borlase, and his father, and Mr. Eustick, to the constables andoverseers of several parishes, requiring them to “apprehend all such able-bodies men as had nolawful calling or sufficient maintenance”; and to bring them before the aforesaid gentlemen atMarazion, on Friday, 21, to be examined whether they were proper persons to serve his Majestyin the land-service.

It was endorsed by the steward of Sir John St. Aubyn with the names of seven or eight persons,most of whom were well-known to have lawful callings and a sufficient maintenance thereby. Butthat was all one: they were called “Methodists”; therefore, soldiers they must be. Underneath wasadded, “A person, his name unknown, who disturbs the peace of the parish.”

A word to the wise. The good men easily understood this could be none but the Methodistpreacher; for who “disturbs the peace of the parish” like one who tells all drunkards, whor*mongers,and common swearers, “You are in the high road to hell”?

When we came out of the house, forty or fifty myrmidons stood ready to receive us. But I turnedfull upon them and their courage failed, nor did they recover till we were at some distance. Thenthey began blustering again and throwing stones; one of which struck Mr. Thompson’s servant.

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Friday, 21.—We rode to Marazion. (Vulgarly called Market-jew.) Finding the justices werenot met, we walked up St. Michael’s Mount. The house at the top is surprisingly large and pleasant.Sir John St. Aubyn had taken much pains, and been at a considerable expense, in repairing andbeautifying the apartments; and when the seat was finished, the owner died!

About two, Mr. Thompson and I went into the room where the justices and commissionerswere. After a few minutes, Dr. Borlase stood up and asked whether we had any business. I toldhim, “We have.” We desired to be heard concerning one who was lately apprehended at Crowan.He said, “Gentlemen, the business of Crowan does not come on yet. You shall be sent for when itdoes.” So we retired and waited in another room, till after nine o’clock. They delayed the affair ofMr. Maxfield (as we imagined they would) to the very last. About nine he was called. I would havegone in then; but Mr. Thompson advised to wait a little longer. The next information we receivedwas that they had sentenced him to go for a soldier. Hearing this, we went straight to the commissionchamber. But the honorable gentlemen were gone.

They had ordered Mr. Maxfield to be immediately put on board a boat and carried for Penzance.We were informed that they had first offered him to a Captain of a man-of-war that was just comeinto the harbor. But he answered, “I have no authority to take such men as these, unless you wouldhave me give him so much a week to preach and pray to my people.”

Reading the Riot Act

Saturday, 22.—We reached St. Ives about two in the morning. At five I preached on “Loveyour enemies”; and at Gwennap, in the evening, on “All that will live godly in Christ Jesus shallsuffer persecution.”

We heard today that as soon as Mr. Maxfield came to Penzance, they put him down into thedungeon; and that the mayor being inclined to let him go, Dr. Borlase had gone thither on purposeand had himself read the Articles of War in the court and delivered him to one who was to act asan officer.

Saturday, 29.—I preached at St. Just again and at Morva and Zennor on Sunday, 30. About sixin the evening, I began preaching at St. Ives, in the street, near John Nance’s door. A multitude ofpeople were quickly assembled, both high and low, rich and poor; and I observed not any creatureto laugh or smile, or hardly move hand or foot. I expounded the gospel for the day, beginning with,“Then drew near all the publicans and sinners for to hear him” [Luke 15:1]. A little before sevencame Mr. Edwards from the mayor and ordered one to read the proclamation against riots. Iconcluded quickly after; but the body of the people appeared utterly unsatisfied, not knowing howto go away. Forty or fifty of them begged they might be present at the meeting of the society; andwe rejoiced together for an hour in such a manner as I had never known before in Cornwall.

Tuesday, July 2.—I preached in the evening at St. Just. I observed not only several gentlementhere who I suppose never came before, but a large body of tinners, who stood at a distance fromthe rest; and a great multitude of men, women, and children beside, who seemed not well to knowwhy they came. Almost as soon as we had done singing, a kind of gentlewoman began. I haveseldom seen a poor creature take so much pains. She scolded, and screamed, and spit and stamped,and wrung her hands, and distorted her face and body all manner of ways. I took no notice of her

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at all, good or bad, nor did almost anyone else. Afterward I heard she was one that had been breda Papist; and when she heard we were so, rejoiced greatly. No wonder she would be proportionatelyangry when she was disappointed of her hope.

Mr. Eustick, a neighboring gentleman, came just as I was concluding my sermon. The peopleopening to the right and left, he came up to me and said, “Sir, I have a warrant from Dr. Borlase,and you must go with me.” Then, turning around, he said, “Sir, are you Mr. Shepherd? If so, youare mentioned in the warrant too. Be pleased, sir, to come with me.” We walked with him to apublic house near the end of the town. Here he asked me if I was willing to go with him to thedoctor. I told him, just then, if he pleased. “Sir,” said he, “I must wait upon you to your inn; andin the morning, if you will be so good as to go with me, I will show you the way.” So he handedme back to my inn and retired.

Wesley Seized for a Soldier

Wednesday, 3.—I waited till nine; but no Mr. Eustick came. I then desired Mr. Shepherd to goand inquire for him at the house wherein he had lodged; he met him, coming, as he thought, to ourinn. But after waiting some time, we inquired again and learned he had turned aside to anotherhouse in the town. I went thither and asked, “Is Mr. Eustick here?” After some pause, one said,“Yes,” and showed me into the parlor. When he came down he said, “O sir, will you be so goodas to go with me to the doctor’s?” I answered, “Sir, I came for that purpose.” “Are you ready, sir?”I answered, “Yes.” “Sir, I am not quite ready. In a little time, sir, in a quarter of an hour, I will waitupon you. I will come to William Chenhall’s.”

In about three quarters of an hour he came, and finding there was no remedy, he called for hishorse and put forward toward Dr. Borlase’s house; but he was in no haste, so that we were an hourand a quarter riding three or four measured miles. As soon as we came into the yard he asked aservant, “Is the doctor at home?” upon whose answering, “No, sir, he is gone to church,” he presentlysaid, “Well, sir, I have executed my commission. I have done, sir; I have no more to say.”

About noon Mr. Shepherd and I reached St. Ives. After a few hours’ rest, we rode to Gwennap.Finding the house would not contain one fourth of the people, I stood before the door. I was readingmy text when a man came, raging as if he had just broken out of the tombs; and, riding into thethickest of the people, seized three or four, one after another, none lifting up a hand against him.A second (gentleman, so called) soon came after, if possible more furious than he, and ordered hismen to seize on some others, Mr. Shepherd in particular. Most of the people, however, stood stillas they were before and began singing a hymn.

Upon this Mr. B. lost all patience and cried out with all his might, “Seize him, seize him. I say,seize the preacher for his Majesty’s service.” But no one stirring, he rode up and struck several ofhis attendants, cursing them bitterly for not doing as they were bidden. Perceiving still that theywould not move, he leaped off his horse, swore he would do it himself, and caught hold of mycassock crying, “I take you to serve his Majesty.” A servant taking his horse, he took me by thearm, and we walked arm in arm for about three quarters of a mile. He entertained me all the timewith the “wickedness of the fellows belonging to the society.” When he was taking breath, I said,“Sir, be they what they will, I apprehend it will not justify you in seizing me in this manner and

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violently carrying me away, as you said, to serve his Majesty.” He replied, “I seize you! Andviolently carry you away! No, sir, no. Nothing like it. I asked you to go with me to my house, andyou said you were willing; and if so, you are welcome; and if not, you are welcome to go whereyou please.” I answered, “Sir, I know not if it would be safe for me to go back through this rabble.”“Sir,” said he, “I will go with you myself.” He then called for his horse, and another for me, androde back with me to the place from whence he took me.

Dramatic Scenes at Falmouth

Thursday, 4.—I rode to Falmouth. About three in the afternoon I went to see a gentlewomanwho had been long indisposed. Almost as soon as I sat down, the house was beset on all sides byan innumerable multitude of people. A louder or more confused noise could hardly be at the takingof a city by storm. At first Mrs. B. and her daughter endeavored to quiet them. But it was laborlost. They might as well have attempted to still the raging of the sea. They were soon glad to shiftfor themselves and leave K. E. and me to do as well as we could. The rabble roared with all theirthroats, “Bring out the Canorum! Where is the Canorum?” (an unmeaning word which the Cornishgenerally use instead of Methodist).

No answer being given, they quickly forced open the outer door and filled the passage. Only awainscot partition was between us, which was not likely to stand long. I immediately took down alarge looking glass which hung against it, supposing the whole side would fall in at once. Whenthey began their work with abundance of bitter imprecations, poor Kitty was utterly astonished andcried out, “O sir, what must we do?” I said, “We must pray.” Indeed at that time, to all appearance,our lives were not worth an hour’s purchase. She asked, “But, sir, is it not better for you to hideyourself? to get into the closet?” I answered, “No. It is best for me to stand just where I am.” Amongthose without were the crews of some privateers which were lately come into harbor. Some ofthese, being angry at the slowness of the rest, thrust them away and, coming up all together, settheir shoulders to the inner door and cried out, “Avast, lads, avast!” Away went all the hinges atonce, and the door fell back into the room.

I stepped forward at once into the midst of them and said, “Here I am. Which of you has anythingto say to me? To which of you have I done any wrong? To you? Or you? Or you?” I continuedspeaking till I came, bareheaded as I was (for I purposely left my hat that they might all see myface) into the middle of the street and then raising my voice said, “Neighbors, countrymen! Do youdesire to hear me speak?’” 12 They cried vehemently, “Yes, yes. He shall speak. He shall. Nobodyshall hinder him.” But having nothing to stand on and no advantage of ground, I could be heard byfew only. However, I spoke without intermission and, as far as the sound reached, the people werestill; till one or two of their captains turned about and swore that not a man should touch me.

Mr. Thomas, a clergyman, then came up and asked, “Are you not ashamed to use a strangerthus?” He was soon seconded by two or three gentlemen of the town and one of the aldermen; withwhom I walked down the town, speaking all the time, till I came to Mrs. Maddern’s house. Thegentlemen proposed sending for my horse to the door and desired me to step in and rest the meantime.

12 Correct to the text.

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But, on second thought, they judged it not advisable to let me go out among the people again: sothey chose to send my horse before me to Penryn and to send me thither by water, the sea runningclose by the back door of the house in which we were.

I never saw before, no, not at Walsal itself, the hand of God so plainly shown as here. There Ihad many companions who were willing to die with me: here, not a friend but one simple girl, wholikewise was hurried away from me in an instant as soon as ever she came out of Mrs. B.’s door.There I received some blows, lost part of my clothes, and was covered over with dirt: here, althoughthe hands of perhaps some hundreds of people were lifted up to strike or throw, yet they were oneand all stopped in the midway; so that not a man touched me with one of his fingers, neither wasanything thrown from first to last; so that I had not even a speck of dirt on my clothes. Who candeny that God heareth prayer, or that He hath all power in heaven and earth?

“I am John Wesley”

I took boat at about half an hour past five. Many of the mob waited at the end of the town, who,seeing me escaped out of their hands, could only revenge themselves with their tongues. But a fewof the fiercest ran along the shore, to receive me at my landing. I walked up the steep narrow passagefrom the sea, at the top of which the foremost man stood. I looked him in the face and said, “I wishyou a good night.” He spake not nor moved hand or foot till I was on horseback. Then he said, “Iwish you were in hell,” and turned back to his companions.

As soon as I came within sight of Tolcarn (in Wendron parish), where I was to preach in theevening, I was met by many, running as it were for their lives and begging me to go no further. Iasked, “Why not?” They said, “The churchwardens and constables and all the heads of the parishare waiting for you at the top of the hill and are resolved to have you: they have a special warrantfrom the justices met at Helstone, who will stay there till you are brought.” I rode directly up thehill and observing four or five horsem*n, well dressed, went straight to them and said, “Gentlemen,has any of you anything to say to me?__I am John Wesley.”

One of them appeared extremely angry at this, that I should presume to say I was “Mr. JohnWesley.” And I know not how I might have fared for advancing so bold an assertion but that Mr.Collins, the minister of Redruth (accidently, 13 as he said) came by. Upon his accosting me andsaying he knew me at Oxford, my first antagonist was silent, and a dispute of another kind began:whether this preaching had done any good. I appealed to matter of fact. He allowed (after manywords), “People are the better for the present”; but added, “To be sure, by and by they will be asbad, if not worse than ever.”

When he rode away, one of the riders said, “Sir, I would speak with you a little; let us ride tothe gate.” We did so, and he said, “Sir, I will tell you the ground of this. All the gentlemen of theseparts say that you have been a long time in France and Spain and are now sent hither by the Pretender;and that these societies are to join him.” Nay, surely “all the gentlemen in these parts” will not lieagainst their own conscience!

13 This spelling is correct.

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I rode hence to a friend’s house, some miles off, and found the sleep of a laboring man is sweet.I was informed there were many here also who had an earnest desire to hear “this preaching,” butthey did not dare; Sir ___ V___n having solemnly declared, nay, and that in the face of the wholecongregation as they were coming out of the church, “If any man of this parish dares hear thesefellows, he shall not come to my Christmas feast!”

Saturday, 6.—I rode with Mr. Shepherd to Gwennap. Here also we found the people in theutmost consternation. Word was brought that a great company of tinners, made drunk on purpose,were coming to do terrible things. I labored much to compose their minds, but fear had no ears; sothat abundance of people went away. I preached to the rest on “Love your enemies.” The eventshowed this also was a false alarm, an artifice of the devil, to hinder men from hearing the Wordof God.

Wesley Pushed from a High Wall

Sunday, 7.—I preached, at five, to a quiet congregation, and about eight, at Stithians. Betweensix and seven in the evening we came to Tolcarn. Hearing the mob was rising again, I beganpreaching immediately. I had not spoken a quarter of an hour before they came in view. One Mr.Trounce rode up first and began speaking to me, wherein he was roughly interrupted by hiscompanions. Yet, as I stood on a high wall and kept my eyes upon them, many were softened andgrew calmer and calmer; which some of their champions observing, went round and suddenlypushed me down. I lit on my feet without any hurt; finding myself close to the warmest of thehorsem*n, I took hold of his hand and held it fast while I expostulated the case. As for beingconvinced, he was quite about it: however, both he and his fellows grew much milder, and weparted very civilly.

Monday, 8.—I preached at five on “Watch and pray,” to a quiet and earnest congregation. Wethen rode on to St. Ives, the most still and honorable post (so are the times changed) which we havein Cornwall.

Tuesday, 9.—I had just begun preaching at St. Just, when Mr. E. came once more, took me bythe hand, and said I must go with him. To avoid making a tumult, I went. He said I had promisedlast week not to come again to St. Just for a month. I absolutely denied the having made any suchpromise. After about half an hour, he handed me back to my inn.

Riot Act and a Sermon

Wednesday, 10.—In the evening I began to expound (at Trevonan, in Morva), “Ho! every onethat thirsteth, come yet to the waters.” In less than a quarter of an hour, the constable and hiscompanions came and read the proclamation against riots. When he had done, I told him, “We willdo as you require: we will disperse within an hour”; and went on with my sermon. After preaching,I had designed to meet the society alone. But many others also followed with such earnestness that

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I could not turn them back: so I exhorted them all to love their enemies as Christ hath loved us.They felt what was spoken.

Thursday, 25.—I came back safe, blessed be God, to Bristol. I found both my soul and bodymuch refreshed in this peaceful place. Thursday, August 1, and the following days, we had oursecond Conference, with as many of our brethren that labor in the Word as could be present.

Pelted by the Mob at Leeds

Monday, September 9.—I left London, and the next morning called on Dr. Doddridge atNorthampton. It was about the hour when he was accustomed to expound a portion of Scripture toyoung gentlemen under his care. He desired me to take his place. It may be the seed was notaltogether sown in vain.

Thursday, 12.—I came to Leeds, preached at five, and at eight met the society; after which themob pelted us with dirt and stones a great part of the way home. The congregation was much largernext evening; and so was the mob at our return, and likewise in higher spirits, being ready to knockout all our brains for joy that the Duke of Tuscany was Emperor. What a melancholy considerationis this! that the bulk of the English nation will not suffer God to give them the blessings He would,because they would turn them into curses. He cannot, for instance, give them success against theirenemies; for they would tear their own countrymen in pieces: He cannot trust them with victory,lest they should thank Him by murdering those that are quiet in the land.

Great Excitement at Newcastle

Wednesday, 18.—About five we came to Newcastle, in an acceptable time. We found thegenerality of the inhabitants in the utmost consternation; news being just arrived that, the morningbefore, at two o’clock, the Pretender had entered Edinburgh. A great concourse of people werewith us in the evening, to whom I expounded the third chapter of Jonah, insisting particularly onthat verse, “Who can tell, if God will return, and repent, and turn away from his fierce anger, thatwe perish not?”

Thursday, 19.—The mayor (Mr. Ridley) summoned all the householders of the town to meethim at the townhall; 14 and desired as many of them as were willing to set their hands to a paperimporting that they would, at the hazard of their goods and lives, defend the town against thecommon enemy. Fear and darkness were now on every side; but not on those who had seen thelight of God’s countenance. We rejoiced together in the evening with solemn joy, while God appliedthose words to many hearts, “Fear not ye: for I know that ye seek Jesus, which was crucified” [Matt.28:5].

Friday, 20.—The mayor ordered the townsmen to be under arms and to mount guard in theirturns, over and above the guard of soldiers, a few companies of whom had been drawn into the

14 Correct to the text.

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town on the first alarm. Now also Pilgrim Street gate was ordered to be walled up. Many began tobe much concerned for us, because our house stood without the walls. Nay, but the Lord is a wallof fire unto all that trust in Him.

I had desired all our brethren to join with us this day in seeking God by fasting and prayer.About one we met and poured out our souls before Him; and we believed He would send an answerof peace.

Wesley’s Letter to the Mayor

Saturday, 21.—The same day the action was, came the news of General Cope’s defeat. Orderswere now given for the doubling of the guard and for walling up Pandon and Sally Port gates. Inthe afternoon I wrote the following letter:

“To the Worshipful the Mayor of Newcastle.“Sir,--My not waiting upon you at the town hall was not owing to any want of respect. I reverence

you for your office’ style="#_ftn20" name="_ftnref20">[1] sake; and much more for your zealin the execution of it. I would to God every magistrate in the land would copy after such an example!Much less was it owing to any disaffection to his Majesty King George. But I knew not how far itmight be either necessary or proper for me to appear on such an occasion. I have no fortune atNewcastle: I have only the bread I eat and the use of a little room for a few weeks in the year.

“All I can do for his Majesty, whom I honor and love—I think not less than I did my ownfather—is this, I cry unto God day by day, in public and in private, to put all his enemies toconfusion: and I exhort all that hear me to do the same; and, in their several stations, to exertthemselves as loyal subjects; who, so long as they fear God, cannot but honor the King.

“Permit me, Sir, to add a few words more, out of the fullness of my heart. I am persuaded youfear God and have a deep sense that His Kingdom ruleth over all. Unto whom, then (I may askyou), should we flee for succor, but unto Him whom, by our sins, we have justly displeased? O Sir,is it not possible to give any check to these overflowings of ungodliness? To the open, flagrantwickedness, the drunkenness and profaneness which so abound even in our streets? I just take leaveto suggest this. May the God whom you serve direct you in this and all things! This is the dailyprayer of, Sir,

“Your obedient servant, for Christ’s sake,“J.W.”

Preaching under Difficulties

Sunday, 22.—The walls were mounted with cannon, and all things prepared for sustaining anassault. Meantime our poor neighbors, on either hand, were busy in removing their goods. Andmost of the best houses in our street were left without either furniture or inhabitants. Those withinthe walls were almost equally busy in carrying away their money and goods; and more and moreof the gentry every hour rode southward as fast as they could. At eight I preached at Gateshead, in

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a broad part of the street near the popish chapel, on the wisdom of God in governing the world.How do all things tend to the furtherance of the gospel!

All this week the alarms from the north continued, and the storm seemed nearer every day.Many wondered we would still stay without the walls: others told us we must remove quickly; forif the cannon began to play from the top of the gates, they would beat all the house about our ears.This made me look how the cannons upon the gates were planted; and I could not but adore theprovidence of God, for it was obvious 1) they were all planted in such a manner that no shot couldtouch our house; 2) the cannon on Newgate so secured us on one side, and those upon PilgrimStreet gate on the other that none could come near our house, either way, without being torn inpieces.

On Friday and Saturday many messengers of lies terrified the poor people of the town, as if therebels were just coming to swallow them up. Upon this the guards were increased and abundanceof country gentlemen came in, with their servants, horses, and arms. Among those who came fromthe north was one whom the mayor ordered to be apprehended on suspicion of his being a spy. Assoon as he was left alone he cut his own throat; but a surgeon, coming quickly, sewed up the wound,so that he lived to discover those designs of the rebels, which were thereby effectually prevented.

Sunday, 29.—Advice came that they were in full march southward, so that it was supposedthey would reach Newcastle by Monday evening. At eight I called on a multitude of sinners inGateshead to seek the Lord while He might be found. Mr. Ellison preached another earnest sermon,and all the people seemed to bend before the Lord. In the afternoon I expounded part of the lessonfor the day—Jacob wrestling with the angel. The congregation was so moved that I began againand again and knew not how to conclude. And we cried mightily to God to send his Majesty KingGeorge help from His holy place and to spare a sinful land yet a little longer, if haply they mightknow the day of their visitation.

The Blasphemous Troops

Tuesday, October 8.—I wrote to general Husk as follows:“A surly man came to me this evening, as he said, from you. He would not deign to come

upstairs to me, nor so much as into the house; but stood in the yard till I came, and then obligedme to go with him into the street, where he said, ‘You must pull down the battlements of yourhouse, or tomorrow the General will pull them down for you.’

“Sir, to me this is nothing. But I humbly conceive it would not be proper for this man, whoeverhe is, to behave in such a manner to any other of his Majesty’s subjects, at so critical a time as this.

“I am ready, if it may be for his Majesty’s service, to pull not only the battlements, but thehouse down; or to give up any part of it, or the whole, into your Excellency’s hands.”

Saturday, 26.—I sent Alderman Ridley the following letter:“Sir,--The fear of God, the love of my country, and the regard I have for his Majesty King

George, constrain me to write a few plain words to one who is no stranger to these principles ofaction.

“My soul has been pained day by day, even in walking the streets of Newcastle, at the senseless,shameless wickedness, the ignorant profaneness, of the poor men to whom our lives are entrusted.

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The continual cursing and swearing, the wanton blasphemy of the soldiers in general, must needsbe a torture to the sober ear, whether of a Christian or an honest infidel. Can any that either fearGod, or love their neighbor, hear this without concern? especially if they consider the interest ofour country, as well as of these unhappy men themselves. For can it be expected that God shouldbe on their side who are daily affronting Him to His face? And if God be not on their side, howlittle will either their number, or courage, or strength avail?

“Is there no man that careth for these souls? Doubtless there are some who ought so to do. Butmany of these, if I am rightly informed, receive large pay and do just nothing.

“I would to God it were in my power, in any degree, to supply their lack of service. I am readyto do what in me lies to call these poor sinners to repentance, once or twice a day (while I remainin these parts), at any hour, or at any place. And I desire no pay at all for doing this; unless whatmy Lord shall give at His appearing.

* * * *Having myself no knowledge of the General, I took the liberty to make this offer to you. I have

no interest herein; but I should rejoice to serve, as I am able, my King and country. If it be judgedthat this will be of no real service, let the proposal die and be forgotten. But I beg you, Sir, to believethat I have the same glorious cause, for which you have shown so becoming a zeal, earnestly atheart; and that therefore I am, with warm respect,

“Sir,“Your most obedient servant.”Sunday, 27.—I received a message from Mr. Ridley that he would communicate my proposal

to the General and return me his answer as soon as possible.Having now delivered my own soul, on Monday, November 4, I left Newcastle. Before nine

we met several expresses, sent to countermand the march of the army into Scotland; and to informthem that the rebels had passed the Tweed and were marching southward.

Bonfires Everywhere

Tuesday, 5.—In the evening I came to Leeds and found the town full of bonfires, and peopleshouting, firing guns, cursing and swearing, as the English manner of keeping holidays is. Iimmediately sent word to some of the magistrates of what I had heard on the road. This ran throughthe town, as it were, in an instant: and I hope it was a token for good. The hurry in the streets wasquashed at once—some of the bonfires indeed remained; but scarcely anyone was to be seen aboutthem but a few children warming their hands.

Thursday, 7.—I rode to Stayley Hall, in Cheshire, after many interruptions in the way by thosepoor tools of watchmen, who stood with great solemnity at the end of almost every village. Ipreached there on Mark 1:15, and rode on to Bradbury Green.

Friday, 8.—Understanding that a neighboring gentleman, Dr. C., had affirmed to many thatMr. Wesley was now with the Pretender, near Edinburgh, I wrote him a few lines. It may be hewill have a little more regard to truth, or shame, for the time to come.

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Chapter 7. Severe Weather; Ireland; Wesley's Protest against Lawlessness

Wesley and Faith-healing

1746. Monday, March 17.—I took my leave of Newcastle and set out with Mr. Downes andMr. Shepherd. But when we came to Smeton, Mr. Downes was so ill that he could go no further.When Mr. Shepherd and I left Smeton, my horse was so exceedingly lame that I was afraid I musthave lain by too. We could not discern what it was that was amiss; and yet he would scarcely sethis foot to the ground. By riding thus seven miles, I was thoroughly tired, and my head ached morethan it had done for some months. (What I here aver is the naked fact: let every man account for itas he sees good.) I then thought, “Cannot God heal either man or beast, by any means, or withoutany?” Immediately my weariness and headache ceased, and my horse’s lameness in the sameinstant. Nor did he halt any more either that day or the next. A very odd accident this also!

Friday, May 30 (Bristol).—I lit upon a poor, pretty, fluttering thing, lately come from Irelandand going to be a singer at the playhouse. She went in the evening to the chapel, and thence to thewatch night, and was almost persuaded to be a Christian. Her convictions continued strong for afew days; but then her old acquaintance found her, and we saw her no more.

Sunday, July 6 (London).—After talking largely with both the men and women leaders, weagreed it would prevent great expense, as well of health as of time and of money, if the poorerpeople of our society could be persuaded to leave off drinking of tea. We resolved ourselves tobegin and set the example. I expected some difficulty in breaking off a custom of six-and-twentyyears’ standing. And, accordingly, the three first days my head ached more or less all day long,and I was half asleep from morning till night. The third day, on Wednesday, in the afternoon, mymemory failed almost entirely. In the evening I sought my remedy in prayer. On Thursday morningmy headache was gone. My memory was as strong as ever. And I have found no inconvenience,but a sensible benefit in several respects, from that very day to this.

Thursday, 17.—I finished the little collection which I had made among my friends for alending-stock: it did not amount to thirty pounds; which a few persons afterwards made up fifty.And by this inconsiderable sum, above two hundred and fifty persons were relieved in one year.

Wesley Encounters Severe Weather

1747. Tuesday, February 10 (London).—My brother returned from the north, and I preparedto supply his place there. Sunday, 15. I was very weak and faint; but on Monday, 16, I rose soonafter three, lively and strong, and found all my complaints were fled away like a dream.

I was wondering, the day before, at the mildness of the weather; such as seldom attends me inmy journeys. But my wonder now ceased: the wind was turned full north and blew so exceedinglyhard and keen that when we came to Hatfield, neither my companions nor I had much use of ourhands or feet. After resting an hour, we bore up again through the wind and snow, which drove fullin our faces. But this was only a squall. In Baldock Field the storm began in earnest. The large hail

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drove so vehemently in our faces that we could not see, nor hardly breathe. However, before twoo’clock we reached Baldock where one met and conducted us safe to Potten.

About six I preached to a serious congregation. Tuesday, 17. We set out as soon as it was welllight; but it was really hard work to get forward; for the frost would not well bear or break; and theuntracked snow covering all the roads, we had much ado to keep our horses on their feet. Meantimethe wind rose higher and higher till it was ready to overturn both man and beast. However, after ashort bait at Bugden, we pushed on and were met in the middle of an open field with so violent astorm of rain and hail as we had not had before. It drove through our coats, great and small, boots,and everything, and yet froze as it fell, even upon our eye-brows; so that we had scarcely eitherstrength or motion left when we came into our inn at Stilton.

We now gave up our hopes of reaching Grantham, the snow falling faster and faster. However,we took the advantage of a fair blast to set out and made the best of our way to Stamford Heath.But here a new difficulty arose, from the snow lying in large drifts. Sometimes horse and man werewell-nigh swallowed up. Yet in less than an hour we were brought safe to Stamford. Being willingto get as far as we could, we made but a short stop here; and about sunset came, cold and weary,yet well, to a little town called Brig-casterton.

Wednesday, 18.—Our servant came up and said, “Sir, there is no traveling today. Such a quantityof snow has fallen in the night that the roads are quite filled up.” I told him, “At least we can walktwenty miles a day, with our horses in our hands.” So in the name of God we set out. The northeastwind was piercing as a sword and had driven the snow into such uneven heaps that the main roadwas impassable. However, we kept on, afoot or on horseback, till we came to the White Lion atGrantham.

Some from Grimsby had appointed to meet us here; but not hearing anything of them (for theywere at another house, by mistake), after an hour’s rest we set out straight for Epworth. On theroad we overtook a clergyman and his servant; but the toothache quite shut my mouth. We reachedNewark about five.

Preaching to the Lead Miners

Tuesday, March 24.—I rode to Blanchland, about twenty miles from Newcastle. The roughmountains round about were still white with snow. In the midst of them is a small winding valley,through which the Derwent runs. On the edge of this the little town stands, which is indeed littlemore than a heap of ruins. There seems to have been a large cathedral church, by the vast wallswhich still remain. I stood in the churchyard, under one side of the building, upon a large tombstone,round which, while I was at prayers, all the congregation kneeled down on the grass. They weregathered out of the lead mines from all parts; many from Allandale, six miles off. A row of littlechildren sat under the opposite wall, all quiet and still. The whole congregation drank in every wordwith such earnestness in their looks I could not but hope that God will make this wilderness singfor joy.

Wednesday, June 24.—We rode (from Bristol) to Beercrocomb, hoping to reach Tavistock thenext day. So we set out at three. The rain began at four. We reached Colestock, dripping wet, beforeseven. The rain ceased while we were in the house, but began when we took horse and attended us

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all the way to Exeter. While we stayed here to dry our clothes, I took the opportunity of writing“A Word to a Freeholder.” Soon after three we set out: but it was near eight before we could reachOakhampton.

Friday, 26.—We came to Tavistock before noon; but it being market-day, I did not preach tillfive in the evening. The rain began almost as soon as we began singing and drove many out of thefield. After preaching (leaving Mr. Swindells there) I went on for Plymouth Dock.

How Wesley Dealt with a Mob

Within two miles of Plymouth, one overtook and informed us that the night before all the Dockwas in an uproar; and a constable, endeavoring to keep the peace, was beaten and much hurt. Aswe were entering the Dock, one met us and desired we would go the back way: “For,” said he,“there are thousands of people waiting about Mr. Hide’s door.” We rode up straight into the midstof them. They saluted us with three huzzas; after which I alighted, took several of them by the handand began to talk with them. I would gladly have passed an hour among them; and believe, if I had,there had been an end of the riot. But the day being far spent (for it was past nine o’clock), I waspersuaded to go in. The mob then recovered their spirits and fought valiantly with the doors andwindows: but about ten they were weary and went every man to his own home.

Saturday, 27.—I preached at four and then spoke severally to part of the society. As yet I havefound only one person among them who knew the love of God, before my brother came. No wonderthe devil was so still; for his goods were in peace.

About six in the evening, I went to the place where I preached the last year. A little before wehad ended the hymn, came the Lieutenant, a famous man, with his retinue of soldiers, drummers,and mob. When the drums ceased, a gentleman barber began to speak: but his voice was quicklydrowned in the shouts of the multitude, who grew fiercer and fiercer as their numbers increased.After waiting about a quarter of an hour, perceiving the violence of the rabble still increasing, Iwalked down into the thickest of them and took the captain of the mob by the hand. He immediatelysaid, “Sir, I will see you safe home. Sir, no man shall touch you. Gentlemen, stand off: give back.I will knock the first man down that touches him.” We walked on in great peace, my conductorevery now and then stretching out his neck (he was a very tall man) and looking round to see if anybehaved rudely, till we came to Mr. Hide’s door. We then parted in much love. I stayed in the streetnearly half an hour after he was gone, talking with the people, who had now forgotten their angerand went away in high good humor.

Sunday, 28.—I preached at five, on the Common, to a well-behaved, earnest congregation: andat eight near the room on “Seek ye the Lord, while he may be found” [Isa. 55:6]. The congregationwas much larger than before and equally serious and attentive. At ten I went to church. Mr. Barlowpreached a useful sermon on “God be merciful to me a sinner” [Luke 18:13]; and a thundering onein the afternoon, on, “Where their worm dieth not, and the fire is not quenched”[Mark 9:44].

Monday, 29.—I took horse between three and four and reached Perranwell, three miles beyondTruro, about six. I preached to a very large congregation at seven; and the word was as the rain onthe tender herb.

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Tuesday, 30.—We came to St. Ives before morning prayers, and walked to church without somuch as one huzza. How strangely has one year changed the scene in Cornwall! This is now apeaceable, nay, honorable station. They give us good words almost in every place. What have wedone that the world should be so civil to us?

Wednesday, July 1.—I spoke severally to all those who had votes in the ensuing election. Ifound them such as I desired. Not one would even eat or drink at the expense of him for whom hevoted. Five guineas had been given to W. C., but he returned them immediately. T. M. positivelyrefused to accept anything. And when he heard that his mother had received money privately, hecould not rest till she gave him the three guineas, which he instantly sent back.

Thursday 2, was the day of election for Parliament men. It was begun and ended without anyhurry at all. I had a large congregation in the evening, among whom two or three roared for thedisquietness of their heart, as did many at the meeting which followed; particularly those who hadlost their first love.

Thursday, August 13 (Dublin).—We walked in the afternoon to see two persons that were sicknear Phoenix park. That part of it which joins to the city is sprinkled up and down with trees, notunlike Hyde Park. But about a mile from the town is a thick grove of old, tall oaks; and in the centerof this, a round, open green (from which are vistas of all four ways), with a handsome stone pillarin the midst, having a Phoenix on the top.

I continued preaching, morning and evening, to many more than the house would contain, andhad more and more reason to hope they would not all be unfruitful hearers.

Sunday, September 27 (London).—I preached in Moorfields, morning and evening, and continuedso to do till November. I know no church in London (that in West Street excepted) where there isso serious a congregation.

Monday, 28.—I talked with one who, a little time before, was so overwhelmed with afflictionthat she went out one night to put an end to it all by throwing herself into the New River. As shewent by the Foundry (it being a watch night), she heard some people singing. She stopped and wentin; she listened awhile, and God spoke to her heart. She had no more desire to put an end to herlife, but to die to sin and to live to God.

The Bargemen and their Clubs

Monday, November 2.—I preached at Windsor at noon and in the afternoon rode to Reading.Mr. J. R. had just sent his brother word that he had hired a mob to pull down his preaching housethat night. In the evening Mr. S. Richards overtook a large company of bargemen walking towardit, whom he immediately accosted and asked if they would go with him and hear a good sermon;telling them, “I will make room for you, if you were as many more.” They said they would go withall their hearts. “But neighbors,” said, he, “would it not be as well to leave those clubs behind you?Perhaps some of the women may be frightened at them.” They threw them all away and walkedquietly with him to the house where he set them in a pew.

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In the conclusion of my sermon, one of them who used to be their captain, being a head tallerthat 15 his fellows, rose up and looking round the congregation, said, “The gentleman says nothingbut what is good; I say so; and there is not a man here that shall dare to say otherwise.”

Remarkable Accident to Wesley

1748. Thursday, January 28.—I set out for Deverel Longbridge. About ten o’clock we weremet by a loaded wagon, in a deep, hollow way. There was a narrow path between the road and thebank: I stepped into this, and John Trembath followed me. When the wagon came near, my horsebegan to rear and to attempt climbing up the bank. This frightened the horse which was close behindand made him prance and throw his head to and fro, till the bit of the bridle caught hold of the capeof my great coat and pulled me backwards off my horse. I fell as exactly on the path, between thewagon and the bank, as if one had taken me in his arms and laid me down there. Both our horsesstood stock still, one just behind me, the other before; so, by the blessing of God, I rose unhurt,mounted again, and rode on.

Saturday, February 6.—I preached at eight in the morning at Bath and in the evening at Coleford.The colliers of this place were “darkness” indeed; but now they are “light in the Lord.”

Tuesday, 9.—I met about sixty of the society in Bristol to consult about enlarging the room;and indeed securing it, for there was no small danger of its falling upon our heads. In two or threedays, two hundred and thirty pounds were subscribed. We immediately procured experiencedbuilders to make an estimate of the expense; and I appointed five stewards (besides those of thesociety) to superintend the work.

Friday, 12.—After preaching at Oakhill about noon, I rode to Shepton and found them all undera strange consternation. A mob, they said, was hired, prepared, and made sufficiently drunk, inorder to do all manner of mischief. I began preaching between four and five; none hindered orinterrupted at all. We had a blessed opportunity, and the hearts of many were exceedingly comforted.I wondered what was become of the mob. But we were quickly informed: they mistook the place,imagining I should alight (as I used to do) at William Stone’s house, and had summoned, by drum,all their forces together to meet me at my coming: but Mr. Swindells innocently carrying me to theother end of the town, they did not find their mistake till I had done preaching: so that the hinderingthis, which was one of their designs, was utterly disappointed.

However, they attended us from the preaching house to William Stone’s, throwing dirt, stones,and clods in abundance; but they could not hurt us. Only Mr. Swindells had a little dirt on his coat,and I a few specks on my hat.

A Shower of Stones

15 Correct to the text

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After we were gong into the house, they began throwing great stones, in order to break the door.But perceiving this would require some time, they dropped that design for the present. They firstbroke all the tiles on the penthouse over the door and then poured in a shower of stones at thewindows. One of their captains, in his great zeal, had followed us into the house and was now shutin with us. He did not like this and would fain have got out; but it was not possible; so he kept asclose to me as he could, thinking himself safe when he was near me: but, staying a littlebehind—when I went up two pair of stairs and stood close on one side, where we were a littlesheltered—a large stone struck him on the forehead, and the blood spouted out like a stream. Hecried out, “O sir, are we to die tonight? What must I do? What must I do?” I said, “Pray to God.He is able to deliver you from all danger.” He took my advice and began praying in such a manneras he had scarcely done ever since he was born.

Mr. Swindells and I then went to prayer; after which I told him, “We must not stay here; wemust go down immediately.” He said, “Sir, we cannot stir; you see how the stones fly about.” Iwalked straight through the room and down the stairs; and not a stone came in, till we were at thebottom. The mob had just broken open the door when we came into the lower room; and exactlywhile they burst in at one door, we walked out at the other. Nor did one man take any notice of us,though we were within five yards of each other.

A Horrible Proposition

They filled the house at once and proposed setting it on fire. But one of them, happening toremember that his own house was next, with much ado persuaded them not to do it. Hearing oneof them cry out, “They are gone over the grounds,” I thought the advice was good; so we went overthe grounds to the farther end of the town where Abraham Jenkins waited and undertook to guideus to Oakhill.

I was riding on in Shepton Lane, it being now quite dark, when he cried out, “Come down:come down from the bank.” I did as I was bidden; but the bank being high, and the side very nearlyperpendicular, I came down all at once, my horse and I tumbling one over another. But we bothrose unhurt.

Saturday, April 9.—I preached in Connaught, a few miles from Athlone. Many heard; but, Idoubt, felt nothing.

The Shannon comes within a mile of the house where I preached. I think there is not suchanother river in Europe: it is here ten or twelve miles over, though scarcely thirty miles from itsfountain-head. There are many islands in it, once well inhabited, but now mostly desolate. In almostevery one is the ruins of a church: in one, the remains of no less than seven. I fear God hath still acontroversy with this land, because it is defiled with blood.

Incidents in Ireland

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Sunday, 10 (Easter day).—Never was such a congregation seen before at the sacrament inAthlone. I preached at three. Abundance of Papists flocked to hear; so that the priest, seeing hiscommand did not avail, came in person at six and drove them away before him like a flock of sheep.

Tuesday, 12.—I rode to Clara, where I was quickly informed that there was to begin in an hour’stime a famous co*ckfight, to which almost all the country was coming from every side. Hoping toengage some part of them in a better employ, I began preaching in the street, as soon as possible.One or two hundred stopped, and listened a while, and pulled off their hats, and forgot their diversion.

The congregation at Tullamore in the evening was larger than ever before, and deep attentionsat on every face. Toward the latter end of the sermon, there began a violent storm of hail. I desiredthe people to cover their heads; but the greater part of them would not; nor did anyone go away tillI concluded my discourse.

Friday, 15.—I rode to Edinderry. Abundance of people were quickly gathered together. Havingbeen disturbed in the night by Mr. Swindells, who lay with me and had a kind of apoplectic fit, Iwas not at all well about noon when I began to preach, in a large walk, on one side of the town; thesun shone hot upon my head, which had been aching all the day; but I forgot this before I hadspoken long; and when I had finished my discourse, I left all my weariness and pain behind androde on in perfect health to Dublin.

Saturday, 23.—I read, some hours, an extremely dull book, Sir James Ware’s Antiquities ofIreland. By the vast number of ruins which are seen in all parts, I had always suspected what hesows at large, namely, that in ancient times it was more populous, tenfold, than it is now; manythat were large cities being now ruinous heaps; many shrunk into inconsiderable villages.

I visited one in the afternoon who was ill of a fever, and lay in a very close room. While I wasnear him, I found myself not well. After my return home, I felt my stomach out of order. But Iimagined it was not worth any notice and would pass off before the morning.

Wesley Lives on Apple-tea

Sunday, 24.—I preached at Skinner’s Alley at five; and on Oxmantown Green at eight. I wasweak in body, but was greatly revived by the seriousness and earnestness of the congregation.Resolving to improve the opportunity, I gave notice of preaching there again in the afternoon; whichI did to a congregation much more numerous and equally attentive. As I came home I was glad tolie down, having a quinsy attended with a fever. However, when the society met, I made a shift tocreep in among them. Immediately my voice was restored. I spoke without pain for nearly an hourtogether. And great was our rejoicing over each other; knowing that God would order all thingswell.

Monday, 25.—Finding my fever greatly increased, I judged it would be best to keep my bedand to live awhile on apples and apple-tea. On Tuesday I was quite well and should have preachedbut that Dr. Rutty (who had been with me twice) insisted on my resting for a time.

I read today what is accounted the most correct history of St. Patrick that is extant; and, on thematurest consideration, I was much inclined to believe that St. Patrick and St. George were of onefamily. The whole story smells strong of romance.

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A Determined Preacher

Thursday, 28, was the day fixed for my going into the country: but all about me began to cryout, “Sure, you will not go today? See how the rain pours down!” I told them, “I must keep myword, if possible.” But before five, the man of whom I had bespoken a horse sent word that hishorse should not go out in such a day. I sent one who brought him to a better mind. So about sixI took horse. About nine I called at Killco*ck.

Between one and two we came to Kinnegad. My strength was now pretty well exhausted; sothat when we mounted again, after resting an hour, it was as much as I could do to sit my horse.We had nearly eleven Irish (measured) miles to ride, which are equal to fourteen English. I gotover them pretty well in three hours, and by six reached Tyrrel’s Pass.

At seven I recovered my strength so as to preach and meet the society, which began now to beat a stand with regard to number, but not with regard to the grace of God.

Friday, 29.—I rode to Temple Maqueteer and thence toward Athlone. We came at least an hourbefore we were expected. Nevertheless we were met by many of our brethren. The first I saw, abouttwo miles from the town, were a dozen little boys running with all their might, some bare-headed,some bare-footed and bare-legged: so they had their desire of speaking to me first, the others beingstill behind.

Zealous Protestants

Tuesday, May 3.—I rode to Birr, twenty miles from Atlone and, the key of the session housenot being to be found, declared "The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ" in the street, to a dull, rude,senseless multitude. Many laughed the greater part of the time. Some went away just in the middleof a sentence. And yet when one cried out (a Carmelite friar, clerk to the priest), “You lie! Youlie!” the zealous Protestants cried out, “Knock him down”; and it was not sooner said than done. Isaw some bustle, but knew not what was the matter, till the whole was over.

In the evening we rode to Balliboy. There being no house that could contain the congregation,I preached here also in the street. I was afraid, in a new place, there would be but few in the morning;but there was a considerable number, and such a blessing as I had scarcely found since I landed inIreland.

Sunday, 15 (Dublin).—Finding my strength greatly restored, I preached at five and at eight onOxmantown Green. I expected to sail as soon as I had done; but the captain’s putting it off (as theirmanner is) gave me an opportunity of declaring the gospel of peace to a still larger congregationin the evening. One of them, after listening some time, cried out, shaking his head, “Ay, he is aJesuit; that’s plain.” To which a popish priest who happened to be near replied aloud, “No, he isnot; I would to God he was.”

Monday, 16.—Observing a large congregation in the evening and many strangers among them,I preached more roughly than ever I had done in Dublin on those awful words, “What shall it profita man, if he shall gain the whole world, and lose his own soul?” [Mark 8:37]

Wednesday, 18.—We took ship. The wind was small in the afternoon, but exceedingly hightoward night. About eight I laid me down on the quarterdeck. I was soon wet from head to foot,

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but I took no cold at all. About four in the morning we landed at Holyhead and in the eveningreached Carnarvon.

Friday, August 12.—In riding to Newcastle, I finished the tenth Iliad of Homer. What an amazinggenius had this man! To write with such strength of thought and beauty of expression when he hadnone to go before him! And what a vein of piety runs through his whole work, in spite of his paganprejudices! Yet one cannot but observe such improprieties intermixed as are shocking to the lastdegree.

Wesley Protests Against Lawlessness

Thursday, 25.—I rode with Mr. Grimshaw to Roughlee. At half-hour after twelve I began topreach. I had about half finished my discourse when the mob came pouring down the hill like atorrent. After exchanging a few words with their captain, to prevent any contest I went with himas he required. When we came to Barrowford, two miles off, the whole army drew up in battlearray before the house into which I was carried with two or three of my friends. After I had beendetained above an hour, their captain went out, and I followed him and desired him to conduct mewhence I came. He said he would; but the mob soon followed after; at which he was so enragedthat he must needs turn back to fight them, and so left me alone.

A further account is contained in the following letter, which I wrote the next morning—Widdop, Aug. 26, 1748“Sir,--Yesterday between twelve and one o’clock, while I was speaking to some quiet people

without any noise or tumult, a drunken rabble came with clubs and staves, in a tumultuous andriotous manner, the captain of whom, Richard B., by name, said he was a deputy-constable andthat he was come to bring me to you. I went with him; but I had scarcely gone ten yards when aman of his company struck me with his fist in the face with all his might; quickly after, anotherthrew his stick at my head: I then made a little stand; but another of your champions, cursing andswearing in the most shocking manner and flourishing his club over his head, cried out, ‘Bring himaway!’

“With such convoy I walked to Barrowford, where they informed me you were, their drummergoing before to draw all the rabble together from all quarters.

“When your deputy had brought me into the house, he permitted Mr. Grimshaw, the ministerof Haworth, Mr. Colbeck, of Keighley, and one more, to be with me, promising that none shouldhurt them. Soon after you and your friends came in and required me to promise I would come toRoughlee no more. I told you I would sooner cut off my hand than make any such promise; neitherwould I promise that none of my friends should come. After abundance of rambling discourse (forI could keep none of you long to any one point), from about one o’clock till between three and four(in which one of you frankly said, ‘No; we will not be like Gamaliel, we will proceed like theJews’), you seemed a little satisfied with my saying, ‘I will not preach at Roughlee at this time.’You then undertook to quiet the mob to whom you went and spoke a few rods, and their noiseimmediately ceased. I then walked out with you at the back door.

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Beaten by the Mob

“I should have mentioned that I had several times before desired you to let me go, but in vain;and that when I attempted to go with Richard B., the mob immediately followed, with oaths, curses,and stones; that one of them beat me down to the ground; and when I rose again, the whole bodycame about me like lions and forced me back into the house.

“While you and I went out at one door, Mr. Grimshaw and Mr. Colbeck went out at the other.The mob immediately closed them in, tossing them to and fro with the utmost violence, threw Mr.Grimshaw down, and loaded them both with dirt and mire of every kind; not one of your friendsoffering to call off your bloodhounds from the pursuit.

“The other quiet, harmless people, who followed me at a distance to see what the end wouldbe, they treated still worse; not only by the connivance, but by the express order, of your deputy.They made them run for their lives, amidst showers of dirt and stones, without any regard to ageor sex. Some of them they trampled in the mire and dragged by their hair, particularly Mr. Mackford,who came with me from Newcastle. Many they beat with their clubs without mercy. One theyforced to leap down (or they would have thrown him headlong) from a rock, ten or twelve feethigh, into the river. And when he crawled out, wet and bruised, they swore they would throw himin again, which they were hardly persuaded not to do. All this time you sat well pleased close tothe place, not attempting in the least to hinder them.

“And all this time you were talking of justice and law! Alas, Sir, suppose we were Dissenters(which I deny), suppose we were Jews or Turks, are we not to have the benefit of the laws of ourcountry? Proceed against us by the law, if you can or dare; but not by lawless violence; not bymaking a drunken, cursing, swearing riotous mob both judge, jury, and executioner. This is flatrebellion against God and the King, as you may possibly find out to your cost.”

Defending Field Preaching

Between four and five we set out from Roughlee. But observing several parties of men uponthe hills and suspecting their design, we put on and passed the lane they were making for beforethey came. One of our brothers, not riding so fast, was intercepted by them. They immediatelyknocked him down, and how it was that he got from among them he knew not.

Before seven we reached Widdop. The news of what had passed at Barrowford made us allfriends. The person in whose house Mr. B. preached, sent and begged I would preach there; whichI did at eight, to such a congregation as none could have expected on so short a warning. He invitedus also to lodge at his house, and all jealousies vanished away.

Sunday, 28.—I was invited by Mr. U., the minister of Goodshaw, to preach in his church. Ibegan reading prayers at seven; but perceiving the church would scarcely contain half of thecongregation, after prayers I went out, and standing on the churchyard wall, in a place shaded fromthe sun, explained and enforced those words in the second lesson, “Almost thou persuadest me tobe a Christian” [Acts 26:38].

I wonder at those who still talk so loud of the indecency of field-preaching. The highest indecencyis in St. Paul’s Church, when a considerable part of the congregation are asleep, or talking, or

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looking about, not minding a word the preacher says. On the other hand, there is the highest decencyin a churchyard or field, when the whole congregation behave and look as if they saw the Judge ofall and heard Him speaking from heaven.

Three Remarkable Shots with Stones

At one I went to the Cross in Bolton. There was a vast number of people, but many of themutterly wild. As soon as I began speaking, they began thrusting to and fro, endeavoring to throwme down from the steps on which I stood. They did so once or twice; but I went up again andcontinued my discourse. They then began to throw stones; at the same time some got upon theCross behind me to push me down; on which I could not but observe how God overrules even theminutest circ*mstances. One man was bawling just at my ear, when a stone struck him on the cheekand he was still. A second was forcing his way down to me till another stone hit him on the forehead;it bounded back, the blood ran down, and he came no farther. The third, being close to me stretchedout his hand, and in the instant a sharp stone came upon the joints of his fingers. He shook his handand was very quiet till I concluded my discourse and went away.

Saturday, October 22.—I spent an hour in observing the various works of God in the PhysicGarden at Chelsea. It would be a noble improvement of the design if some able and industriousperson were to make a full and accurate inquiry into the use and virtues of all these plants: withoutthis, what end does the heaping them thus together answer, but the gratifying an idle curiosity?

Monday, November 21.—I set out for Leigh, in Essex. It had rained hard in the former part ofthe night and was succeeded by a sharp frost, so that most of the road was like glass; and thenortheast wind set just in our face. However, we reached Leigh by four in the afternoon. Here wasonce a deep open harbor; but the sands have long since blocked it up and reduced a once flourishingtown to a small ruinous village. I preached to most of the inhabitants of the place in the evening;to many in the morning, and then rode back to London.

Chapter 8. Wesley and the Soldiers; In Ireland and Wales Again; WesleyBurned in Effigy; Wesley as an Editor

Wesley in Wales

1749. Monday, April 3.--I set out for Ireland. We waited more than four hours at the passage;by which delay, I was forced to disappoint a large congregation at Newport. About three I came toPedras, near Carphilly. The congregation had waited some hours, I began immediately, wet andweary as I was; and we rejoiced over all our labors.

In the evening and next morning (Tuesday, 4) I preached at Cardiff. Oh, what a fair prospectwas here some years ago!. Surely this whole town would have known God, from the least even to

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the greatest, had it not been for men leaning to their own understanding instead of to "the law andthe testimony."

At twelve I preached at Lanmais, to a loving, earnest people, who do not desire to be any wiserthan God. In the evening I preached at Fonmon, the next morning at Cowbridge. How is the scenechanged since I was here last, amidst the madness of the people and the stone flying on every side!Now all is calm; the whole town is in good humor, and they flock to hear the glad tidings of salvation.In the evening I preached at Lantrissent.

Thursday, 6.--We rode to a hard-named place on the top of a mountain. I scarcely saw anyhouse near: however, a large number of honest, simple people soon came together. But few couldunderstand me, so Henry Lloyd, when I had done, repeated the substance of my sermon in Welsh.The behavior of the people recompensed us for our labor in climbing up to them.

Marries his Brother

About noon we came to Aberdare, just as the bell was ringing for a burial. This had brought agreat number together, to whom, after the burial, I preached in the church. We had almost continuedrain from Aberdare to the great rough mountain that hangs over the vale of Brecknock; but as soonas we gained the top of this, we left the clouds behind us. We had a mild, fair sunshiny evening theremainder of our journey.

Friday, 7.--We reached Garth. Saturday, 8. I married my brother and Sarah Gwynne. It was asolemn day, such as becomes the dignity of a Christian marriage.

Wednesday, 12.--We came to Holyhead between one and two. But all the ships were on theIrish side. One came in the next day, but could not go out, the wind being quite contrary. In thisjourney I read over Statius's Thebais. I wonder one man should write so well and so ill. Sometimeshe is scarcely inferior to Virgil; sometimes as low as the dullest parts of Ovid.

In the evening I preached on "Be ye also ready" [Matt. 24:44]. The poor people now seemedto be much affected and equally so the next night: so that I was not sorry that the wind was contrary.

Saturday, 15--We went on board; at six, the wind then standing due east. But no sooner werewe out of the harbor than it turned southwest and blew a storm. Yet we made forward, and aboutone o'clock came within two or three leagues of land. The wind then wholly failed; a calm suddenlyfollowing a storm produced such a motion as I never felt before. But it was not long before thewind sprang up west, which obliged us to stand away for the Skerries. When we wanted a leagueof shore it fell calm again, so that there we rolled about till past sunset.

But in the night we got back into Dublin Bay and landed soon after three at Dunleary, aboutseven English miles from the city. Leaving William Tucker to follow me in a chaise, I walkedstraight away and came to Skinner's Alley a little before the time of preaching. I preached on"Beloved, if God so loved us, we ought also to love one another" [I John 4:11]. In the afternoonand again in the evening (in our own garden), I preached on "Let us come boldly unto the throneof grace, that we may obtain mercy, and find grace to help in time of need" [Heb. 7:25].

On Thursday and Friday I examined the classes and was much comforted among them. I leftabout four hundred in the society; and, after all the stumbling-blocks laid in the way, I found fourhundred and forty-nine.

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Monday, 24.--The cold which I had had for some days growing worse and worse, and theswelling which began in my cheek increasing greatly and paining me much, I sent for Dr. Rutty.But, in the meantime, I applied boiled nettles, which took away the pain in a moment. AfterwardI used warm treacle, which so abated the swelling that before the doctor came I was almost well.However, he advised me not to go out that day. But I had appointed to read the letters in the evening,I returned home as early as I could and found no inconvenience.

Methodists Lease an Abbey

Friday, May 12.--Before nine we came to Nenagh. I had no design to preach; but one of thedragoons quartered there, would take no denial; so I ordered a chair to be carried out and went tothe market place. Presently such a congregation was gathered round me as I had not seen since Ileft Athlone. To these I spake, as l was able, the whole counsel of God, and then rode cheerfullyon to Limerick.

Between six and seven I preached at Mardyke (an open place without the walls) to about twothousand people; not one of whom I observed either to laugh, or to look about, or to mind anythingbut the sermon.

Some years since, an old abbey here was; rebuilt with a design to have public service therein.But that design failing, only the shell of it was finished. Of this (lying useless) the society has takena lease. Here I preached in the morning, Saturday, 13, to six or seven hundred people.

We then went to prayers at the cathedral, an ancient and venerable pile. In the afternoon I walkedround the walls of the town, scarcely so large as Newcastle-upon-Tyne. And the fortifications aremuch in the same repair; very sufficient to keep out the wild Irish.

14.--(Being Whit-Sunday). Our church was more than full in the morning, many being obligedto stand without. I hardly knew how the time went, but continued speaking till near seven o'clock.I went at eleven to the cathedral. I had been informed it was a custom here, for the gentry especially,to laugh and talk all the time of divine service; but I saw nothing of it. The whole congregation,rich and poor, behaved suitably to the occasion.

In the evening I preached to a numerous congregation on "If any man thirst, let him come untome and drink" [John 7:37]. We afterward met the society. Six or seven prisoners of hope were setat liberty this day.

Monday, 15.--A company of revelers and dancers had in the afternoon taken possession of theplace where I used to preach. Some advised me to go to another place; but I knew it needed not.As soon as ever I came in sight, the holiday mob vanished away.

Wesley and the Soldiers' Class

Wednesday, 17.--I met the class of soldiers, eight of whom were Scotch Highlanders. Most ofthese were brought up well; but evil communications had corrupted good manners. They all said

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that from the time they entered into the army they had grown worse and worse. But God had nowgiven them another call, and they knew the day of their visitation.

Monday, 22.--The more I converse with this people, the more I am amazed. That God hathwrought a great work among them is manifest; and yet the main of them, believers and unbelievers,are not able to give a rational account of the plainest principles of religion. It is plain, God beginsHis work at the heart; then "the inspiration of the highest giveth understanding."

Wednesday, 24.--About eight, several of us took boat for Newtown, six miles from Limerick.After dinner we took boat in order to return. The wind was extremely high. We endeavored to crossover to the leeward side of the river, but it was not possible. The boat, being small and overloaded,was soon deep in water; the more so because it leaked much, and the waves washed over usfrequently; and there was no staying to empty it, all our men being obliged to row with all theirstrength. After they had toiled about an hour, the boat struck upon a rock, the point of which layjust under the water. It had four or five shocks, the wind driving us on before we could get clear.But our men wrought for life, and about six o'clock God brought us safe to Limerick.

A Ridiculous Question

Monday, June 5.--I rode to Blarney, three miles wide of Cork, where many of the society metme. I spent some time with them in exhortation and prayer, and then went on to Rathcormuck.

I was a little surprised at the acuteness of a gentlemen here, who in conversation with ColonelBarry about late occurrences, said he had heard there was a people risen up that placed all religionin wearing long whiskers; and seriously asked whether these were not the same who were calledMethodists.

Tuesday, 13--We rode over to Gloster, a beautiful seat built by an Englishman who had scarcelyfinished his house and laid out his gardens when he was called to his everlasting home, Sir L---P--- and his lady dined with us, whether coming by accident or design I know not. About five Ipreached in the stately saloon to a little company of plain, serious people, the fine ones looking onand some of them seeming to be a little affected. I expounded at Birr about seven, in the strongestmanner I could, the story of Dives and Lazarus.

Wednesday, 14.--We designed to dine at Ferbane, about twelve miles from Birr. We stoppedat the first inn in the town; but they did not care to entertain heretics; neither did the people at thesecond inn; I alighted at the third and went in, without asking any questions.

About seven I preached at Athlone. It being the time of the general review, abundance of soldiersand many officers were present. They all behaved with the utmost decency. But a gentleman of thetown did not; which had like to cost him dear. Many swords were drawn, but the officers interposed,and it went no farther.

Wednesday, July 19.--I finished the translation of Martin Luther's Life. Doubtless he was aman highly favored of God and a blessed instrument in His hand. But oh! what pity that he had nofaithful friend! None that would, at all hazards, rebuke him plainly and sharply, for his rough,untractable spirit, and bitter zeal for opinions, so greatly obstructive of the work of God!

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A Rough Voyage

Thursday, 20.--About ten at night we embarked [from Dublin] for Bristol, in a small sloop. Isoon fell asleep. When I awakened in the morning, we were many leagues from land, in a rough,pitching sea. Toward evening the wind turned more against us, so that we made little way. Aboutten we were got between the Bishop and his Clerks (the rocks so called) and the Welsh shore; thewind blew fresh from the south, so that the captain, fearing we should be driven on the rocky coaststeered back again to sea. On Saturday morning we made the Bishop and his Clerks again, and beatto and fro all the day. About eight in the evening it blew hard, and we had a rolling sea;notwithstanding which, at four on Sunday morning, we were within sight of Minehead. The greatestpart of the day we had a dead calm, but in the evening the wind sprang up and carried us intoKingroad. On Monday morning we landed at the quay in Bristol.

Tuesday, 25.--I rode over to Kingswood and inquired particularly into the state of our schoolthere. I was concerned to find that several of the rules had been habitually neglected. I judged itnecessary, therefore, to lessen the family, suffering none to remain therein who were not clearlysatisfied with them and determined to observe them all.

Wednesday, September 6.--I reached Newcastle; and after resting a day, and preaching twoevenings and two mornings, with such a blessing as we have not often found, on Friday set out tovisit the northern societies. I began with that at Morpeth, where I preached at twelve, on one sideof the market place. It was feared the market would draw the people from the sermon; but it wasjust the contrary: they quitted their stalls, and there was no buying or selling till the sermon wasconcluded.

At Alnwick likewise I stood in the market place in the evening and exhorted a numerouscongregation to be always ready for death, for judgment, for heaven. I felt what I spoke; as I believedid most that were present, both then and in the morning, while I besought them to presentthemselves, "a living sacrifice, holy, acceptable to God."

Saturday, 9.--I rode slowly forward to Berwick. I was myself much out of order; but I wouldnot lose the opportunity of calling, in the evening, all that were "weary and heavy-laden" to Himwho hath said, "I will give you rest."

Tuesday, 26.--I had a solemn and delightful ride to Keswick, having my mind stayed on God.Wednesday, 27.--I took horse at half an hour past three. There was no moon, or stars, but a

thick mist, so that I could see neither road nor anything else; but I went as right as if it had beennoon-day. When I drew nigh Penruddock Moor, the mist vanished, the stars appeared, and themorning dawned; so I imagined all the danger was past. But when I was on the middle of the moor,the mist felt again on every side and I quickly lost my way. I lifted up my heart. Immediately itcleared up and I soon recovered the high road. On Alstone Moor I missed my way again, and what,I believe, no stranger has done lately, rode through all the bogs, without any stop, till I came to thevale, and thence to Hinely Hill.

A large congregation met in the evening. I expounded part of the twentieth chapter of theRevelation. But oh, what a time was this! It was as though we were already standing before the‘great white throne.’ God was no less present with us in prayer, when one just by me cried with aloud and bitter cry. I be-sought God to give us a token that all things should work together for good.He did so: He wrote pardon upon her heart, and we all rejoiced unto Him with reverence.

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Wednesday, October 18.--I rode, at the desire of John Bennet, to Rochdale, in Lancashire. Assoon as ever we entered the town, we found the streets lined on both sides with multitudes of people,shouting, cursing, blaspheming, and gnashing upon us with their teeth. Perceiving it would not bepracticable to preach abroad, I went into a large room, open to the street, and called aloud, "Let thewicked forsake his way, and the unrighteous man his thoughts." The Word of God prevailed overthe fierceness of man. None opposed or interrupted; and there was a very remarkable change in thebehavior of the people, as we afterward went through the town.

Remarkable Scenes at Bolton

We came to Bolton about five in the evening. We had no sooner entered the main street thanwe perceived the lions at Rochdale were lambs in comparison to those at Bolton. Such rage andbitterness I scarcely ever saw before in any creatures that bore the form of men. They followed usin full cry to the house where we went; and as soon as we had gone in, took possession of all theavenues to it and filled the street from one end to the other.

After some time the waves did not roar quite so loud. Mr. P--- thought he might then ventureout. They immediately closed in, threw him down and rolled him in the mire; so that when hescrambled from them and got into the house again, one could scarcely tell what or who he was.When the first stone came among us through the window, I expected a shower to follow, and therather, because they had now procured a bell to call their whole forces together. But they did notdesign to carry on the attack at a distance: presently one ran up and told us the mob had burst intothe house: he added, that they had got J--- B--- in the midst of them. They had; and he laid hold onthe opportunity to tell them of "the terrors of the Lord."

Meantime D--- T--- engaged another part of them with smoother and softer words. Believingthe time was now come, I walked down into the thickest of them. They had now filled all the roomsbelow. I called for a chair. The winds were hushed, and all was calm and still. My heart was filledwith love, my eyes with tears, and my mouth with arguments. They were amazed; they wereashamed; they were melted down; they devoured every word. What a turn was this! Oh, how didGod change the counsel of the old Ahithophel into foolishness and bring all the drunkards, swearers,Sabbath-breakers, and mere sinners in the place, to hear of His plenteous redemption!

Thursday, 19.--Abundantly more than the house could contain were present at five in themorning, to whom I was constrained to speak a good deal longer than I am accustomed to do.Perceiving they still wanted to hear, I promised to preach again at nine, in a meadow near the town.Thither they flocked from every side; and I called aloud, "All things are ready; come unto themarriage” [Matt. 22:4]. Oh, how have a few hours changed the scene! We could now walk throughevery street of the town, and none molested or opened his mouth, unless to thank or bless us.

Wesley at Dudley and Birmingham

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On Tuesday, 24, about noon, we came to Dudley. At one I went to the market place, andproclaimed the name of the Lord to a huge, unwieldly, 16 noisy multitude; the greater part of themseemed in no wise to know "wherefore they were come together." I continued speaking about halfan hour, and many grew serious and attentive, till some of Satan's servants pressed in, raging andblaspheming, and throwing whatever came to hand. I then retired to the house from which I came.The multitude poured after and covered over with dirt many that were near me; but I had only afew specks. I preached in Wednesbury at four, to a nobler people, and was greatly comforted amongthem; so I was likewise in the morning, Wednesday, 25. How does a praying congregation strengthenthe preacher.

After preaching again at one, I rode to Birmingham. This had been long a dry, uncomfortableplace; so I expected little good here. But I was happily disappointed. Such a congregation I neversaw there before: not a scoffer, nor a trifler, not an inattentive person (so far as I could discern)among them; and seldom have I known so deep, solemn a sense of the power, and presence, andlove of God. The same blessing we had at the meeting of the society, and again at the morningpreaching. Will then God at length cause even this barren wilderness to blossom and bud as therose?

Wesley in Wales

1750. Sunday, January 28.--I read prayers (in London), and Mr. Whitefield preached. How wiseis God in giving different talents to different preachers! Even the little improprieties both of hislanguage and manner were a means of profiting many, who would not have been touched by a morecorrect discourse, or a more calm and regular manner of speaking.

Tuesday, March 6 (Bristol).--I began writing a short French grammar. We observed Wednesday,7, as a day of fasting and prayer.

Sunday, 11.--I should willingly have spent more time in Bristol, finding more and more proofsthat God was reviving His work; but the accounts I received from Ireland made me think it my dutyto be there as soon as possible; so, on Monday 19, I set out with Christopher Hopper for the NewPassage. When we came there, the wind was high and almost full against us: nevertheless we crossedin less than two hours and reached Cardiff before night, where I preached at seven and found muchrefreshment.

Tuesday, 20.--Expecting to preach at Aberdare, sixteen Welsh miles from Cardiff, I rode thitherover the mountains. But we found no notice had been given; so, after resting an hour, we set outfor Brecknock. The rain did not intermit at all till we came within sight of it. Twice my horse felldown and threw me over his head, but without any hurt either to man or beast.

Wednesday, 21.--We rode to Builth, where we found notice had been given that Howell Harriswould preach at noon. By this means a large congregation was assembled; but Howell did not come:so, at their request, I preached. Between four and five Mr. Phillips set out with us for Royader. Iwas much out of order in the morning; however, I held out to Llanidoes and then lay down. Afteran hour's sleep I was much better and rode on to Machynlleth.

16 Correct to the text.

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About an hour and a half before we came to Dolgelly, the heavy rain began. We were on thebrow of the hill, so we took all that came, our horses being able to go but half a foot-pace. But wehad amends made us at our inn: John Lewis and all his house gladly joined with us in prayer; andall we spoke to appeared willing to hear and to receive the truth in love.

Friday, 23.--Before we looked out, we heard the roaring of the wind and the beating of the rain.We took horse at five. It rained incessantly all the way we rode. And when we came on the greatmountain, four miles from the town (by which time I was wet from my neck to my waist), it waswith great difficulty I could avoid being borne over my mare's head, the wind being ready to carryus all away: nevertheless, about ten we came safe to Dannabull, praising Him who saves both manand beast.

Our horses being well tired and ourselves thoroughly wet, we rested the remainder of the day;the rather, 17 because several of the family understood English--an uncommon thing in these parts.We spoke closely to these, and they appeared much affected, particularly when we all joined inprayer.

Waiting for the Irish Boat

Saturday, 24.--We set out at five, and at six came to the sands. But the tide was in, so that wecould not pass: so I sat down in a little cottage for three or four hours and translated Aldrich's Logic.About ten we passed, and before five came to Baldon Ferry, and found the boat ready for us; butthe boatmen desired us to stay a while, saying, the wind was too high and the tide too strong. Thesecret was that they stayed for more passengers; and it was well they did: for while we were walkingto and fro, Mr. Jenkin Morgan came; at whose house, nearly halfway between the ferry and Holyhead,I had lodged three years before. The night soon came on, but our guide, knowing all the country,brought us safe to his own door.

Sunday, 25.--I preached at Howell Thomas', in Trefollwin parish, to a small, earnest congregation.The wind being contrary I accepted the invitation of an honest exciseman (Mr. Holloway) to

stay at his house till it should change. Here I was in a little, quiet, solitary spot, where no humanvoice was heard but those of the family. On Tuesday I desired Mr. Hopper to ride over to Holyheadand inquire concerning our passage. He brought word that we might probably pass in a day or two;so on Wednesday we both went thither. Here we overtook John Jane, who had set out on foot fromBristol with three shillings in his pocket. Six nights out of the seven since he set out, he had beenentertained by utter strangers. He went by us we could not tell how, and reached Holyhead onSunday, with one penny left.

By him we sent back our horses to Mr. Morgan's. I had a large congregation in the evening. Italmost grieved me that I could give them but one sermon, now they were at length willing to hear.About eleven we were called to go on board, the wind being quite fair; and so it continued till wewere just out of the harbor. It then turned west and blew a storm. There was neither moon nor stars,but rain and wind enough, so that I was soon tired of staying on deck. But we met another stormbelow: for who should be there but the famous Mr. Gr---, of Carnarvonshire a clumsy, overgrown,

17 Correct to the text.

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hard-faced man; his countenance I could only compare to that (which I saw in Drury Lane thirtyyears ago) of one of the ruffians in Macbeth. I was going to lie down when he tumbled in andpoured out such a volley of ribaldry, obscenity, and blasphemy, every second or third word beingan oath, as was scarcely ever heard at Billingsgate. Finding there was no room for me to speak, Iretired into my cabin and left him to Mr. Hopper. Soon after, one or two of his own companyinterposed and carried him back to his cabin.

Thursday, 29.--We wrought our way four or five leagues toward Ireland, but were driven backin the afternoon to the very mouth of the harbor. Nevertheless, the wind shifting one or two points,we ventured out again; and by midnight we had gotten about half seas over. But the wind thenturning full against us and blowing hard, we were driven back again and were glad, about nine, toget into the bay once more.

In the evening I was surprised to see, instead of some poor, plain people, a. room full of men,daubed with gold and silver. That I might not go out of their depth, I began expounding the storyof Dives and Lazarus. It was more applicable than I was aware, several of them (as I afterwardlearned) being eminently wicked men. I delivered my own soul; but they could in nowise bear it.One and another walked away, murmuring sorely. Four stayed till I drew to a close; they then puton their hats and began talking to one another. I mildly reproved them, on which they roseup and went away, railing and blaspheming. I had then a comfortable hour with a company of plain,honest Welshmen.

"Where Is the Parson?"

In the night there was a vehement storm. Blessed be God that we were safe on shore! Saturday,31. I determined to wait one week longer and, if we could not sail then, to go and wait for a shipat Bristol. At seven in the evening, just as I was going down to preach, I heard a huge noise andtook knowledge of the rabble of gentlemen. They had now strengthened themselves with drink andnumbers and placed Captain Gr--- (as they called him) at their head. He soon burst open both theoutward and inner door, struck old Robert Griffith, our landlord, several times, kicked his wife,and, with twenty full-mouthed oaths and curses, demanded, "Where is the parson?" Robert Griffithcame up and desired me to go into another room, where he locked me in. The captain followed himquickly, broke open one or two doors, and got on a chair to look on the top of a bed: but his footslipping (as he was not a man made for climbing), he fell down backward all his length. He roseleisurely, turned about, and with his troop, walked away.

I then went down to a small company of the poor people and spent half an hour with them inprayer. About nine, as we were preparing to go to bed, the house was beset again. The captain burstin first. Robert Griffith's daughter was standing in the passage with a pail of water, with which(whether with design or in her fright, I know not) she covered him from head to foot. He cried aswell as he could, "M-urder! Murder!" and stood very still for some moments. In the meantimeRobert Griffith stepped by him and locked the door. Finding himself alone, he began to change hisvoice and cry, "Let me out! Let me out!” Upon his giving his word and honor that none of the restshould come in, they opened the door, and all went away together.

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Wesley Interviews Mrs. Pilkington

Thursday, April 12 (Dublin).--I breakfasted with one of the society and found she had a lodgerI little thought of. It was the famous Mrs. Pilkington, who soon made an excuse for following meupstairs. I talked with her seriously about an hour; we then sang "Happy Magdalene." She appearedto be exceedingly struck how long the impression may last, God knows.

Sunday, May 20 (Cork).--Understanding the usual place of preaching would by no meanscontain those who desired to hear, about eight I went to Hammond's Marsh. The congregation waslarge and deeply attentive. A few of the rabble gathered at a distance; but by little and little theydrew near and mixed with the congregation; I have seldom seen a more quiet and orderly assemblyat any church in England or Ireland.

In the afternoon, a report being spread abroad that the mayor designed to hinder my preachingon the Marsh in the evening, I desired Mr. Skelton and Mr. Jones to wait upon him and inquireconcerning it. Mr. Skelton asked if my preaching there would be disagreeable to him, adding, "Sir,if it would, Mr. Wesley will not do it." He replied warmly, "Sir, I'll have no mobbing." Mr. Skeltonreplied, "Sir, there was none this morning." He answered, "There was. Are there not churches andmeetinghouses enough? I will have no more mobs or riots." Mr. Skelton replied, "Sir, neither Mr.Wesley nor they that heard him made either mobs or riots." He replied plainly, "I will have no morepreaching; and if Mr. Wesley attempts to preach, I am prepared for him."

I began preaching in our own house soon after five. Mr. Mayor meantime was walking in the'Change, and giving orders to the town drummers and to his sergeants--doubtless to go down andkeep the peace! They accordingly came down to the house, with an innumerable mob attendingthem. They continued drumming, and I continued preaching till I had finished my discourse. WhenI came out, the mob immediately closed me in. Observing one of the sergeants standing by, I desiredhim to keep the King's peace; but he replied, "Sir, I have no orders to do that." As soon as I cameinto the street, the rabble threw whatever came to hand; but all went by me or flew over my head;nor do I remember that one thing touched me. I walked on straight through the midst of the rabble,looking every man before me in the face; and they opened on the right and left, till I came nearDant's Bridge. A large party had taken possession of this, one of whom was bawling out, "Now,hey for the Romans!" When I came up, they likewise shrank back, and I walked through them toMr. Jenkins's house; but a Papist stood just within the door and endeavored to hinder my going tillone of the mob (I suppose aiming at me, but missing) knocked her down flat. I then went in, andGod restrained the wild beasts so that not one attempted to follow me.

But many of the congregation were more roughly handled, particularly Mr. Jones, who wascovered with dirt and escaped with his life almost by miracle. The main body of the mob then wentto the house, brought out all the seats and benches, tore up the floor, the door, the frames of thewindows, and whatever of woodwork remained; part, of which they carried off for their own use,and the rest they burned in the open street.

Finding there was no probability of their dispersing, I sent to Alderman Pembrock, whoimmediately desired Mr. Alderman Windthrop, his nephew, to go down to Mr. Jenkins, with whomI walked up the street, none giving me an unkind or disrespectful word.

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Wesley Burned in Effigy

Monday, 21.--I rode on to Bandon. From three in the afternoon till past seven, the mob of Corkmarched in grand procession and then burned me in effigy near Dant's Bridge.

Wednesday, 23.--The mob was still patrolling the streets, abusing all that were called Methodistsand threatening to murder them and pull down their houses, if they did not leave this way.

Thursday, 24.--They again assaulted Mr. Stockdale's house, broke down the boards he hadnailed up against the windows, destroyed what little remained of the windowframes and shutters,and damaged a considerable part of his goods.

Friday, 25.--One Roger O'Ferrall fixed up an advertisem*nt at the public Exchange, that he wasready to head any mob, in order to pull down any house that should dare to harbor a swaddler. (Aname given to Mr. Cennick first by a popish priest, who heard him speak of a child wrapped inswaddling clothes and probably did not know the expression was in the Bible, a book he was notmuch acquainted with.)

At this time God gave us great peace at Bandon, notwithstanding the unwearied labors, bothpublic and private, of good Dr. B ---, to stir up the people. But, Saturday, 26, many were undergreat apprehensions of what was to be done in the evening. I began preaching in the main street atthe usual hour, but to more than twice the usual congregation. After I had spoken about a quarterof an hour, a clergyman, who had planted himself near me with a very large stick in his hand,according to agreement opened the scene. (Indeed his friends assured me he was in drink, or hewould not have done it.) But, before he had uttered many words, two or three resolute women, bymain strength, pulled him into a house; and, after expostulating a little, sent him away through thegarden.

The next champion that appeared was one Mr. M---, a young gentleman of the town. He wasattended by two others with pistols in their hands. But his triumph too was but short; some of thepeople quickly bore him away, though with much gentleness and civility.

The third came on with greater fury; but he was encountered by a butcher of the town (not oneof the Methodists), who used him as he would an ox, bestowing one or two hearty blows upon hishead. This cooled his courage, especially as none took his part. So I quietly finished my discourse.

Visits to Kinsale and Cork

Monday, 28.--I rode to Kinsale, one of the pleasantest towns which I have seen in Ireland. Atseven I preached at the Exchange, to a few gentry, many poor people, and abundance of soldiers.All behaved like men that feared God. After sermon came one from Cork and informed us Mr.W--- had preached both morning and afternoon under the wall of the barracks; that the towndrummers came, but the soldiers assured them if they went to beat there they would be all cut inpieces; that then the mayor came himself at the head of his mob, but could make no considerabledisturbance; that he went and talked to the commanding officer, but with so little success that thecolonel came out and declared to the mob they must make no riot there. Here is a turn of affairsworthy of God! Doth He not rule in heaven and earth?

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Wednesday, 30.--I rode to Cork. By talking with Captain ---, I found there was no dependingon the good offices of the colonel. He had told the captain with great openness, "If Mr. Wesleypreached in the barracks, and the mob were to come and break the windows, I might have a longbill from the barrack-master." Break the windows! Nay, it is well if they had not broken the bonesof all the soldiers.

A little before five I walked towards the barracks. The boys quickly gathered, and were moreand more turbulent. But in a moment all was quiet. This, I afterward found, was owing to Mr. W---,who snatched a stick out of man's hand, and brandished it over his head, on which the whole troopvaliantly ran away.

When we came over the south bridge, a large mob gathered; but before they were well formedwe reached the barrack gate; at a small distance from which I stood and cried, "Let the wickedforsake his way." The congregation of serious people was large; the mob stood about a hundredyards off. I was a little surprised to observe that almost all the soldiers kept together in a body nearthe gate, and I knew not but the report might be true that, on a signal given, they were all to retireinto the barracks; but they never stirred until I had done. As we walked away, one or two of themfollowed us. Their numbers increased until we had seven or eight before and a whole troop of thembehind; between whom I walked, through an immense mob, to Alderman Pembrock's door.

At an Irish Funeral

Thursday, 31.--I rode to Rathcormuck. There being a great burying in the afternoon to whichpeople came from all parts, Mr. Lloyd read part of the burial service in the church; after which Ipreached on "The end of all things is at hand." I was exceedingly shocked at (what I had only heardof before) the Irish howl which followed. It was not a song, as I supposed, but a dismal, inarticulateyell, set up at the grave by four shrill-voiced women who (we understood) were hired for thatpurpose. But I saw not one that shed a tear; for that, it seems, was not in their bargain.

Wednesday, June 13.--I rode to Shronill again; and in the morning, Thursday, 14, to Clonmell.After an hours rest we set forward, but were obliged to stop in the afternoon sooner than we designed,by my horse having a shoe loose. The poor man, at whose house we called, was not only patientof exhortation but exceedingly thankful for it. We afterward missed our way, so that it was nearlyeight o'clock before we got over the ferry, a mile short of Waterford.

At the ferry was a lad who asked my name. When he heard it, he cried out, "O sir, you have nobusiness here; you have nothing to do at Waterford. Butler has been gathering mobs there all thisweek; and they set upon us so that we cannot walk the streets. But if you will stay at that littlehouse, I will go and bring B. McCullock to you.

We stayed some time, and then thought it best to go a little on our way toward Portarlington.But the ferryman would not come over; so that, after waiting till we were weary, we made our waythrough some grounds and over the mountain into the Carrick road; and went on about five milesto a village where we found a quiet house. Sufficient for this day was the labor thereof. We wereon horseback, with but an hour or two's intermission, from five in the morning, till within a quarterof eleven at night.

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Friday, 15.--About two in the morning I heard people making a great noise and calling me bymy name. They were some of our friends from Waterford, who informed us that, upon the lad'scoming in, sixteen or eighteen of them came out to conduct me into the town. Not finding me, theyreturned; but the mob met them by the way and pelted them with dirt and stones to their own doors.

We set out at four and reached Kilkenny, about twenty-five old Irish miles, about noon. Thisis by far the most pleasant, as well as most fruitful country, which I have seen in all Ireland. Ourway after dinner lay by Dunmore, the seat of the late Duke of Ormond. We rode through the parkfor about two miles, by the side of which the river runs. I never saw either in England, Holland, orGermany, so delightful a place. The walks, each consisting of four rows of ashes, the tufts of treessprinkled up and down, interspersed with the smoothest and greenest lawns, are beautiful beyonddescription. And what hath the owner thereof, the Earl of Arran? Not even the beholding it withhis eyes.

Wesley Rides Ninety Miles

My horse tired in the afternoon; so I left him behind and borrowed that of my companion. Icame to Aymo about eleven and would very willingly have passed the rest of the night there; butthe good woman of the inn was not minded that I should. For some time she would not answer: atlast she opened the door just wide enough to let out four dogs upon me. So I rode on to Ballybrittas,expecting a rough salute here too from a large dog which used to be in the yard. But he never stirredtill the hostler waked and came out. About twelve I laid me down. I think this was the longest day'sjourney I ever rode; being fifty old Irish, that is, about ninety English miles.

Thursday, 21.--I returned to Closeland and preached in the evening to a little, earnest company.Oh, who should drag me into a great city, if I did not know there is another world! How gladlycould I spend the remainder of a busy life in solitude and retirement!

Thursday, September 6.--I rode to Salisbury and preached at Winterburn in the evening; thenext, at Reading; and, on Saturday, 8, came to London.

Here I had the following account from one of our preachers:"John Jane was never well after walking from Epworth to Hainton, on an exceedingly hot day,

which exertion threw him into a fever. But he was in great peace and love, even to those who greatlywanted love to 18 him. He was some time at Alice Shadforth's house, with whom he daily talked ofthe things of God. He was never without the love of God, spent much time in private prayer, andjoined likewise with her in prayer several times in a day. On Friday, August 24, growing, as shethought stronger in body, he sat in the evening by the fireside: about six he fetched a deep sigh andnever spoke more. He was alive till the same hour on Saturday; at which, without any struggle, orany sign of pain, with a smile on his face, he passed away. His last words were, 'I find the love ofGod in Christ Jesus.'

18 Correct to the text.

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He Left One Shilling and Fourpence

"All his clothes, linen and woolen, stockings, hat, and wig, are not thought sufficient to answerhis funeral expenses, which amount to one pound seventeen shilling and fourpence." Enough forany unmarried preacher of the gospel to leave to his executors.

Monday, 17.--My brother set out for the north but returned the next day, much out of order.How little do we know the counsels of God! But we know they are all wise and gracious.

Wednesday, 19.--When l came home in the evening, I found my brother abundantly worse. Hehad had no sleep for several nights; and expected none, unless from opiates. I went down to ourbrethren below, and we made our request known to God. When I went up again he was in a soundsleep, which continued till the morning.

Friday, 21.--We had a watch night at Spitalfields. I often wonder at the peculiar providence ofGod on these occasions. I do not know that in so many years one person has ever been hurt, eitherin London, Bristol, or Dublin, in going so late in the night to and from all parts of the town.

Sunday, 23.--My brother being not yet able to assist, I had more employment today than Iexpected. In the morning I read prayers, preached, and administered the sacrament to a Iargecongregation in Spitalfields. The service at West Street continued from nine till one. At five I calledthe sinners in Moorfields to repentance. And when I had finished my work found more livelinessand strength than I did at six in the morning.

Wesley as Editor

Monday, 24.--l left London and, the next morning, called at what is styled the Halfway House.Quickly after, as a young man was (riding by the door, both horse and man tumbled over eachother. As soon as he got up, he began cursing his horse. I spoke a few words, and he was calm. Hetold me, he did fear God once, but for some time past he had cared for nothing. He went away fullof good resolutions. God bring them to good effect!

I reached Kingswood in the evening; and the next day selected passages of Milton for the eldestchildren to transcribe and repeat weekly.

Thursday, 27.--I went into the school and heard half the children their lessons and then selectedpassages of the Moral and Sacred Poems. Friday, 28. I heard the other half of the children. Saturday,29. I was with them from four to five in the morning. I spent most of the day in revising Kennet'sAntiquities, and marking what was worth reading in the school.

Wednesday, October 3.--I revised, for the use of the children, Archbishop Potter's GrecianAntiquities, a dry, dull, heavy book. Thursday, 4. I revised Mr. Lewis's Hebrew Antiquities,something more entertaining than the other and abundantly more instructive.

Saturday, 6.--I nearly finished the abridgement of Dr. Cave's Primitive Christianity, a bookwritten with as much learning and as little judgment as any I remember to have read in my wholelife; serving the ancient Christians just as Xenophon did Socrates; relating every weak thing theyever said or did.

Thursday, 11.--I prepared a short History of England for the use of the children; and on Fridayand Saturday a short Roman History, as an introduction to the Latin historians.

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Monday, 15.--I read over Mr. Holmes's Latin Grammar and extracted from it what was needfulto perfect our own.

In Canterbury Cathedral

Monday, December 3.--I rode to Canterbury and preached on Revelation 20. A few turbulentpeople made a little noise, as I found it was their custom to do. Perceiving more of them weregathered the next night, I turned and spoke to them at large. They appeared to be not a littleconfounded and went away as quiet as lambs.

Wednesday, 5.--I walked over the cathedral and surveyed the monuments of the ancient menof renown. One would think such a sight should strike an utter damp upon human vanity. Whatare the great, the fair, the valiant now? the matchless warrior--the puissant monarch?

An heap of dust is all remains of thee!

'Tis, all thou art, and all the proud shall be.

Monday, 10.--I rode to Leigh, in Essex, where I found a little company seeking God andendeavored to encourage them in "provoking one another to love and good works."

Monday, 17.--I set upon cleansing Augeas's stable; upon purging that huge work, Mr. Fox'sActs and Monuments, from all the trash which that honest, injudicious writer has heaped togetherand mingled with those venerable records, which are worthy to be had in everlasting remembrance.

Chapter 9. Wesley's Marriage; Dealings with Cornwall Smugglers; His Illnessand Recovery

1751. Wednesday, January 10.—Having received a pressing letter from Dr. Isham, then therector of our college, to give my vote at the election for a Member of Parliament which was to bethe next day, I set out early, in a severe frost and with the northwest wind full in my face. The roadswere so slippery that it was scarcely possible for our horses to keep their feet; indeed one of themcould not, but fell upon his head and cut it terribly. Nevertheless, about seven in the evening, Godbrought us safe to Oxford. A congregation was waiting for me at Mr. Evan’s, whom I immediatelyaddressed in those awful words, “What is a man profited, if he shall gain the whole world, and losehis own soul?”

Thursday, 31.—I went to the schools where the Convocation was met: but I did not find thedecency and order which I expected. The gentleman for whom I came to vote was not elected, yetI did not repent of my coming; I owe much more than this to that generous, friendly man, who nowrests from his labors.

I was much surprised wherever I went at the civility of the people—gentlemen as well as others.There was no pointing, no calling of names, as once; no, nor even laughter. What can this mean?Am I become a servant of men? Or is the scandal of the cross ceased?

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Wesley Decides to Marry

Friday, February 1.—We set out for London in another bitter morning, having such a wind(now got to the east, and so in our face again) as I hardly ever remember. But by five in the eveningwe were under shelter at the Foundry. It being the night before appointed for a watch night, wecontinued praying and praising God as usual, till about twelve o’clock; and I found no inconveniencebut a little faintness, which a few hours’ sleep removed.

Saturday, 2.—Having received a full answer from Mr. P---, I was clearly convinced that I oughtto marry. For many years I remained single because I believed I could be more useful in a single,than in a married state. And I praise God, who enabled me so to do. I now as fully believed, thatin my present circ*mstances, I might be more useful in a married state; into which, upon this clearconviction, and by the advice of my friends, I entered a few days after.

Wednesday, 6.—I met the single men and showed them on how many accounts it was good forthose who had received that gift from God, to remain “single for the kingdom of heaven’s sake”;unless where a particular case might be an exception to the general rule.

Sunday, 10.—After preaching at five, I was hastening to take my leave of the congregation atSnowsfields, purposing to set out in the morning for the north; when on the middle of LondonBridge, both my feet slipped on the ice, and I fell with great force, the bone of my ankle lightingon the top of a stone. However, I got on, with some help, to the chapel, being resolved not todisappoint the people. After preaching, I had my leg bound up by a surgeon and made a shift towalk to the Seven Dials. It was with much difficulty that I got up into the pulpit; but God thencomforted many of our hearts.

I went back in a coach to Mr. B---‘s and from thence in a chair to the Foundry; but I was notable to preach, my sprain growing worse. I removed to Threadneedle Street; where I spent theremainder of the week, partly in prayer, reading, and conversation, partly in writing a Hebrewgrammar, and Lessons for Children.

Sunday, 17.—I was carried to the Foundry and preached, kneeling (as I could not stand), onpart of the Twenty-third Psalm; my heart was enlarged, and my mouth opened to declare the wondersof God’s love.

Marriage and Preaching

Monday, 18, was the second day I had appointed for my journey; but I was disappointed again,not being yet able to set my foot to the ground. However, I preached (kneeling) on Tuesday eveningand Wednesday morning.

Sunday, 24.—I preached, morning and evening, at Spitalfields.Monday, March 4.—Being tolerably able to ride, though not to walk, I set out for Bristol. I

came thither on Wednesday, thoroughly tired, though in other respects better than when I set out.Tuesday, 19.—Having finished the business for which I came to Bristol, I set out again for

London; being desired by many to spend a few days there before I entered upon my northernjourney. I came to London on Thursday and, having settled all affairs, left I again on Wednesday,27. I cannot understand how a Methodist preacher can answer it to God to preach one sermon or

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travel one day less in a married than in a single state. In this respect surely, “it remaineth, that theywho have wives be as though they had none.”

Wesley and His Barber

Thursday, April 11 (Bolton).—The barber who shaved me said, “Sir, I praise God on yourbehalf. When you were at Bolton last, I was one of the most eminent drunkards in all the town; butI came to listen at the window, and God struck me to the heart. I then earnestly prayed for poweragainst drinking; and God gave me more than I asked: He took away the very desire of it. Yet I feltmyself worse and worse, till on April 5 last, I could hold out no longer. I knew I must drop intohell that moment unless God appeared to save me: and He did appear. I knew He loved me and feltsweet peace. Yet I did not dare to say I had faith, till, yesterday was twelvemonth, God gave mefaith; and His love has ever since filled my heart.”

Monday, 22.—The rain stopped while I was preaching at the market place in Morpeth. We rodefrom thence to Alnwick, where (it being too wet to preach at the Cross) some of our friends procuredthe Town Hall. This, being very large, contained the people well; only the number of them madeit extremely hot.

Tuesday, 23.—We rode on to Berwick-upon-Tweed.Wednesday, 24.—Mr. Hopper and I took horse between three and four and about seven came

to Old Camus. Whether the country was good or bad we could not see, having a thick mist all theway. The Scotch towns are like none which I ever saw, either in England, Wales, or Ireland: thereis such an air of antiquity in them all, and such a peculiar oddness in their manner of building. Butwe were most surprised at the entertainment we met with in every place, so far different fromcommon report. We had all things good, cheap, in great abundance, and remarkably well-dressed.In the afternoon we rode by Preston Field and saw the place of battle and Colonel Gardiner’s house.The Scotch here affirm that he fought on foot after he was dismounted and refused to take quarter.Be it as it may, he is now where “the wicked cease from troubling, and [where] the weary are atrest” [Job 3:17].

Wesley’s Impressions of Scotland

We reached Musselburgh between four and five. I had no intention to preach in Scotland, nordid I imagine there were any that desired I should. But I was mistaken. Curiosity (if nothing else)brought abundance of people together in the evening. And whereas in the kirk (Mrs. G--- informedme) there used to be laughing and talking and all the marks of the grossest inattention, it was farotherwise here: they remained as statues from the beginning of the sermon to the end.

Thursday, 25.—We rode to Edinburgh; one of the dirtiest cities I had ever seen, not exceptingColen [Cologne] in Germany.

We returned to Musselburgh to dinner, whither we were followed in the afternoon by a littleparty of gentlemen from Edinburgh. I know not why any should complain of the shyness of the

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Scots toward strangers. All I spoke with were as free and open with me as the people of Newcastleor Bristol; nor did any person move any dispute of any kind, or ask me any question concerningmy opinion.

I preached again at six on “Seek ye the Lord, while he may be found.” I used great plainnessof speech toward them, and they all received it in love; so that the prejudice which the devil hadbeen several years planting was torn up by the roots in one hour. After the preaching, one of thebailies of the town, with one of the elders of the kirk, came to me and begged I would stay withthem a while, if it were but two or three days; and they would fit up a far larger place than theschool and prepare seats for the congregation. Had not my time been fixed, I should gladly havecomplied.

Wesley’s Remarkable Vitality

1752. Sunday, March 15 (London).—While I was preaching at West Street in the afternoon,there was one of the most violent storms I ever remember. In the midst of the sermon a great partof a house opposite to the chapel was blown down. We heard a huge noise but knew not the cause;so much the more did God speak to our hearts, and great was the rejoicing of many in confidenceof His protection. Between four and five I took horse, with my wife and daughter. The tiles wererattling from the houses on both sides, but they hurt not us. We reached Hayes about seven in theevening, and Oxford the next day.

Thursday, April 16.—I walked over to Burnham. I had no thought of preaching there, doubtingif my strength would allow of preaching always thrice a day, as I had done most days since I camefrom Evesham. But finding a house full of people, I could not refrain. Still the more I use mystrength, the more I have. I am often much tired the first time I preach in a day; a little the secondtime; but after the third or fourth, I rarely feel either weakness or weariness.

Wednesday, 2.—I rode to Grimsby. The crowd was so great in the evening that the room waslike an oven. The next night I preached at the end of the town, whither almost all the people, richand poor, followed me; and I had a fair opportunity of closely applying that weighty question,“Lord, are there few that be saved?” [Luke 13:23]

Friday, 24.—We rode by a fine seat; the owner of which (not much above fourscore years old)says he desires only to live thirty years longer: ten to hunt, ten to get money (having at present buttwenty thousand pounds a year), and ten years to repent. Oh, that God may not say unto him, “Thoufool, this night shall thy soul be required of thee!” [Luke 12:20]

When I landed at the quay in Hull, it was covered with people inquiring, “Which is he? Whichis he?” But they only stared and laughed; and we walked unmolested to Mr. A---‘s house.

I was quite surprised at the miserable condition of the fortifications; far more ruinous anddecayed than those at Newcastle, even before the rebellion. It is well there is no enemy near.

A Crowded Coach

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I went to prayers at three in the old church—a grand and venerable structure. Between five andsix the coach called and took me to Mighton Car, about half a mile from the town. A huge multitude,rich and poor, horse and foot, with several coaches, were soon gathered together; to whom I criedwith a loud voice and a composed spirit, “What shall it profit a man, if he shall gain the wholeworld, and lose his own soul?” Some thousands of the people seriously attended; but many behavedas if possessed by Moloch. Clods and stones flew about on every side; but they neither touched nordisturbed me.

When I had finished my discourse, I went to take coach, but the coachman had driven clearaway. We were at a loss, till a gentlewoman invited my wife and me to come into her coach. Shebrought some inconveniences on herself thereby; not only as there were nine of us in the coach,three on each side, and three in the middle; but also as the mob closely attended us, throwing in atthe windows (which we did not think it prudent to shut) whatever came next to hand. But a largegentlewoman who sat in my lap screened me, so that nothing came near me.

Wesley Sleeps in a Cellar

Monday, May 25.—We rode to Durham and thence, through very rough roads and as roughweather, to Barnard Castle. I was exceedingly faint when we came in. However the time beingcome, I went into the street and would have preached; but the mob was so numerous and so loudthat it was not possible for many to hear. Nevertheless, I spoke on, and those who were near listenedwith huge attention. To prevent this, some of the rabble fetched the engine and threw a good dealof water on the congregation; but not a drop fell on me. After about three quarters of an hour, Ireturned into the house.

Tuesday, June 9.—My lodging was not such as I should have chosen; but what Providencechooses is always good. My bed was considerably under ground, the room serving both for abedchamber and a cellar. The closeness was more troublesome at first than the coolness; but I letin a little fresh air by breaking a pane of paper (put by way of glass) in the window, and then sleptsoundly till the morning.

Monday, 15.—I had many little trials in this journey, of a kind I had not known before. I hadborrowed a young, strong mare when I set out from Manchester. But she fell lame before I got toGrimsby. I procured another but was dismounted again between Newcastle and Berwick. At myreturn to Manchester, I took my own; but she had lamed herself in the pasture. I thought, nevertheless,to ride her four or five miles today; but she was gone out of the ground, and could hear nothing ofher. However, I comforted myself that I had another at Manchester, which I had lately bought. Butwhen I came thither, I found one had borrowed her too and ridden her away to Chester.

Saturday, 20.—I rode to Chester and preached at six in the accustomed place, a little withoutthe gates, near St. John’s church. One single man, a poor alehousekeeper, seemed disgusted, spokea harmless word, and ran away with all speed. All the rest behaved with the utmost seriousnesswhile I declared “the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ.”

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Round Chester Walls

Monday, 22.—We walked round the walls of the city, which are something more than a mileand three quarters in circumference. But there are many vacant spaces within the walls, manygardens, and a good deal of pasture ground; I believe Newcastle-upon-Tyne, within the walls,contains at least a third more houses than Chester.

The greatest convenience here is what they call “the Rows”; that is covered galleries which runthrough the main streets on each side, from east to west and from north to south; by which meansone may walk both clean and dry in any weather, from one end of the city to the other.

I preached at six in the evening in the square to a vast multitude, rich and poor. The far greaterpart, the gentry in particular, were seriously and deeply attentive; though a few of the rabble, mostof them drunk, labored much to make a disturbance. One might already perceive a great increaseof earnestness in the generality of the hearers.

Tuesday, August 25.—I preached in the market place at Kinsale. The next morning, at eight, Iwalked to the fort. On the hill above it we found a large, deep hollow, capable of containing twoor three thousand people. On one side of this, the soldiers soon cut a place with their swords forme to stand, where I was screened both from the wind and sun, while the congregation sat on thegrass before me. Many eminent sinners were present, particularly of the army; and I believe Godgave them a loud call to repentance.

Saturday, September 23.—We reached Cork. Sunday, 24. In the evening I proposed to thesociety the building a preaching-house. The next day ten persons subscribed a hundred pounds;another hundred was subscribed in three or four days, and a piece of ground taken. I saw a doubleprovidence now in our not sailing last week. If we had, probably this house had never been built,and it is most likely we should have been cast away. Above thirty ships, we were informed, havebeen lost on these coasts in the late storm.

The wind being contrary still, on Monday, October 2, I rode once more to Bandon. But thoughI came unexpectedly, the house was too small to contain one half of the congregation; so I preachedin the street, both this evening and at five on Tuesday morning; the moon gave us as much light aswe wanted till the sun supplied her place. I then returned to Cork. On Friday, 6, the ship beingunder sail, we took boat and came to Cove in the evening. All the inns being full, we lodged at aprivate house; but we found one inconvenience herein: we had nothing to eat, for our provisionswere on board and there was nothing to be bought in the town; neither flesh, nor fish, nor butter,nor cheese. At length we procured some eggs and bread, and were well contented.

A Boiling Sea

Sunday, 8.—We were called early by the pilot and told we must rise and go on board. We didso and found a large number of passengers: but the wind turning, most of them went on shore. Ateleven I preached to those that were left. About six it blew a storm; but we were anchored in a safeharbor, so it neither hurt nor disturbed us.

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Monday, 9.—Finding there was no probability of sailing soon, we went up to Mr. P---‘s, nearPassage. I preached there in the street about four to most of the inhabitants of the town. Theybehaved very quietly, but very few seemed either convinced or affected.

Tuesday, 10.—We had another violent storm; it made Mr. P---‘s house rock to and fro, thoughit was a new, strong house, and covered on all sides with hills, as well as with trees. We afterwardheard that several ships were lost on the coast. Only one got into the harbor, but grievously shattered,her rigging torn in pieces, and her mainmast gone by the board.

Wednesday, 1..—I rode to Cork once more and was very fully employed all the day. The nextmorning we returned to Cove and about noon got out of the harbor. We immediately found theeffects of the late storm, the sea still boiling like a pot. The moon set about eight, but the northernlights abundantly supplied her place. Soon after, God smoothed the face of the deep and gave us asmall, fair wind.

Friday, 13.—I read over Pascal’s Thoughts. What could possibly induce such a creature asVoltaire to give such an author as this a good word, unless it was that he once wrote a satire? Andso his being a satirist might atone even for his being a Christian.

Saturday, 14.—About seven we sailed into Kingroad and happily concluded our little voyage.I now rested a week at Bristol and Kingswood, preaching only morning and evening.

Wesley’s Forgiveness

Sunday, 24, was a useful day to my soul. I found more than once trouble and heaviness; but Icalled upon the name of the Lord; and He gave me a clear, full approbation of His way, and a calm,thankful acquiescence in His will.

I cannot but stand amazed at the goodness of God. Others are most assaulted on the weak sideof their soul; but with me it is quite otherwise; if I have any strength at all (and I have none butwhat I have received), it is in forgiving injuries; and on this very side am I assaulted more frequentlythan on any other. Yet leave me not here one hour to myself, or I shall betray myself and Thee!

In the remaining part of this (November) and in the following month, I prepared the rest of thebooks for the “Christian Library”; a work by which I have lost about two hundred pounds. Perhapsthe next generation may know now the value of it.

1753. Saturday, January 20.—I advised one who had been troubled many years with a stubbornparalytic disorder to try a new remedy. Accordingly, she was electrified and found immediate help.By the same means I have known two persons cured of an inveterate pain in the stomach; andanother of a pain in his side which he had had ever since he was a child. Nevertheless, who canwonder that many gentlemen of the faculty, as well as their good friends, the apothecaries, decrya medicine so shockingly cheap and easy, as much as they do quick-silver and tar-water?

Saturday, February 3.—I visited one in the Marshalsea prison, a nursery of all manner ofwickedness. Oh, shame to man that there should be such a place, such a picture of hell, upon earth!And shame to those who bear the name of Christ that there should need any prison at all inChristendom!

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Thursday, 8.—A proposal was made for devolving 19 all temporal business, books and all,entirely on the stewards; so that I might have no care upon me (in London at least) but that of thesouls committed to my charge. Oh, when shall it once be! From this day?

In the afternoon I visited many of the sick; but such scenes, who could see unmoved? Thereare none such to be found in a pagan country. If any of the Indians in Georgia were sick (whichindeed exceeding rarely happened till they learned gluttony and drunkenness from the Christians),those that were near him gave him whatever he wanted. Oh, who will convert the English intohonest heathens!

On Friday and Saturday I visited as many more as I could. I found some in their cells underground; others in their garrets, half starved both with cold and hunger, added to weakness and pain.But I found not one of the unemployed who was able to crawl about the room. So wickedly,devilishly false is that common objection, “They are poor only because they are idle.” If you sawthese things with your own eyes, could you lay out money in ornaments or superfluities?

Thursday, 15.—I visited Mr. S---, slowly recovering from a severe illness. He expressed muchlove, and did not doubt, he said, inasmuch as I meant well, but that God would convince me of mygreat sin in writing books; seeing men ought to read no book but the Bible. I judged it quite needlessto enter into a dispute with a sea captain, seventy-five years old.

Friday, March 16.—I returned to Bristol; and on Monday, 19, set out with my wife for the north.Saturday, 31.—I preached at Boothbank, where I met Mr. C---, late gardener to the Earl of

W---. Surely it cannot be! Is it possible the earl should turn off an honest, diligent, well-tried servant,who had been in the family above fifty years, for no other fault than hearing the Methodists?

Sunday, April 15.—I preached in the afternoon at co*ckermouth to well nigh all the inhabitantsof the town. Intending to go from thence into Scotland, I inquired concerning the road and wasinformed I could not pass the arm of the sea which parts the two kingdoms unless I was at Bonas,about thirty miles from co*ckermouth, soon after five in the morning. At first I thought of takingan hour or two’s sleep and setting out at eleven or twelve. But upon further consideration, we choseto take our journey first and rest afterward. So we took horse about seven and, having a calm,moonshiny night, reached Bonas before one. After two or three hours’ sleep, we set out again,without any faintness or drowsiness.

The Pay of Preaching

Our landlord, as he was guiding us over the Frith, very innocently asked how much a year wegot by preaching thus. This gave me an opportunity of explaining to him that kind of gain whichhe seemed utterly a stranger to. He appeared to be quite amazed and spake not one word, good orbad, till he took his leave.

Presently after he went, my mare stuck fast in a quagmire, which was in the midst of the highroad. But we could well excuse this; for the road all along, for nearly fifty miles after, was such asI never saw any natural road, either in England or Ireland; nay, far better, notwithstanding thecontinued rain, than the turnpike road between London and Canterbury.

19 correct

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We dined at Dumfries, a clean, well-built town, having two of the most elegant churches (oneat each end of the town) that I have seen. We reached Thorny Hill in the evening. What miserableaccounts pass current in England of the inns in Scotland! Yet here, as well as wherever we calledin our whole journey, we had not only everything we wanted, but everything readily and in goodorder, and as clean as I ever desire.

Tuesday, 17.—We set out about four and rode over several high, but extremely pleasant,mountains to Lead Hill. This was a village of miners, resembling Placey, near Newcastle. Wedined at a village called Lesmahaggy, and about eight in the evening reached Glasgow. A gentlemanwho had overtaken us on the road sent one with us to Mr. Gillies’s house.

Wesley in Glasgow

Wednesday, 18.—I walked over the city, which I take to be as large as Newcastle-upon-Tyne.The University (like that of Dublin) is only one College, consisting of two small squares; I thinknot larger, nor at all handsomer, than those of Lincoln College, in Oxford. The hatit of the studentsgave me surprise. They wear scarlet gowns, reaching only to their knees. Most I saw were verydirty, some very ragged, and all of very coarse cloth. The high church is a fine building. The outsideis equal to that of most cathedrals in England; but it is miserably defaced within, having no form,beauty, or symmetry left.

At seven in the evening Mr. G. began the service at his own (the College) church. It was so fullbefore I came that I could not get in without a good deal of difficulty.

Thursday, 19.—At seven I preached about a quarter of a mile from the town; but it was anextremely rough and blustering morning; and few people came either at the time or place of mypreaching: the natural consequence of which was that I had but a small congregation. About fourin the afternoon, a tent, as they term it, was prepared; a kind of moving pulpit, covered with canvasat the top, behind, and on the sides. In this I preached near the place where I was in the morning,to nearly six times as many people as before; and I am persuaded what was spoken came to someof their hearts, ”not in word only, but in power.”

Friday, 20.—I had designed to preach at the same place; but the rain made it impracticable. Mr.G. desired me to preach in his church, so I began between seven and eight. Surely with God nothingis impossible! Who would have believed five-and-twenty years ago either that the minister wouldhave desired it or that I should have consented to preach in a Scotch kirk?

Apprenticeship Customs

Wednesday, 25.—We came to Alnwich on the day whereon those who have gone through theirapprenticeship are made free of the corporation. Sixteen or seventeen, we were informed, were toreceive their freedom this day. In order thereto (such is the unparalleled wisdom of the presentcorporation, as well as of their forefathers), they were to walk through a great bog (purposely

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preserved for the occasion; otherwise it might have been drained long ago), which takes up someof them to the neck, and many of them to the breast.

Tuesday, May 8.—I rode [from Stockton] to Robinhood’s Bay, near Whitby. The town is veryremarkably situated: it stands close to the sea and is in great part built on craggy and steep rocks,some of which rise perpendicularly from the water. And yet the land, both on the north, south, andwest, is fruitful and well cultivated. I stood on a little rising near the quay, in a warm, still evening,and exhorted a multitude of people from all parts to “seek the Lord, while he may be found.” Theywere all attention; and most of them met me again at half an hour after four in the morning. I couldgladly have spent some days here; but my stages were fixed: so, on Wednesday, 9, I rode to York.

Sunday, July 8 (London).—After preaching at the chapel, morning and afternoon, I took horsewith Mr. P---. We had designed to ride only two or three hours, in order to shorten the next day’sjourney. But a young man, who overtook us near Kingston, induced us to change our purpose. Sowe only rested about half an hour at Cobham; and leaving it between nine and ten, rode on softlyin a calm, moonshiny night, and about twelve came to Godalming. We took horse again at half anhour past four and reached Portsmouth about one.

After a little rest, we took a walk around the town, which is regularly fortified; it is, I suppose,the only regular fortification in Great Britain or Ireland. Gosport, Portsmouth, and the Common(which is now all turned into streets) may probably contain half as many people as Bristol, and socivil a people I never saw before in any seaport town in England.

I preached at half an hour after six, in an open part of the Common adjoining to the new church.The congregation was large and well behaved; not one scoffer did I see, nor one trifler. In themorning, Tuesday, 10, I went on board a hoy and in three hours landed at Cowes, in the Isle ofWight; as far exceeding the Isle of Anglesey, both in pleasantness and fruitfulness, as that exceedsthe rocks of Scilly.

We rode straight to Newport, the chief town in the isle, and found a little society in tolerableorder. Several of them had found peace with God.

At half n hour after six I preached in the market place, to a numerous congregation; but theywere not so serious as those at Portsmouth. Many children made much noise, and many grownpersons were talking aloud almost all the time I was preaching. It was quite otherwise at five in themorning. There was a large congregation again; and every person therein seemed to know this wasthe Word whereby God would judge them in the last day.

In the afternoon I walked to Carisbrook castle, or rather, the poor remains of it. It stands upona solid rock on the top of a hill and commands a beautiful prospect. There is a well in it, cut quitethrough the rock, said to be seventy-two yards deep; and another in the citadel, nearly a hundred.They drew up the water by an ass, which they assured us was sixty years old. But all the statelyapartments lie in ruins. Only just enough of them is left to show the chamber where poor KingCharles was confined and the window through which he attempted to escape.

Cornish Smugglers

On Wednesday, 25, the stewards met at St. Ives, from the western part of Cornwall. The nextday I began examining the society, but I was soon obliged to stop short. I found an accursed thing

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among them; well-night one and all bought or sold uncustomed goods. I therefore delayed speakingto any more till I had met them all together. This I did in the evening and told them plainly eitherthey must put this abomination away or they would see my face no more. Friday, 27. They severallypromised so to do. So I trust this plague is stayed.

Monday, November 12.—I set out in a chaise for Leigh, having delayed my journey as long asI could. I preached at seven, but was extremely cold all the time, the wind coming strong from adoor behind and another on one side; so that my feet felt just as if I had stood in cold water.

Tuesday, 13.—The chamber wherein I sat, though with a large fire, was much colder than thegarden; so that I could not keep myself tolerably warm, even when I was close to the chimney. Aswe rode home on Wednesday, 14, the wind was high and piercing cold, and blew just in our faceso that the open chaise was no defense, but my feet were quite chilled. When I came home, I hada settled pain in my left breast, a violent cough, and a slow fever; but in a day or two, by followingDr. Fothergill’s prescriptions; I found much alteration for the better; and on Sunday, 18, I preachedat Spitalfields and administered the sacrament to a large congregation.

Wesley Writes His Epitaph

Monday, 19.—I retired to Shoreham and gained strength continually; till about eleven at night,on Wednesday, 21, I was obliged by the cramp to leap out of bed and continue, for some time,walking up and down the room, though it was a sharp frost. My cough now returned with greaterviolence and that by day as well as by night.

Saturday, 24.—I rode home as was pretty well till night; but my cough was then worse thanever. My fever returned at the same time, together with the pain in my left breast; so that I shouldprobably have stayed at home on Sunday, 25, had it not been advertised in the public papers that Iwould preach a charity sermon at the chapel, both morning and afternoon. My cough did not interruptme while I preached in the morning; but it was extremely troublesome while I administered thesacrament. In the afternoon I consulted my friends whether I should attempt to preach again or no.They thought I should, as it had been advertised. I did so; but very few could hear. My feverincreased much while I was preaching; however, I ventured to meet the society, and for nearly anhour my voice and strength were restored so that I felt neither pain nor weakness.

Monday, 26.—Dr. F.--- told me plainly that I must not stay in town a day longer; adding, “Ifanything does thee good, it must be the country air, with rest, asses’ milk, and riding daily.” So(not being able to sit a horse) about noon I took coach for Lewisham.

In the evening (not knowing how it might please God to dispose of me), to prevent vile panegyric,I wrote as follows:

Here lieth the Bodyof

JOHN WESLEY,A BRAND PLUCKED OUT OF THE BURNING:

WHO DIED OF A CONSUMPTION IN THE FIFTY-FIRST YEAR OF HIS AGE,

NOT LEAVING, AFTER HIS DEBTS ARE PAID,

TEN POUNDS BEHIND HIM:

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PRAYING,

GOD BE MERCIFUL TO ME, AN UNPROFITABLE SERVANT!

He ordered that this, if any, inscription should be placed on his tombstone.

Wesley His Own Doctor

Wednesday, 28.—I found no change for the better, the medicines which had helped me beforenow taking no effect. About noon (the time that some of our brethren in London had set apart forjoining in prayer) a thought came into my mind to make an experiment. So I ordered some stonebrimstone to be powdered, mixed with the white of an egg, and spread on brown paper, which Iapplied to my side. The pain ceased in five minutes, the fever in half an hour; and from this hourI began to recover strength. The next day I was able to ride, which I continued to do every day tillJanuary 1. Nor did the weather hinder me once; it being always tolerably fair (however it wasbefore) between twelve and one o’clock.

Friday, December 14.—Having finished all the books which I designed to insert in the “ChristianLibrary,” I broke through the doctor’s order not to write and began transcribing a journal for thepress; and in the evening I went to prayers with the family, without finding any inconvenience.

Thursday, 20.—I felt a gradual increase of strength till I took a decoction of the bark, which Ido not find (such is the peculiarity of my constitution) will agree with me in any form whatever.This immediately threw me into a purging, which brought me down again a few days and quitedisappointed me in my design of going out on Christmas Day.

Chapter 10. Retirement in Paddington; Wesley Slandered; Premonitions; ADream

1754. Tuesday, January 1.—I returned once more to London.On Wednesday, 2, I set out in the machine and the next afternoon came to Chippenham. Here

I took a post chaise, in which I reached Bristol about eight in the evening.Friday, 4.—I began drinking the water at the Hot Well, having a lodging at a small distance

from it; and on Sunday, 6, I began writing Notes on the New Testament, a work which I shouldscarcely ever have attempted had I not been so ill as not to be able to travel or preach, and yet sowell as to be able to read and write.

Monday, 7.—I went on now in a regular method, rising at my hour and writing from five tonine at night; except the time of riding, half an hour for each meal, and the hour between five andsix in the evening.

Thursday, 31.—My wife desiring to pay the last office to her poor dying child, set out forLondon and came a few days before he went home, rejoicing and praising God.

Tuesday, March 19 (Bristol).—Having finished the rough draught, I began transcribing theNotes on the Gospels.

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Tuesday, 26.—I preached for the first time, after an intermission of four months. What reasonhave I to praise God that He does not take the Word of His truth utterly out of my mouth!

Wesley Retires to Paddington

Monday, April 1.—We set out in the machine, and the next evening reached the Foundry.Wednesday, 3.—I settled all the business I could and the next morning retired to Paddington.

Here I spent some weeks in writing; only going to town on Saturday evenings, and leaving it againon Monday morning.

In my hours of walking I read Dr. Calamy’s Abridgment of Mr. Baxter’s Life. What a scene isopened here! In spite of all the prejudice of education, I could not but see that the poorNonconformists had been used without either justice or mercy; and that many of the Protesant 20

bishops of King Charles had neither more religion nor humanity than the popish Bishops of QueenMary.

Monday, 29.—I preached at Sadler’s Wells in what was formerly a playhouse. I am glad whenit pleases God to take possession of what Satan esteemed his own ground. The place, though large,was extremely crowded; and deep attention sat on every face.

Wednesday, May 22.—Our conference began; and the spirit of peace and love was in the midstof us. Before we parted, we all willingly signed an agreement not to act independently of eachother: so that the breach lately made has only united us more closely together than ever.

June 2.—(Being Whitsunday.) I preached at the Foundry, which I had not done before in theevening; still I have not recovered my whole voice or strength, perhaps I never may; but let me usewhat I have.

Persecuting the Methodists

Monday, September 9.—I preached at Charlton, a village six miles from Taunton, to a largecongregation gathered from the towns and country for many miles round. All the farmers here hadsome time before entered into a joint engagement to turn all out of their service and give no workto any who went to hear a Methodist preacher. But there is no counsel against the Lord. One ofthe chief of them, Mr. G---, was not long after convinced of the truth and desired those very mento preach at his house. Many of the other confederates came to hear, whom their servants andlaborers gladly followed. So the whole device of Satan fell to the ground; and the Word of Godgrew and prevailed.

Wednesday, October 2.—I walked to Sold Sarum, which, in spite of common sense, withouthouse or inhabitants, still sends two Members to the Parliament. It is a large, round hill, encompassedwith a broad ditch, which, it seems, has been of a considerable depth. At the top of it is a cornfield;in the midst of which is another round hill, about two hundred yards in diameter, encompassed witha wall and a deep ditch. Probably before the invention of cannon, this city was impregnable. Troywas; but now it is vanished away and nothing left but “the stones of emptiness.”

20 Incorrect in the text.

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Thursday, 3.—I rode to Reading and preached in the evening. Observing a warm man near thedoor (he was once of the society), I purposely bowed to him; but he made no return. During thefirst prayer he stood, but sat while we sang. In the sermon his countenance changed, and in a littlewhile he turned his face to the wall. He stood at the second hymn and then kneeled down. As Icame out he caught me by the hand and dismissed me with a hearty blessing.

Friday, 4.—I came to London. On Monday, 7, I retired to a little place near Hackney, formerlya seat of Bishop Bonner’s (how are the times changed!) and still bearing his name. Here I was asin a college.

Twice a day we joined in prayer. The rest of the day (allowing about an hour for meals andanother for walking before dinner and supper) I spent quietly in my study.

Wesley’s Prescriptions

1755. Monday, April 7 (Wednesbury).—I was advised to take the Derbyshire road to Manchester.We baited at a house six miles beyond Lichfield. Observing a woman sitting in the kitchen, I asked,“Are you not well?” and found she had just been taken ill (being on her journey) with all thesymptoms of an approaching pleurisy. She was glad to hear of an easy, cheap, and (almost) infallibleremedy—a handful of nettles, boiled a few minutes and applied warm to the side. While I wasspeaking to her, an elderly man, pretty well dressed, came in. Upon inquiry, he told us he wastraveling, as he could, toward his home near Hounslow, in hopes of agreeing with his creditors towhom he had surrendered his all. But how to get on he knew not, as he had no money and hadcaught a tertian ague. I hope a wise Providence directed this wanderer also, that he might have aremedy for both his maladies.

Monday, 14.—I rode by Manchester (where I preached about twelve) to Warrington. At six inthe morning, Tuesday, 15, I preached to a large and serious congregation; and then went on toLiverpool, one of the neatest, best-built towns I have seen in England. I think it is fully twice aslarge as Chester; most of the streets are quite straight. Two thirds of the town, we were informed,have been added within these forty years. If it continues to increase in the same proportion, in fortyyears more it will nearly equal Bristol. The people in general are the most mild and courteous Iever saw in a seaport town; as indeed appears by their friendly behavior, not only to the Jews andPapists who live among them, but even to the Methodists (so called). The preaching-house is alittle larger than that at Newcastle. It was thoroughly filled at seven in the evening; and the heartsof the whole congregation seemed to be moved before the Lord and before the presence of Hispower.

Wesley and the Sunshine

Thursday, 24.—We rode in less than four hours the eight miles (so called) to Newell Hay [fromBolton]. Just as I began to preach the sun broke out and shone exceedingly hot on the side of myhead. I found that if it continued, I should not be able to speak long, and lifted up my heart to God.

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In a minute or two it was covered with clouds, which continued till the service was over. Let anywho please, call this chance: I call it an answer to prayer.

Friday, 25.—About ten I preached near Todmorden. The people stood, row above row, on theside of the mountain. They were rough enough in outward appearance, but their hearts were asmelting wax.

One can hardly conceive anything more delightful than the vale through which we rode fromhence. The river ran through the green meadows on the right. The fruitful hills and woods rose oneither hand.

At three in the afternoon I preached at Heptonstill, on the brow of the mountain. The rain beganalmost as soon as I began to speak. I prayed that, if God saw best, it might be stayed till I haddelivered His Word. It was so, and then began again. But we had only a short stage to Ewood.

Tuesday, May 6.—Our conference began at Leeds. The point on which we desired all thepreachers to speak their minds at large was whether we ought to separate from the church. Whateverwas advanced on one side or the other was seriously and calmly considered; and on the third daywe were all fully agreed in that general conclusion—that (whether it was lawful or not) it was noways expedient.

Monday, 12.—We rode (my wife and I) to Northallerton.Wednesday, 21.—I preached at Nafferton, near Horsley, about thirteen miles from Newcastle.

We rode chiefly on the new western road, which lies on the old Roman wall. Some part of this isstill to be seen, as are the remains of most of the towers, which were built a mile distant from eachother, quite from sea to sea. But where are the men of renown who built them and who once madeall the land tremble? Crumbled into dust! Gone hence, to be no more seen till the earth shall giveup her dead!

June 2.—We rode to Thirsk, where I met the little society; and then went on to York. The peoplehad been waiting for some time. So I began preaching without delay, and felt no want of strength,though the room was like an oven through the multitude of people.

Saturday, 7.—One of the residentiaries sent for Mr. Williamson, who had invited me to preachin his church, and told him, “Sir, I abhor persectuion; but if you let Mr. Wesley preach, it will bethe worse for you.” He desired it nevertheless; but I declined. Perhaps there is a providence in thisalso. God will not suffer my little remaining strength to be spent on those who will not hear me butin an honorable way.

The Room Was Like and Oven

Sunday, 8.—We were at the minster 21 in the morning and at our parish church in the afternoon.The same gentleman preached at both; but though I saw him at the church, I did not know I hadever seen him before. In the morning he was all life and motion; in the afternoon he was as quietas a post. At five in the evening, the rain constrained me to preach in the oven again. The patienceof the congregation surprised me. They seemed not to feel the extreme heat or to be offended atthe close application of those words, “thou art not far from the kingdom of God” [Mark 12:34].

21 Correct to the text.

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Monday, 16.—I preached in the evening at Nottingham and on Thursday afternoon reachedLondon. From a deep sense of the amazing work which God has of late years wrought in England,I preached in the evening on those words (Psalm 147:20), “He hath not dealt so with any nation”;no, not even with Scotland or New England. In both these God has indeed made bare His arm; yetnot in so astonishing a manner as among us. This must appear to all who impartially consider 1)the numbers of persons on whom God has wrought; 2) the swiftness of His work in many, bothconvinced and truly converted in a few days; 3) the depth of it in most of these, changing the heartas well as the whole conversation; 4) the clearness of it, enabling them boldly to say, “Thou hastloved me; Thou hast given Thyself for me”; 5) the continuance of it.

Tuesday, 24 (London).—Observing in that valuable book, Mr. Gillies’ Historical Collections,the custom of Christian congregations in all ages to set apart seasons of solemn thanksgivings, Iwas amazed and ashamed that we had never done this, after all the blessings we had received; andmany to whom I mentioned it gladly agreed to set apart a day for that purpose.

“This Is No Mazed Man”

Sunday, August 31.—At five I preached in Gwennap to several thousands, but not one of themlight or inattentive. After I had done, the storm arose and the rain poured down till about four inthe morning; then the sky cleared, and many of them that feared God gladly assembled before Him.

Monday, September 1.—I preached at Penryn, to abundantly more than the house could contain.Tuesday, 2.—We went to Falmouth. The town is not now what it was ten years since; all is

quiet from one end to the other. I had thoughts of preaching on the hill near the church; but theviolent wind made it impracticable, so I was obliged to stay in our own room. The people couldhear in the yard likewise and the adjoining houses; and all were deeply attentive.

Wednesday, September 3.—After preaching again to a congregation who now appeared readyto devour every word, I walked up to Pendennis castle, finely situated on the high point of landwhich runs out between the bay and the harbor and commanding both. It might easily be madeexceedingly strong; but our wooden castles are sufficient.

In the afternoon we rode to Helstone, once turbulent enough, but now quiet as Penryn. I preachedat six, on a rising ground about a musket-shot from the town. Two drunken men strove to interrupt,but one soon walked away, and the other leaned on his horse’s neck and fell fast asleep.

About noon, Friday, 5, I called on W. Row, in Breage, in my way to Newlyn. “Twelve yearsago,” he said, “I was going over Gulval Downs and I saw many people together. I asked what wasthe matter, and they told me a man was going to preach. I said, ‘Nay, this is no mazed man.’ Youpreached on God’s raising the dry bones, and from that time I could never rest till God was pleasedto breathe on me and raise my dead soul.”

Slandering Wesley in the Pulpit

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I had given no notice of preaching here; but seeing the poor people flock from every side, Icould not send them empty away. So I preached at a small distance from the house and besoughtthem to consider our “great High Priest, who is passed through into the heavens” [Heb. 4:14]; andnone opened his mouth, for the lions of Breage too are now changed into lambs. That they were sofierce ten years ago is no wonder, since their wretched minister told them from the pulpit (sevenyears before I resigned my fellowship) that “John Wesley was expelled the College for a base child,and had been quite mazed ever since; that all the Methodists, at their private societies, put out thelights,” and so on; with abundance more of the same kind. But a year or two since, it was observed,he grew thoughtful and melancholy; and, about nine months ago, he went into his own necessaryhouse and hanged himself.

Saturday, 6.—In the evening I preached at St. Just. Except at Gwennap, I have seen no suchcongregation in Cornwall. The sun (nor could we contrive it otherwise) shone full in my face whenI began the hymn; but just as I ended it, a cloud arose, which covered it till I had done preaching.Is anything too small for the providence of Him by whom our very hairs are numbered?

Sunday, 7.—Last year, a strange letter, written at Penzance, was inserted in the public papers.Today I spoke to the two persons who occasioned that letter. They are of St. Just parish, sensiblemen, and no Methodists. The name of the one is James Tregeer, of the other, Thomas Sackerly. Ireceived the account from James, two or three hours before Thomas came; but there was no materialdifference. In July was twelvemonth, they both said, as they were walking from St. Just churchtown toward Sancreet, Thomas, happening to look up, cried out, “James, look, look! What is thatin the sky?” The first appearance, as James expressed it, was three columns of horsem*n, swiftlypressing on as in a fight, from southwest to northeast, a broad streak of sky being between eachcolumn. Sometimes they seemed to run thick together, then to thin their ranks. Afterward they sawa large fleet of three-mast ships, in full sail toward the Lizard Point. This continued above a quarterof an hour; then, all disappearing, they went on their way. The meaning of this, if it was real (whichI do not affirm), time only can show.

Extraordinary Coincidence

Saturday, 13.—I preached once more at St. Just, on the first stone of their new society house.In the evening as we rode to Camborne, John Pearce, of Redruth, was mentioning a remarkableincident: While he lived at Helstone, as their class was meeting one evening, one of them cried,with an uncommon tone, “We will not stay here: we will go to ---,” a house, which was in a quitedifferent part of the town. They all rose immediately and went, though neither they nor she knewwhy. Presently, after they were gone, a spark fell into a barrel of gunpowder, which was in the nextroom, and blew up the house. So did God preserve those who trusted in Him and prevent theblasphemy of the multitude.

Monday, 15.—We walked an hour near the seashore [at Cubert], among those amazing caverns,which are fully as surprising as Pool’s Hole, or any other in the Peak of Derbyshire. Some part ofthe rock in these natural vaults glitters as bright and ruddy as gold; part is a fine sky-blue; partgreen; part enameled, exactly like mother-of-pearl; and a great part, especially near the Holy Well

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(which bubbles up on the top of a rock and is famous for curing either scorbutic or scrofulousdisorders), is crusted over, wherever the water runs, with a hard, white coat like alabaster.

Tuesday, 23.—We walked up to Glastonbury Tower, which a gentleman is now repairing. It isthe steeple of a church, the foundation of which is still discernible. On the west of the tower thereare niches for images; one of which, as big as the life, is still entire. The hill on which it stands isextremely steep and of an uncommon height, so that it commands the country on all sides, as wellas the Bristol Channel. I was weary enough when we came to Bristol; but I preached till all mycomplaints were gone; and I had now a little leisure to sit still and finish the Notes on the NewTestament.

Wednesday, November 5.—Mr. Whitefield called upon me. Disputings are now no more; welove one another and join hand in hand to promote the cause of our common Master.

Macbeth and Thunder at Drury Lane

Monday, 17.—As we were walking toward Wapping, the rain poured down with such violencethat we were obliged to take shelter till it abated. We then held on to Gravel Lane, in many partsof which the waters were like a river. However, we got on pretty well till the rain put out the candlein our lantern. We then were obliged to wade through all, till we came to the chapel yard. Just aswe entered it, a little streak of lightening appeared in the southwest. There was likewise a smallclap of thunder and a vehement burst of rain, which rushed so plentifully through our shatteredtiles that the vestry was all in a float. Soon after I began reading prayers, the lightning flamed allround it, and the thunder rolled just over our heads. When it grew louder and louder, perceivingmany of the strangers to be much affrighted, I broke off the prayers after the collect, “Lighten ourdarkness, we beseech thee, O Lord,” and began applying, “The Lord sitteth above the waterflood;the Lord remaineth a king forever” [see Ps. 29:10]. Presently the lightning, thunder, and rain ceased,and we had a remarkably calm evening.

It was observed that exactly at this hour they were acting Macbeth in Drury Lane, and just asthe mock thunder began, the Lord began to thunder out of heaven. For a while it put them to astand; but they soon took courage and went on. Otherwise it might have been suspected that thefear of God had crept into the very theater!

Friday, December 12.—As I was returning from Zoar, I came as well as usual to Moorfields;but there my strength entirely failed, and such a faintness and weariness seized me that it was withdifficulty I got home. I could not but think how happy it would be (suppose we were ready for theBridegroom) to sink down and steal away at once, without any of the hurry and pomp of dying!Yet it is happier still to glorify God in our death, as well as our life.

Tuesday, 23.—I was in the robe-chamber, adjoining the House of Lords, when the King put onhis robes. His brow was much furrowed with age and quite clouded with care. And is this all theworld can give even to a king? All the grandeur it can afford? A blanket of ermine round hisshoulders, so heavy and cumbersome he can scarcely move under it! A huge heap of borrowedhair, with a few plates of gold and glittering stones upon his head! Alas, what a bauble is humangreatness! And even this will not endure.

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At Dover Castle

1756.—Monday, January 26.—I rode to Canterbury and preached in the evening to such acongregation as I never saw there before, in which were abundance of the soldiers and not a fewof their officers.

Wednesday, 28.—I preached about noon at Dover to a very serious but small congregation. Weafterwards walked up to the castle, on the top of a mountain. It is an amazingly fine situation; andfrom hence we had a clear view of that vast piece of the cliff which a few days ago divided fromthe rest and fell down upon the beach.

Friday, 30.—In returning to London, I read the life of the late Tsar, Peter the Great. Undoubtedlyhe was a soldier, a general, and a statesman, scarcely inferior to any. But why was he called aChristian? What has Christianity to do either with deep dissimulation or savage cruelty?

Friday, February 6.—The fast-day was a glorious day, such as London has scarcely seen sincethe Restoration. Every church in the city was more than full, and a solemn seriousness sat on everyface. Surely God heareth the prayer, and there will yet be a lengthening of our tranquillity.

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Preaching to a Press-gang

Monday, 23.—I paid another visit to Canterbury, but came in too late to preach.Tuesday, 24.—Abundance of soldiers and many officers came to the preaching. And surely the

fear and the love of God will prepare them either for death or victory.Wednesday, 25.—I dined with Colonel ---, who said, “No men fight like those who fear God;

I had rather command five hundred such, than any regiment in his Majesty’s army.”Thursday, March 11.—I rode to Pill and preached to a large and attentive congregation. A great

part of them were seafaring men. In the middle of my discourse, a press-gang landed from aman-of-war and came up to the place; but after they had listened a while, they went quietly by andmolested nobody.

Monday, 15.—I rode to the Old Passage; but finding we could not pass, we went on to Purton;which we reached about four in the afternoon. But we were no nearer still; for the boatmen livedon the other side, and the wind was so high we could not possibly make them hear. However, wedetermined to wait awhile, and in a quarter of an hour they came of their own accord. We reachedColeford before seven and found a plain, loving people, who received the Word of God with allgladness.

Friday, 19.—I rode over to Howell Harris at Trevecka, though not knowing how to get anyfurther. But he helped us out of our difficulties, offering to send one with us who would show usthe way and bring our horses back; so I then determined to go on to Holyhead, after spending a dayor two at Brecknock.

Saturday, 20.—It being the day appointed for the justices and commissioners to meet, the townwas extremely full, and curiosity (if no better motive) brought most of the gentlemen to the preaching.

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Such another opportunity could not have been of speaking to all the rich and great of the county;they all appeared to be serious and attentive. Perhaps one or two may lay it to heart.

Monday, 22.—It continued fair till we came to Builth, where I preached to the usualcongregation. Mr. Phillips then guided us to Royader, about fourteen English miles. It snowedhard behind us and on both sides, but not at all where we were.

Tuesday, 23.—When we took horse, there was nothing to be seen but a waste of white; thesnow covered both hills and vales. As we could see no path, it was not without much difficulty, aswell as danger, that we went on. But between seven and eight the sun broke out and the snow beganto melt, so we thought all our difficulty was over; about nine, the snow fell faster than ever. In anhour it changed into hail, which, as we rode over the mountains, drove violently in our face. Abouttwelve this turned into hard rain, followed by an impetuous wind. However, we pushed on throughall and before sunset came to Dolgelly.

Waiting for the Ferry

Here we found everything we wanted except sleep, of which we were deprived by a companyof drunken sea captains, who kept possession of the room beneath us till between two and three inthe morning. We did not take horse till after six and then we could make no great speed, the frostbeing exceedingly sharp and much ice in the road. Hence we were not able to reach Tannabull tillbetween eleven and twelve. An honest Welshman here gave us to know (though he spoke no English)that he was just going over the sands. So we hastened on with him and by that means came in goodtime to Carnarvon.

Here we passed a quiet and comfortable night, and took horse about six in the morning.Supposing, after we had ridden nearly an hour, that a little house on the other side was theferry-house, we went down to the water and called amain; but we could not procure any answer.In the meantime it began to rain hard, though the wind was extremely high. Finding none wouldcome over, we went to a little church which stood near, for shelter.

We had waited about an hour when a woman and girl came into the churchyard, whom I didnot mind, supposing they could speak no English. They were following a sheep, which ran closeto us. I then asked, “Is not this Baldon Ferry?” The girl answered, “Baldon Ferry! No. The ferry istwo miles further.” So we might have called long enough. When we came to Baldon the wid fell,the sky cleared up, the boat came over without delay and soon landed us in Anglesey. On our wayto Holyhead, one met and informed us that the packet had sailed the night before. I said, “Perhapsit may carry me for all that.” So we pushed on and came thither in the afternoon. The packet didsail the night before and got more than half sea over. But the wind turning against them and blowinghard, they were glad to get back this afternoon.

I scarcely ever remember so violent a storm as blew all the night long. The wind continuedcontrary the next day.

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Irish Honesty

Monday, 29.—We left the harbor about twelve, having six or seven officers and abundance ofpassengers on board. The wind was full west, and there was great probability of a stormy night. Soit was judged best to put back; but one gentleman making a motion to try a little longer, in a shorttime brought all over to his opinion. So they agreed to go out and “look for a wind.”

The wind continued westerly all the night. Nevertheless, in the morning we were within twoleagues of Ireland! Between nine and ten I landed at Howth and walked on for Dublin. Thecongregation in the evening was such as I never saw here before. I hope this also is a token forgood.

Wednesday, 21.—In conversing with many, I was surprised to find that all Ireland is in perfectsafety. None here has any more apprehension of an invasion than of being swallowed up in the sea,everyone being absolutely assured that the French dare not attempt any such thing.

Thursday, April 1.—I bought one or two books at Mr. Smith’s, on the Blind Quay. I wantedchange for a guinea, but he could not give it; so I borrowed some silver of my companion. Thenext evening a young gentleman came from Mr. Smith’s to tell me I had left a guinea on his counter.Such an instance of honesty I have rarely met with, either in Bristol or London.

A Remarkable Premonition Fulfilled

Wednesday, 28.—I rode to Tullamore, where one of the society, Edward Willis, gave me a verysurprising account of himself, he said:

“When I was about twenty years old, I went to Waterford for business. After a few weeks Iresolved to leave it and packed up my things, in order to set out the next morning. This was Sunday,but my landlord pressed me much not to go till the next day. In the afternoon we walked out togetherand went into the river. After a while, leaving him near the shore, I struck out into the deep. I soonheard a cry and, turning, saw him rising and sinking in the channel of the river. I swam back withall speed and, seeing him sink again, dived down after him. When I was near the bottom, he claspedhis arm round my neck and held me so fast that I could not rise.

“Seeing death before me, all my sins came into my mind and I faintly called for mercy. In awhile my senses went away and I thought I was in a place full of light and glory, with abundanceof people. While I was thus, he who held me died, and I floated up to the top of the water. I thenimmediately came to myself and swam to the shore, where several stood who had seen us sink andsaid they never knew such a deliverance before; for I had been under water full twenty minutes. Itmade me more serious for two or three months. Then I returned to all my sins.

“But in the midst of all, I had a voice following me everywhere, ‘When an able minister of thegospel comes, it will be well with thee!’ Some years after I entered into the army; our troop lay atPhillipstown, when Mr. W. came. I was much affected by his preaching, but not so as to leave mysins. The voice followed me still, and when Mr. J. W. came, before I saw him I had an unspeakableconviction that he was the man I looked for. Soon after I found peace with God, and it was wellwith me indeed.”

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Preaching in a Loft

Monday, May 10.—I went forward to Clonmell, the pleasantest town, beyond all comparison,which I have yet seen in Ireland. It has four broad, straight streets of well-built houses, which crosseach other in the center of the town. Close to the walls, on the south side, runs a broad, clear river.Beyond this rises a green and fruitful mountain, and hangs over the town. The vale runs many milesboth east and west, and is well cultivated throughout.

I preached at five in a large loft, capable of containing five or six hundred people. But it wasnot full, many being afraid of its falling, as another did some years before; by which several of thehearers were much hurt, and one so bruised that she died in a few days.

Tuesday, 11.—I was at a loss where to preach, the person who owned the loft refusing to letme preach there, or even in the yard below. And the commanding officer being asked for the useof the barrack-yard, answered, it was not a proper place. “Not,” said he, “that I have any objectionto Mr. Wesley. I will hear him if he preaches under the gallows.” It remained to preach in the street,and by this means the congregation was more than doubled. Both the officers and soldiers gavegreat attention, till a poor man, special drunk, came marching down the street, attended by a popishmob, with a club in one hand and a large cleaver in the other, grievously cursing and blaspheming,and swearing he would cut off the preacher’s head. It was with difficulty that I restrained thetroopers, especially them that were not of the society.

When he came nearer, the mayor stepped out of the congregation and strove, by good words,to make him quiet; but he could not prevail. He went into his house and returned with is whitewand. At the same time he sent for two constables, who presently came with their staves. He chargedthem not to strike the man unless he struck first; but this he did immediately, as soon as they camewithin his reach, and wounded one of them in the wrist. On this, the other knocked him down,which he did three times before he would submit. The mayor then walked before, the constableson either hand, and conducted him to the gaol.

A Terrible Dream

Thursday, June 3.—I received a remarkable letter from a clergyman, whom I had been a dayor two before. Part of it ran thus:

“I had the following account from the gentlewoman herself, a person of piety and veracity. Sheis now the wife of Mr. J--- B---, silversmith, in Cork.

“’About thirty years ago, I was addressed by way of marriage by Mr. Richard Mercier, then avolunteer in the army. The young gentleman was quartered at that time in Charleville, where myfather lived, who approved of his addresses and directed me to look upon him as my future husband.When the regiment left the town, he promised to return in two months and marry me. FromCharleville he went to Dublin; thence to his father’s, and from thence to England; where, his fatherhaving bought him a Cornetcy of horse, he purchased many ornaments for the wedding; returningto Ireland, he let us know that he would be at our house in Charleville in a few days.

“’On this the family was busied to prepare for his reception and the ensuing marriage; whenone night, my sister Molly and I being asleep in our bed, I was awakened by the sudden opening

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of the side-curtain and, starting up, saw Mr. Mercier standing by the bedside. He was wrapped upin a loose sheet, and had a napkin folded like a nightcap on his head. He looked at me very earnestlyand, lifting up the napkin, which much shaded his face, showed me the left side of his head, allbloody and covered with his brains. The room meantime was quite light. My terror was excessive,which was still increased by his stooping over the bed and embracing me in his arms. My criesalarmed the whole family, who came crowding into the room.

“’Upon their entrance, he gently withdrew his arms, and ascended, as it were, through theceiling. I continued for some time in strong fits. When I could speak, I told them what I had seen.One of them, a day or two after, going to the postmaster for letters, found him reading thenewspapers, in which was an account that Cornet Mercier’s going into Christ Church belfry, inDublin, just after the bells had been ringing; he was standing under the bells when one of them,which was turned bottom upwards, suddenly turned again, struck one side of his head, and killedhim on the spot. On further inquiry, we found he was struck on the left side of his head.’”

Sunday, July 4.—In the morning we rode through Tuam, a neat little town, scarcely half solarge as Islington; nor is the cathedral half so large as Islington church. The old church at Kilconnel,two miles from Aghrim, is abundantly larger. If one may judge by the vast ruins that remain (overall which we walked in the afternoon), it was a far more stately pile of building than any that isnow standing in Ireland. Adjoining it are the ruins of a large monastery; many of the cells andapartments are pretty entire. At the west end of the church lie abundance of skulls, piled one uponanother, with innumerable bones round about, scattered as dung upon the earth. O sin, what hasthou done!

The Delights of North Wales

Friday, August 6.—On this and the next day I finished my business in Ireland, so as to be readyto sail at an hour’s warning.

Sunday, 8.—We were to sail, the wind being fair; but as we were going aboard, it turned fulleast. I find it of great use to be in suspense: it is an excellent means of breaking our will. May webe ready either to stay longer on this shore or to launch into eternity!

On Tuesday evening I preached my farewell sermon. Mr. Walsh did the same in the morning.We then walked to the quay. But it was still a doubt whether we were to sail or no, Sir T. P. havingsent word to the captain of the packet that if the wind were fair, he would go over; and it was hiscustom to keep the whole ship to himself. But the wind coming to the east, he would not go; soabout noon we went on board. In two or three hours we reached the mouth of the harbor. It thenfell calm. We had five cabin-passengers beside Mr. Walsh, Haughton, Morgan, and me. They wereall civil and tolerably serious; the sailors likewise behaved uncommonly well.

Thursday, 12.—About eight we began singing on the quarter-deck and soon drew all our fellowpassengers, as well as the captain, with the greatest part of his men. I afterward gave an exhortation.We then spent some time in prayer. They all kneeled down with us; nor did their seriousness wearoff all the day. About nine we landed at Holyhead, after a pleasant passage of twenty-three hours.

Friday, 13.—Having hired horses for Chester, we set out about seven. Before one we reachedBangor, the situation of which is delightful beyond expression. Here we saw a large and handsome

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cathedral, but no trace of the good old monks of Bangor so many hundreds of whom fell a sacrificeat once to cruelty and revenge. The country from hence to Penmaen-Mawr is far pleasanter thanany garden. Mountains of every shape and size, vales clothed with grass or corn, woods and smallertufts of trees, were continually varying on the one hand, as was the sea prospect on the other.

Penmaen-Mawr itself rises almost perpendicular to an enormous height from the sea. The roadruns along the side of it, so far above the beach that one could not venture to look down except thatthere is a wall built all along, about four feet high. Meantime, the ragged cliff hangs over one’shead as if it would fall every moment. An hour after we had left this awful place, we came to theancient town of Conway. It is walled round, and the walls are in tolerably good repair. The castleis the noblest ruin I ever saw. It is four-square and has four large round towers, one at each corner,the inside of which have been stately apartments. One side of the castle is a large church, thewindows and arches of which have been curiously wrought. An arm of the sea runs round two sidesof the hill on which the castle stands—once the delight of kings, now overgrown with thorns andinhabited by doleful birds only.

Wesley’s Debt of f 1236

Wednesday, 25.—We rode on to Bristol.Thursday, 26.—About fifty of us being met, the Rules of the Society were read over and carefully

considered one by one; but we did not find any that could be spared. So we all agreed to abide bythem all and to recommend them with our might.

We then largely considered the necessity of keeping in the church and using the clergy withtenderness, and there was no dissenting voice. God made us all of one mind and judgment.

Friday, 27.—The Rules of the Bands were read over and considered, one by one; which rules,after some verbal alterations, we all agreed to observe and enforce.

Saturday, 28.—My brother and I closed the conference by a solemn declaration of our purposenever to separate from the church, and all our brethren concurred therein.

Monday, September 6.—I set out in the machine, and on Tuesday evening came to London.Wednesday and Thursday, I settled my temporal business. It is now about eighteen years since

I began writing and printing books; and how much in that time have I gained by printing? Why,on summing up my accounts, I found that on March 1, 1756 (the day I left London last), I hadgained by printing and preaching together a debt of twelve hundred and thirty-six pounds.

Sunday, October 10.—I preached to a huge multitude in Moorfields on “Why will ye die, Ohouse of Israel?” It is field-preaching which does the execution still; for usefulness there is nonecomparable to it.

Wesley on Electricity as a Cure

Tuesday, November 9.—Having procured an apparatus on purpose, I ordered several personsto be electrified who were ill of various disorders; some of whom found an immediate, some a

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gradual, cure. From this time I appointed, first some hours in every week and afterward an hour inevery day, wherein any that desired it might try the virture of this surprising medicine. Two or threeyears after, our patients were so numerous that we were obliged to divide them: so part wereelectrified in Southwark, part at the Foundry, others near St. Paul’s, and the rest near the SevenDials. The same method we have taken ever since; and to this day, while hundreds, perhapsthousands, have received unspeakable good, I have not known one man, woman, or child, who hasreceived any hurt thereby: so that when I hear any talk of the danger of being electrified (especiallyif they are medical men who talk so), I cannot but impute it to great want either of sense or honesty.

Chapter 11. "I do Indeed Live by Preaching"; Wesley's Advice to Travelers;Wesley and the French Prisoners

1757. Tuesday, May 31.--I breakfasted at Dumfries and spent an hour with a poor backsliderof London, who had been for some years settled there. We then rode through an uncommonlyPleasant country (so widely distant is common report from truth) to Thorny Hill, two or three milesfrom the Duke of Queensborough's seat; an ancient and noble pile of building, delightfully situatedon the side of a pleasant and fruitful hill. But it gives no pleasure to its owner, for he does not evenbehold it with his eyes. Surely this is a sore evil under the sun; a man has all things and enjoysnothing.

We rode afterward partly over and partly between some of the finest mountains, I believe, inEurope; higher than most, if not than any, in England, and clothed with grass to the very top. Soonafter four we came to Lead Hill, a little town at the foot of the mountains, wholly inhabited byminers.

In Glasgow Cathedral

Wednesday, June 1.--We rode on to Glasgow; a mile short of which we met Mr. Gillies, ridingout to meet us.

In the evening the tent (so they call a covered pulpit) was Placed in the yard of the poorhouse,a very large and commodious Place. Fronting the pulpit was the infirmary, with most of their mannerof baptizing. I believe this removed much prejudice.

Friday, 3.--At seven the congregation was increased, and earnest attention sat on every face.In the afternoon we walked to the college and saw the new library, with the collection of pictures.Many of them are by Raphael, Rubens, Van Dyck, and other eminent hands; but they have notroom to place them to advantage, their whole building being very small.

Saturday, 4--l walked through all parts of the old cathedral, a very large and once beautifulstructure; I think, more lofty than that at Canterbury and nearly the same length and breadth. Wethen went up the main steeple, which gave us a fine prospect both of the city and the adjacentcountry. A more fruitful and better cultivated plain is scarcely to be seen in England. Indeed nothingis wanting but more trade (which would, naturally bring more people), to make a great part ofScotland no way inferior to the best counties in England.

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I was much pleased with the seriousness of the people in the evening; but still I prefer theEnglish congregation. I cannot be reconciled to men sitting at prayer, or covering their heads whilethey are singing praise to God.

Wesley Sings a Scotch Psalm

Thursday, 9.--Today, Douglas, the play which has made so much noise, was put into my hands.I was astonished to find it is one of the finest tragedies I have ever read. What pity that a few lineswere not left out, and that it was ever acted at Edinburghl

Friday, 10.--l found myself much out of order, till the flux stopped at once, without any medicine.But being still weak, and the sun shining extremely hot, I was afraid I should not be able to goround by Kelso. Vain fear! God took care, for this also. The wind, which had been full east forseveral days, turned this morning full west and blew just in our face; about ten the clouds rose andkept us cool till we came to Kelso.

At six, William Coward and I went to the market house. We stayed some time, and neither man,woman, nor child came near us. At length I began singing a Scotch psalm, and fifteen or twentypeople came within hearing, but with great circ*mspection, keeping their distance as though theyknew not what might follow. But while I prayed, their number increased; so that in a few minutesthere was a pretty large congregation. I suppose the chief men of the town were there; and I sparedneither rich nor poor. I almost wondered at myself, it not being usual with me to use so keen andcutting expressions; and I believe many felt that, for all their form, they were but heathens still.

Monday, 13--l proclaimed the love of Christ to sinners, in the market place at Morpeth. Thencewe rode to Placey. The society of colliers here may be a pattern to all the societies in England. Noperson ever misses his band or class; they have no jar of any kind among them but with one heartand one mind "provoke one another to love and to good works." After preaching I met the societyin a room as warm as any in Georgia; this, with the scorching heat of the sun when we rode on,quite exhausted my strength. But after we came to Newcastle I soon recovered and preached withas much ease as in the morning.

Thursday, 16.--In the evening I preached at Sunderland. I then met the society and told themplainly that none could stay with us unless he would part with all sin; particularly, robbing theKing, selling or buying run goods, which I could no more suffer than robbing on the highway. ThisI enforced on every member the next day. A few would not promise to refrain, so these I was forcedto cut off. About two hundred and fifty were of a better mind.

Wednesday, 22.--In the evening and the following morning I preached at Chester-on-the-Strate.Observing some very fine, but not very modest, pictures in the parlor where we supped, I desiredmy companion, when the company was gone, to put them where they could do no hurt. He piledthem on a heap in a corner of the room, and they have not appeared since.

"I Do Indeed Live by Preaching!"

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Thursday, July 28 (Sheffield).--I received a strange account from Edward Bennet's eldestdaughter:

On Tuesday, the twelfth of this month, I told my husband in the morning, 'I desire you will notgo into the water today, at least, not into the deep water, on the far side of the town; for I dreamedI saw you there out of your depth, and only your head came up just above the water.' He promisedme he would not, and went to work.

"Soon after four in the afternoon, being at John Hanson's (his partner's) house, I was on a suddenextremely sick, so that for some minutes I seemed just ready to expire. Then I was well in a moment.Just at that time, John Hanson, who was an excellent swimmer, persuaded my husband to go intothe water on the far side of the town. He objected--the water was deep, and he could not swim;being much importuned to go in, he stood some time after he was undressed, and then kneelingdown, prayed with an earnest and loud voice. When he rose from his knees, John, who wasswimming, called him again and, treading the water, said, 'See, it is only breast-high.' He steppedin and sank. A man who was near, cutting fern, and who had observed him for some time, ran tothe bank and saw his head come up just above the water. The second or third time he rose, heclasped his hands, and cried aloud, 'Lord Jesus, receive my spirit.' Immediately he sank, and roseno more."

One might naturally inquire, What became of John Hanson? As soon as he saw his partner sink,he swam from him to the other side, put on his clothes, and went straight home.

About noon I preached at Woodseats; in the evening at Sheffield. I do indeed live by preaching!How quiet is this country now, since the chief persecutors are no more seenl How many of them

have been snatched away in an hour when they looked not for it! Some time since, a woman ofThorpe often swore she would wash her bands in the heart's blood of the next preacher that came.But before the next preacher came she was carried to her long home. A little before John Johnsonsettled at Wentwerth, a stout, healthy man who lived there told his neighbors, "After May Day weshall have nothing but praying and preaching but I will make noise enough to stop it." But beforeMay Day he was silent in his grave. A servant of Lord R-- was as bitter as he and told many liespurposely to make mischief; but before this was done, his mouth was stopped. He was drowned inone of the fishponds.

Wesley at Charterhouse

Monday, August 8 (London).--I took a walk in the Charterhouse. I wondered that all the squaresand buildings, and especially the schoolboys, looked so little. But this is easily accounted for. I waslittle myself when I was at school and measured all about me by myself. Accordingly, the upperboys being then bigger than myself seemed to me very big and tall, quite contrary to what theyappear now when I am taller and bigger than they. I question if this is not the real ground of thecommon imagination that our forefathers, and in general men in past ages, were much larger thannow, an imagination current in the world eighteen hundred years ago. Whereas, in reality, menhave been, at least ever since the deluge, very nearly the same as we find them now, both for statureand understanding.

Friday, September 7.--I rode to St. Agnes.

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Sunday, 4—I. T. preached at five. I could scarcely have believed if I had not heard it that fewmen of learning write so correctly as an unlearned tinner speaks extempore. Mr. V. preached twosuch thundering sermons at church as I have scarcely heard these twenty years.

Monday, 5.--l rode on to Illogan, but not to the house where I used to preach; indeed his wifepromised Mr. P., before he died, that she would always receive the preachers; but she soon changedher mind. God has just taken her only son, suddenly killed by a pit failing upon him; and on Tuesdaylast, a young, strong man, riding to his burial, dropped off his horse stone dead. The concurrenceof these awful providences added considerably to our congregation.

Saturday, 10.--We rode to the Land's End. I know no natural curiosity like this. The vast raggedstones rise on every side, when you are near the point of land, with green turf between as level andsmooth as if it were the effect of art. And the rocks which terminate the land are so torn by the seathat they appear like great heaps of ruins.

Sunday, 11.--I preached at St. Just at nine. At one, the congregation in Morva stood on a slopingground, rank above rank, as in a theater. Many of them bewailed their want of God, and many tastedhow gracious He is.

At five I preached in Newlyn, to a huge multitude; and one only seemed to be offended--a verygood sort of woman, who took great pains to get away, crying aloud, "Nay, if going to church andsacrament will not put us to heaven, I know not what will."

Wesley Opposed by Mayor and Minister

Wednesday, 21.--After an hour with a few friends in Truro, I rode forward to Grampound, amean, inconsiderable, dirty village. However, it is a borough townl Between twelve and one I beganpreaching in a meadow, to a numerous congregation. While we were singing, I observed a personin black on the far side of the meadow, who said, "'Come down; you have no business there." Someboys who were on a wall, taking it for granted that he spoke to them, got down in all haste. I wenton, and he walked away. I afterward understood that he was the minister and the Mayor ofGrampound. Soon after, two constables came and said, "Sir, the mayor says you shall not preachwithin his borough." I answered, "The mayor has no authority to hinder me. But it is a point notworth contesting." So I went about a musket-shot farther and left the borough to Mr. Mayor'sdisposal.

Thursday, 22.--I rode to Mevagissey, which lies on the south sea, just opposite to Port Isaac onthe north. When I was here last, we had no place in the town; I could only preach about half a milefrom it. But things are altered now: I preached just over the town, to almost all the inhabitants, andall were still as night. The next evening a drunken man made some noise behind me. But after afew words were spoken to him, he quietly listened to the rest of the discourse.

Saturday, 24--At half-hour after twelve I preached once more and took my leave of them. Allthe time I stayed the wind blew from the sea so that no boat could stir out. By this means all thefishermen (who are the chief part of the town) had opportunity of hearing.

At six I preached at St. Austle, a neat little town on the side of a fruitful hill.Sunday, 25.--At two I preached in St. Stephen's, near a lone house, on the side of a barren

mountain; but neither the house nor the court could contain the people; so we went into a meadow,

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where all might kneel (which they generally do in Cornwall), as well as stand and hear. And theydid hear, and sing, and pray, as for life. I saw none careless or inattentive among them.

Fire at Kingswood School

Monday, October 24--l preached about noon at Bath, and in the evening at Escot, near Lavington.Tuesday, 25.--In my return, a man met me near Hannam and told me the schoolhouse at

Kingswood had burned down. I felt not one moment's pain, knowing that God does all things well.When I came thither, I received a fuller account: about eight on Monday evening, two or three boyswent into the gallery, up two pair of stairs. One of them heard a strange crackling in the room above.Opening the staircase door, he was beat back by smoke, on which he cried out, "Firel MurderlFire!" Mr. Baynes, hearing this, ran immediately down and brought up a pail of water. But whenhe went into the room and saw the blaze, he had not presence of mind to go up to it but threw thewater upon the floor.

Meantime one of the boys rang the bell; another called John Maddern from the next house, whoran up, as did James Burges quickly after, and found the room all in a flame. The deal partitionstook fire immediately, which spread to the roof of the house. Plenty of water was now brought; butthey could not come nigh the place where it was wanted, the room being so filled with flame andsmoke that none could go into it. At last a long ladder, which lay in the garden, was reared upagainst the wall of the house. But it was then observed that one of the sides of it was broken in twoand the other quite rotten. However, John How (a young man who lived next door) ran up it, withan axe in his hand. But he then found the ladder was so short that, as he stood on the top of it, hecould but just lay one hand over the battlements.

How he got over to the leads none can tell; but he did so and quickly broke through the roof,on which a vent being made, the smoke and flame issued out as from a furnace. Those who wereat the foot of the stairs with water, being able to go no further, then went through the smoke to thedoor of the leads and poured it down through the tiling. By this means the fire was quickly quenched,having consumed only a part of the partition, with a box of clothes, and a little damaged the roofand the floor beneath.

In Norfolk and Suffolk

Wednesday, November 23 (Norwich).--I was shown Dr. Taylor's new meetinghouse, perhapsthe most elegant one in Europe. It is eight-square, built of the finest brick, with sixteen sash-windowsbelow, as many above, and eight skylights in the dome, which, indeed, are purely ornamental. Theinside is finished in the highest taste and is as clean as any nobleman's saloon. The communiontable is fine mahogany; the very latches of the pew doors are polished brass. How can it be thoughtthat the old, coarse gospel should find admission here?

Thursday, 24.--A man had spoken to me the last week as I was going through Thetford, anddesired me to preach at Lakenheath, near Mildenhall, in Suffolk. I now purposed so to do and rode

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thither from Thetford. One Mr. Evans had lately built a large and convenient preaching house there,at his own expense. It was more than filled at six o'clock, many standing at the door. At five in themorning (as uncommon a thing as this was in those parts) the house was nearly filled again withearnest, loving, simple people. Several of them came in to Mr. E's house after- ward, stood a while,and then burst into tears. I promised to call upon them again and left them much comforted.

1758. Wednesday, January 4.--I rode to Kingswood and rejoiced over the school, which is atlength what I have so long wished it to be--a blessing to all that are therein, and an honor to thewhole body of Methodists.

Another Ninety-mile Journey

Monday, March 6 (London).--I took horse about seven o'clock. The wind being east, I waspleasing myself that we should have it on our back; but in a quarter of an hour it shifted to thenorthwest and blew the rain full in our face; both increased so that when we came to FinchleyCommon it was hard work to sit our horses. The rain continued all the way to Dunstable, wherewe exchanged the main road for the fields; which, having been just ploughed, were deep enough.However, before three we came to Sundon.

Hence, on Thursday, 9, I rode to Bedford and found the sermon was not to be preached tillFriday. Had I known this in time, I should never have thought of preaching it, having engaged tobe at Epworth on Saturday.

Friday, 10.--The congregation at St. Paul's was very large and very attentive. The judge,immediately after the sermon, sent me an invitation to dine with him. But having no time, I wasobliged to send my excuse and set out between one and two. The northeast wind was piercing coldand, blowing exactly in our faces, soon brought a heavy shower of snow, then of sleet, and afterwardof hail. However, we reached Stilton at seven, about thirty miles from Bedford.

Rest was now the more sweet, because both our horses were lame. However, resolving to reachEpworth at the time appointed, I set out in a post chaise between four and five in the morning; butthe frost made it so bad driving that my companion came with the lame horses into Stamford assoon as I. The next stage I went on horseback; but I was then obliged to leave my mare and takeanother post chaise. I came to Bawtry about six. Some from Epworth had come to meet me, butwere gone half an hour before I came. I knew no chaise could go the rest of the road, so it remainedonly to hire horses and a guide.

We set out about seven, but I soon found my guide knew no more of the way than I. However,we got pretty well to Idlestop, about four miles from Bawtry, where we had just light to discernthe river at our side and the country covered with water. I had heard that one Richard Wright livedthereabouts who knew the road over the moor perfectly well. Hearing one speak (for we could notsee him), I called "Who is there?” He answered, "Richard Wright." I soon agreed with him, and hequickly mounted his horse and rode boldly forward. Tne northeast wind blew full in our faces; andI heard them say, "It is very cold!" But neither my face, nor hands, nor feet were cold till betweennine and ten when we came to Epworth; after traveling more than ninety miles, I was little moretired than when I rose in the morning.

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Wesley's Advice to Travelers

Tuesday, August 1.--The captain with whom we were to sail was in great haste to have ourthings on board; but I would not send them while the wind was against us. On Wednesday he sentmessage after message, so in the evening we went down to the ship, near Passage; but there wasnothing ready, or near ready for sailing. Hence I learned two or three rules very needful for thosewho sail between England and Ireland: 1) never pay till you set sail; 2) go not on board till thecaptain goes on board; 3) send not your baggage on board till you go yourself.

Thursday, 17--l went to the Bristol cathedral to hear Mr. Handel's Messiah. I doubt if thatcongregation was ever so serious at a sermon as they were during this performance. In many parts,especially several of the choruses, it exceeded my expectation.

Monday, October 16.--I rode to Canterbury. As we came into the city, a stone flew-out of thepavement and struck my mare upon the leg with such violence that she dropped down at once. Ikept my seat till, in struggling to arise, she fell again and rolled over me. When she rose I endeavoredto rise too but found I had no use of my right leg or thigh. But an honest barber came out, lifted meup, and helped me into his shop. Feeling myself very sick, I desired a glass of cold water, whichinstantly gave me ease.

Friday, 27--I rode on through an extremely pleasant and fruitful country, to Colchester. I haveseen very few such towns in England. It lies on the ridge of a hill, with other hills on each sidewhich run parallel with it at a small distance. The two main streets, one running east and west, theother north and south, are quite straight the whole length of the town and fully as broad as Cheapside.

I preached at four on St. John's Green, at the side of a high old wall (a place that seemed to bemade on purpose), to an extremely attentive audience; and again at eight in the morning, on Saturday,28, and at four in the afternoon. In the hours between I took the opportunity of speaking to themembers of the society. In three months here are joined together a hundred and twenty persons. Afew of these know in whom they have believed, and many are sensible of their wants.

Wesley at Norwich and Colchester

Sunday, November 5 (Norwich).--We went to St. Peter's Church, the Lord's supper beingadministered there. I scarcely ever remember to have seen a more beautiful parish church: the moreso, because its beauty results not from foreign ornaments, but from the very form and structure ofit. It is very large and of an uncommon height, and the sides are almost all window; so that it hasan awful and venerable look and, at the same time, surprisingly cheerful.

Monday, December 4--I was desired to step into the little church behind the Mansion House,commonly called St. Stephen's, Walbrook. It is nothing grand, but neat and elegant beyondexpression. So that I do not wonder at the speech of the famous Italian architect who met LordBurlington in Italy: "My Lord, go back and see St. Stephen's in London. We have not so fine apiece of architecture in Rome."

Friday, 29.--Today I walked all over the famous castle (Colchester), perhaps the most ancientbuilding in England. A considerable part of it is, without question, fourteen or fifteen hundred yearsold. It was mostly built with Roman bricks, each of which is about two inches thick, seven broad,

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and thirteen or fourteen long. Seat of ancient kings, British and Roman, once dreaded far and near!But what are they now? Is not "a living dog better than a dead lion"? And what is it wherein theyprided themselves, as do the present great ones of the earth?

A little pomp, a little sway,A sunbeam in a winter's clay,Is all the great and mighty haveBetween the cradle and the gravel1759. Sunday, May 6.—I received much comfort at the old church (Liverpool) in the morning

and at St. Thomas's in the afternoon. It was as if both the sermons had been made for me. I pitythose who can find no good at church. But how should they if prejudice come between, an effectualbar to the grace of God?

The Sands of Ravenglass

Saturday, 12.--Setting out early we came to Bottle about twenty-four measured miles fromFluckborough, soon after eight, having crossed the Millam Sand without either guide or difficulty.Here we were informed that we could not pass at Ravenglass before one or two o'clock; whereas,had we gone on (as we afterwards found), we might have passed immediately. About eleven wewere directed to a ford near Manchester Hall, which they said we might cross at noon. When wecame thither, they told us we could not cross; so we sat still till about one. We then found we couldhave crossed at noon. However, we reached Whitehaven before night. But I have taken my leaveof the sand road. I believe it is ten measured miles shorter than the other. But there are four sandsto pass, so far from each other that it is scarcely possible to pass them all in a day; especially asyou have all the way to do with a generation of liars who detain all strangers as long as they can,either for their own gain or their neighbors'. I can advise no stranger to go this way; he may goround by Kendal and Keswick, often in less time, always with less expense and far less trial of hispatience.

Useless Doctors

Reflecting today on the case of a poor woman who had continual pain in her stomach, I couldnot but remark the inexcusable negligence of most physicians in cases of this nature. They prescribedrug upon drug without knowing a jot of the matter concerning the root of the disorder. And withoutknowing this, they cannot cure, though they can murder, the patient. Whence came this woman'spain? (which she would never have told, had she never been questioned about it) from fretting forthe death of her son. And what availed medicines while that fretting continued? Why then do notall physicians consider how far bodily disorders are caused or influenced by the mind, and in thosecases, which are utterly out of their sphere, call in the assistance of a minister; as ministers, whenthey find the mind disordered by the body, call in the assistance of a physician? But why are these

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cases out of their sphere? Because they know not God. It follows, no man can be a thoroughphysician without being an experienced Christian.

Thursday, 17.--I inquired into a signal instance of Providence. When a coalpit runs far underthe ground it is customary here to build a partition wall, nearly from the shaft to within three orfour yards of the end, in order to make the air circulate; it then moves down one side of the wall,turns at the end, and then moves briskly up on the other side. In a pit two miles from the town,which ran full four hundred yards under the ground and had been long neglected, several parts ofthis wall were fallen down. Four men were sent down to repair it. They were about three hundredyards from the shaft, when the foul air took fire. In a moment it tore down the wall from end toend; and, burning on till it came to the shaft, it then burst and went off like a large cannon.

Fire in a Coalpit

The men instantly fell on their faces, or they would have been burned to death in a few moments.One of them, who once knew the love of God (Andrew English), began crying aloud for mercy.But in a very short time his breath was stopped. The other three crept on their hands and knees, tilltwo got to the shaft and were drawn up; but one of them died in a few minutes. John McCombewas drawn up next, burned from head to foot, but rejoicing and praising God. They then went downfor Andrew, whom they found senseless, the very circ*mstance which saved his life. For, losinghis senses, he lay flat on the ground, and the greatest part of the fire went over him; whereas, hadhe gone forward on his hands and knees, he would undoubtedly have been burned to death. Butlife or death was welcome; for God had restored the light of His countenance.

Monday, 21.--I preached at ten in the market place at Wigton and came to Solway Frith, justas the water was fordable. At some times it is so three hours in twelve; at other times, barely one.

After making a short bait at Rothwell, we came to Dumfries before six o'clock. Having time tospare, we took a walk in the churchyard, one of the pleasantest places I ever saw. A single tomb Iobserved there, which was about a hundred and thirty years old; but the inscription was hardlylegible. So soon do even our sepulchers die! Strange that men should be so careful about them! Butare not many self-condemned therein? They see the folly, while they run into it. So poor Mr. Prior,speaking of his own tomb, has those melancholy words, "For this last piece of human vanity, Ibequeath five hundred pounds.”

Tuesday, 22.--We rode through a pleasant country to Thorny Hill, near which is the grand seatof the Duke of Queensborough. How little did the late duke imagine that his son would plough uphis park and let his house run to ruin! But let it go! In a little time the earth itself, and all the worksof it, shall be burned up.

Hence we rode through and over huge mountains, green to the very top, to Lead Hills; thisvillage contains five hundred families who have had no minister for these four years. So in Scotland,the poor have not the gospel preached! Who shall answer for the blood of these men?

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Newcastle as a Summer Resort

Monday, June 4.--After preaching (at Alnwick), I rode on to Newcastle. Certainly if I did notbelieve there was another world, I should spend all my summers here; I know no place in GreatBritain comparable to it for pleasantness. But I seek another country and therefore am content tobe a wanderer upon the earth.

Thursday, 21.-I preached at Nafferton at one. As I was riding thence, one stopped me on theroad and said, "Sir, do you not remember, when you were at Prudhoe two years since and youbreakfasted at Thomas Newton's? I am his sister. You looked upon me as you were going out, andsaid, 'Be in earnest.’ I knew not then what earnestness meant, nor had any thought about it; but thewords sank into my heart so that I could never rest any more till I sought and found Christ."

Wesley Likes a Soft Cushion

Friday, 22.--I rode to S--k and preached to my old congregation of colliers on "Why will yedie, O house of Israel?" After preaching, a servant of Mr. --- came and said, "Sir, my masterdischarges you from preaching any more on his ground; not out of any disrespect to you, but hewill stand by the Church." "Simple master Shallowl" as Shakespeare has it: wise, wise master rector,his counselor!

Saturday, 23.--I spoke to each of the society in Sunderland. Most of the robbers, commonlycalled smugglers, have left us; but more than twice the number of honest people are already comein their place. And if none had come, yet should I not dare to keep those who steal hither from theKing or subject.

On Monday and Tuesday evening I preached abroad, near the Keelman's Hospital, to twice thepeople we should have had at the house. What marvel the devil does not love field preaching?Neither do I. I love a commodious room, a soft cushion, a handsome pulpit. But where is my zealif I do not trample all these under foot in order to save one more soul?

Wednesday, July 4 (Hartlepool).--Mr. Jones preached at five, I at eight. Toward the close ofthe sermon, a queer, dirty, clumsy man, I suppose a country wit, took a deal of pains to disturb thecongregation. When I had done, fearing he might hurt those who were gathered about him, I desiredtwo or three of our brethren to go to him, one after the other, and not say much themselves but lethim talk till he was weary. They did so, but without effect, as his fund of ribaldry seemedinexhaustible. W. A. then tried another way. He got into the circle close to him and listening a whilesaid, "This is pretty; pray say it over again." "What! are you deaf?" "No; but for the entertainmentof the people. Come; we are all attention." After repeating this twice or thrice, the wag could notstand it; but, with two or three curses, walked clear off.

Defeating the Press-gang

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In the evening I began near Stockton market place as usual. I had hardly finished the hymnwhen I observed the people, in great confusion; this was occasioned by a lieutenant of a man-of-warwho had chosen that time to bring his press-gang and ordered them to take Joseph Jones and WilliamAlwood. Joseph Jones told him, "Sir, I belong to Mr. Wesley." After a few words, he let him go;as he did likewise William Alwood, after a few hours, understanding he was a licensed preacher.He likewise seized upon a young man of the town, but the women rescued him by main strength.They also broke the lieutenant's head and so stoned both him and his men that they ran away withall speed.

Friday, August 3.--I preached at Gainsborough in Sir Nevil Hickman's great hall. It is fully aslarge as the Weaver's Hall in Bristol. At two it was filled with a rude, wild multitude (a few of abetter spirit excepted). Yet all but two or three gentlemen were attentive, while I enforced our Lord'swords, "What shall it profit a man, if he shall gain the whole world and lose his own soul?" I waswalking back through a gaping, staring crowd when Sir Nevil came and thanked me for my sermon,to the no small amazement of his neighbors, who shrank back as if they had seen a ghost.

Extraordinary Trances

Monday, 6 (Everton).--I talked largely with Ann Thorn and two others, who had been severaltimes in trances. What they all agreed in was 1) that when they went away, as they termed it, it wasalways at the time they were fullest of the love of God; 2) that it came upon them in a moment,without any previous notice and took away all their senses and strength; 3) that there were someexceptions, but in general, from that moment, they were in another world, knowing nothing of whatwas done or said by all that were round about them.

About five in the afternoon I heard them singing hymns. Soon after, Mr. B. came up and toldme Alice Miller (fifteen years old) had fallen into a trance. I went down immediately and foundher sitting on a stool and leaning against the wall, with her eyes open and fixed upward. I made amotion as if going to strike, but they continued immovable. Her face showed an unspeakable mixtureof reverence and love, while silent tears stole down her cheeks. Her lips were a little open, andsometimes moved; but not enough to cause any sound.

I do not know whether I ever saw a human face look so beautiful; sometimes it was coveredwith a smile, as from joy, mixing with love and reverence; but the tears fell still though not so fast.Her pulse was quite regular. In about half an hour I observed her countenance change into the formof fear, pity, and distress; then she burst into a flood of tears and cried out, "Dear Lord; they willbe damned! They will all be damnedl" But in about five minutes her smiles returned, and only loveand joy appeared in her face.

About half an hour after six, I observed distress take place again; and soon after she wept bitterlyand cried out, "Dear Lord, they will go to hell! The world will go to hell!" Soon after, she said,"Cry aloud! Spare not!" And in a few moments her look was composed again and spoke a mixtureof reverence, joy, and love. Then she said aloud, "Give God the glory." About seven her sensesreturned. I asked, "Where have you been?"--"I have been with my Saviour." "In heaven, or onearth?"--"I cannot tell; but I was in glory." "Why then did you cry?"--"Not for myself, but for theworld; for I saw they were on the brink of hell." "Whom did you desire to give the glory to

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God?"--"Ministers that cry aloud to the world; else they will be proud; and then God will leavethem, and they will lose their own souls."

Wesley Rides Twenty-four Hundred Miles in Seven Months

Tuesday, 7.--After preaching at four (because of the harvest) I took horse and rode easily toLondon. Indeed I wanted a little rest; having ridden, in seven months, about four-and-twenty hundredmiles.

Monday, 13--l took a little ride to Croydon, one of the seats of the Archbishops of Canterbury.Was it one of these who ordered, many years ago (for the characters are of old standing), thatdreadful inscription to be placed just over the communion table? "And now, O ye priests, thiscommandment is for you. If ye will not hear, and if ye will not lay it to heart, to give glory untomy name, saith the Lord of hosts, I will even send a curse upon you, and I will curse your blessings:yea, I have cursed them already, because ye do not lay it to heart. Behold, I will corrupt your seed,and spread dung upon your faces, even the dung of your solemn feasts, and one shall take you awaywith it" [Mal. 2-1-3].

The Archbishop's palace is an ancient, venerable pile, and the gardens are extremely pleasant.The late Archbishop had improved them at a large expense; but continual illness prevented hisenjoying them; till, after four years' constant pain, he was called away--one may hope to the gardenof God.

I dined at Mr. B.'s, in Epsom, whose house and gardens lie in what was once a chalkpit. It isthe most elegant spot I ever saw with my eyes, everything within doors and without being finishedin the most exquisite taste. Surely nothing on earth can be more delightful. Oh, what will thepossessor feel when he cries out,

Must I then leave thee, paradise? then leaveThese happy shades, and mansions fit for gods?Thursday, 30--l preached at the Tabernacle in Norwich to a large, rude, noisy congregation. I

took knowledge, what manner of teachers they had been accustomed to and determined to mendthem or end them. Accordingly, the next evening after sermon I reminded them of two things: theone, that it was not decent to begin talking aloud as soon as service was ended, and hurrying to andfro, as in a bear garden. The other, that it was a bad custom to gather in knots just after sermon andturn a place of worship into a coffee house. I therefore desired that none would talk under that roof,but go quietly and silently away. And on Sunday, September 2, I had the pleasure to observe thatall went as quietly away as if he had been accustomed to it for many years.

Sunday, September 9.--I met the society at seven and told them in plain terms that they werethe most ignorant, self-conceited, self-willed, fickle, untractable, disorderly, disjointed society thatI knew in the three kingdoms. And God applied it to their hearts so that many were profited; but Ido not find that one was offended.

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Field-preaching Expedient

Friday 14.--l returned to London. Saturday, 15. Having left orders for the immediate repairingof West Street Chapel, I went to see what they had done and saw cause to praise God for this also.The main timbers were so rotten that in many places one might thrust his fingers into them. So thatprobably, had we delayed till spring, the whole building must have fallen to the ground.

Monday, 17.--l went to Canterbury. Two hundred soldiers, I suppose, and a whole row ofofficers attended in the evening. Their number was increased the next evening, and all behaved asmen fearing God. Wednesday, 19, I preached at Dover, in the new room which is just finished.Here also the hearers increase, some of whom are convinced and others comforted daily. Thursday,20. I strongly applied at Canterbury to the soldiers in particular, "He that hath the Son hath life;and he that hath not the Son of God hath not life" [I John 5:12]. The next day, in my return toLondon, I read Mr. Huygens's Conjectures on the Planetary World. He surprised me. I think heclearly proves that the moon is not habitable: that there are neither

Rivers nor mountains on her spotty globe;

that there is no sea, no water on her surface, nor any atmosphere; and hence he very rationallyinfers that "neither are any of the secondary planets inhabited." And who can prove that the primaryare? I know the earth is. Of the rest I know nothing.

Sunday, 23.--A vast majority of the immense congregation in Moorfields were deeply serious.One such hour might convince any impartial man of the expediency of field-preaching. Whatbuilding, except St. Paul's Church, would contain such a congregation? And if it would, what humanvoice could have reached them there? By repeated observations I find I can command thrice thenumber in the open air that I can under a roof. And who can say the time for field-preaching is overwhile 1) greater numbers than ever attend; 2) the converting, as well as convincing, power of Godis eminently present with them?

Wesley Clothes French Prisoners

Monday, October 1 (Bristol).--All my leisure time, during my stay at Bristol, I employed infinishing the fourth volume of “Discourses”; probably the last which I shall publish.

Monday, 15--l walked up to Knowle, a mile from Bristol, to see the French prisoners. Abouteleven hundred of them, we are informed, were confined in that little place, without anything tolie on but a little dirty straw, or anything to cover them but a few foul thin rags, either by day ornight, so that they died like rotten sheep. I was much affected and preached in the evening on(Exodus 23:9), "Thou shalt not oppress a stranger: for ye know the heart of a stranger, seeing yewere strangers in the land of Egypt." Eighteen pounds were contributed immediately, which weremade up four-and-twenty the next day. With this we bought linen and woolen cloth, which weremade up into shirts, waistcoats, and breeches. Some dozen of stockings were added; all which werecarefully distributed where there was the greatest want. Soon after, the Corporation of Bristol senta large quantity of mattresses and blankets. And it was not long before contributions were set onfoot at London and in various parts of the kingdom; so that I believe from this time they were prettywell provided with all the necessaries of life.

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The Truth about Trances

Saturday, November 17 (London).--I spent an hour agreeably and profitably with Lady G--H--, and Sir C-- H--. It is well a few of the rich and noble are called. Oh, that God would increasetheir number! But I should rejoice (were it the will of God), if it were done by the ministry of others.If I might choose, I should still (as I have done hitherto) preach the gospel to the poor.

Friday, 23.--The roads were so extremely slippery that it was with much difficulty we reachedBedford. We had a pretty large congregation; but the stench from the swine under the room wasscarcely supportable. Was ever a preaching place over a hogsty before? Surely they love the gospelwho come to hear it in such a place.

Sunday, 25--In the afternoon God was eminently present with us, though rather to comfort thanconvince. But I observed a remarkable difference, since I was here (Everton) before, as to themanner of the work. None now were in trances, none cried out, none fell down or were convulsed;only some trembled exceedingly, a low murmur was heard, and many were refreshed with themultitude of peace.

The danger was to regard extraordinary circ*mstances too much, such as outcries, convulsions,visions, trances; as if these were essential to the inward work, so that it could not go on withoutthem. Perhaps the danger is, to regard them too little; to condemn them altogether; to imagine theyhad nothing of God in them, and were a hindrance to his work. Whereas the truth is 1) God suddenlyand strongly convinced many that they were lost sinners; the natural consequence whereof weresudden outcries and strong bodily convulsions; 2) to strengthen and encourage them that believed,and to make His work more apparent, He favored several of them with divine dreams, others withtrances and visions; 3) in some of these instances, after a time, nature mixed with grace; 4) Satanlikewise mimicked this work of God in order to discredit the whole work; and yet it is not wise togive up this part any more than to give up the whole. At first, it was, doubtless, wholly from God.It is partly so at this day; and He will enable us to discern how far, in every case, the work is pureand where it mixes or degenerates.

Wednesday, 28.--I returned to London; on Thursday, 29, the day appointed for the generalthanksgiving, I preached again in the chapel near the Seven Dials, both morning and afternoon. Ibelieved the oldest man in England has not seen a thanksgiving day so observed before. It had thesolemnity of the general fast. All the shops were shut up; the people in the streets appeared, oneand all, with an air of seriousness; the prayers, lessons, and whole public service were admirablysuited to the occasion. The prayer for our enemies, in particular, was extremely striking; perhapsit is the first instance of the kind in Europe. There was no noise, hurry, bonfires, fireworks in theevening, and no public diversions. This is indeed a Christian holiday, a "rejoicing unto the Lord."The next day came the news that Sir Edward Hawke had dispersed the French fleet.

Sunday, December 9.--I had, for the first time, a love-feast for the whole society. Wednesday,12. I began reading over the Greek Testament and the notes, with my brother and several others;carefully comparing the translation with the original and correcting or enlarging the notes as wesaw occasion.

The same day I spent part of the afternoon in the British Museum. There is a large library, agreat number of curious manuscripts, many uncommon monuments of antiquity, and the wholecollection of shells, butterflies, beetles, grasshoppers, and so forth, which the indefatigable Sir HansSloane, with such vast expense and labor, procured in a life of fourscore years.

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Chapter 12. Wesley's Letter to an Editor; Impositions and Declarations; theSpeaking Statue; Wesley's Pentecost

Wesley and the Irish Question

1760. Wednesday, January 16.--One came to me, as she said, with a message from the Lord,to tell me that I was laying up treasures on earth, taking my ease, and minding only my eating anddrinking. I told her God knew me better; and if He had sent her, He would have sent her with amore proper message.

Monday, April 21.--In riding to Rosmead I read Sir John Davis's Historical Relations concerningIreland. None who reads these can wonder that, fruitful as it is, it was always so thinly inhabited;for he makes it plain 1) that murder was never capital among the native Irish; the murderer paid

only a small fine to the chief of his sept; style="#_ftn29" name="_ftnref29">[1] 2) when theEnglish settled here, still the Irish had no benefit of the English laws. They could not so much assue an Englishman. So the English beat, plundered, yea, murdered them, at pleasure. Hence 3)arose continual wars between them, for three hundred and fifty years together; and hereby both theEnglish and Irish natives were kept few, as well as poor.

4) When they were multiplied during a peace of forty years, from 1600 to 1641, the generalmassacre, with the ensuing war, again thinned their numbers; not so few as a million of men, women,and children, being destroyed in four years' time. 5) Great numbers have ever since, year by year,left the land merely for want of employment. 6) The gentry are continually driving away hundreds,yea, thousands, of them that remain, by throwing such quantities of arable land into pasture, whichleaves them neither business nor food. This it is that now dispeoples many parts of Ireland, ofConnaught in particular, which, it is supposed, has scarcely half the inhabitants at this day whichit had fourscore years ago.

Attack on Wesley's Hat

Tuesday, June 10.--I rode to Drumersnave, a village delightfully situated.At noon William Ley, Jaynes Glasbrook, and I rode to Carrick-upon-Shannon. In less than an

hour, an esquire and justice of the peace came down with a drum and what mob he could gather. Iwent into the garden with the congregation, while he was making a speech to his followers in thestreet. He then attacked William Ley (who stood at the door), being armed with a halbert and longsword, and ran at him with the halbert; but missing his thrust, he then struck at him and broke itshort upon his wrist. Having made his way through the house to the other door, he was at a fullstop. James Glasbrook held it fast on the other side.

While he was endeavoring to force it open, one told him I was preaching in the garden. On thishe quitted the door in haste, ran round the house, and with part of his retinue, climbed over the wallinto the garden; with a whole volley of oaths and curses declared, "You shall not preach here today."I told him, "Sir, I do not intend it, for I have preached already." This made him ready to tear the

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ground. Finding he was not to be reasoned with, I went into the house. Soon after he revengedhimself on James Glasbrook (by breaking the truncheon of his halbert on his arm), and on my hat,which he beat and kicked most valiantly; but a gentleman rescued it out of his hands, and we rodequietly out of the town.

Wednesday, September 10.--When I came to St. Ives, I was determined to preach abroad; butthe wind was so high, I could not stand where I had intended. But we found a little enclosure nearit, one end of which was native rock, rising ten or twelve feet perpendicular, from which the groundfell with an easy descent. A jetting out of the rock, about four feet from the ground, gave me a veryconvenient pulpit. Here well nigh the whole town, high and low, rich and poor, assembled together.Nor was there a word to be heard, or a smile seen, from one end of the congregation to the other.It was just the same the three following evenings. Indeed I was afraid on Saturday that the roaringof the sea, raised by the north wind, would have prevented their hearing. But God gave me so clearand strong a voice that I believe scarcely one word was lost.

Sunday, 14.--At eight I chose a large ground, the sloping side of a meadow, where thecongregation stood, row above row, so that all might see as well as hear. It was a beautiful sight.Everyone seemed to take to himself what was spoken. I believe every back-slider in the town wasthere. And surely God was there, to "heal their backslidings."

I began at Zennor, as soon as the church service ended; I suppose scarcely six persons wentaway.

At five I went once more into the ground at St. Ives and found such a congregation as I thinkwas never seen in a place before (Gwennap excepted) in this county. Some of the chief of the townwere now not in the skirts, but in the thickest of the people. The clear sky, the setting sun, thesmooth, still water, all agreed with the state of the audience.

“A Kind of Waterspout”

Wednesday, 17.--The room at St. Just was quite full at five, and God gave us a parting blessing.At noon I preached on the cliff near Penzance, where no one now gives an uncivil word. Here Iprocured an account, from an eyewitness, of what happened the twenty-seventh of last month. Around pillar, narrowest at bottom, of a whitish color, rose out of the sea near Mousehole and reachedthe clouds. One who was riding over the strand from Marazion to Penzance saw it stand for a shortspace and then move swiftly toward her, till the skirt of it touching her, the horse threw her and ranaway. It had a strong sulphurous smell. It dragged with it abundance of sand and pebbles from theshore; and then went over the land, carrying with it corn, furze, or whatever it found in its way. Itwas doubtless a kind of waterspout; but a waterspout on land, I believe, is seldom seen.

Friday, 19.--I rode to Illogan. We had heavy rain before I began, but scarcely any while I waspreaching. I learned several other particulars here concerning the waterspout. It was seen nearMousehole an hour before sunset. About sunset it began traveling over the land, tearing up all thefurze and shrubs it met. Nearly an hour after sunset it passed (at the rate of four or five miles anhour) across Mr. Harris's fields, in Camborne, sweeping the ground as it went, about twenty yardsin diameter at bottom, and broader and broader up to the clouds. It made a noise like thunder, took

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up eighteen stacks of corn, with a large haystack and the stones whereon it stood, scattered themabroad (but it was quite dry), and then passed over the cliff into the sea.

Saturday, 20.--In the evening I took my old stand in the main street in Redruth. A multitude ofpeople, rich and poor, calmly attended. So is the roughest become one of the quietest towns inEngland.

A Tinner’s Story

Sunday, 21.--I preached in the same place at eight. Mr. C--p of St. Cubert, preached at thechurch both morning and afternoon and strongly confirmed what I had spoken. At one, the daybeing mild and calm, we had the largest congregation of all. But it rained all the time I was preachingat Gwennap. We concluded the day with a love-feast, at which James Roberts, a tinner of St. Ives,related how God had dealt with his soul.

He was one of the first in the society in St. Ives, but soon relapsed into his old sin, drunkenness,and wallowed in it for two years, during which time he headed the mob who pulled down thepreaching-house. Not long after, he was standing with his partner at Edward May's shop when thepreacher went by. His partner said, "I will tell him I am a Methodist." "Nay," said Edward, "yourspeech will betray you." James felt the word as a sword, thinking in himself, "So does my speechnow betray mel" He turned and hastened home, fancying he heard the devil stepping after him allthe way. For forty hours he never closed his eyes or tasted either meat or drink. He was then at hiswit's end and went to the window, looking to drop into hell instantly, when he heard those words,"I will be merciful to thy unrighteousness, thy sins and iniquities will I remember no more" [seeHeb. 8:12]. All his load was gone; and he has now for many years walked worthy of the gospel.

Wednesday, October 22.--Being informed that some neighboring gentlemen had declared theywould apprehend the next preacher who came to Pensford, I rode over to give them the meeting;but none appeared. The house was more than filled with deeply attentive hearers. It seems the timeis come at length for the Word of God to take root here also.

Friday, 24--l visited the French prisoners at Knowle and found many of them almost nakedagain. In hopes of provoking others to jealousy, I made another collection for them and orderedthe money to be laid out in linen and waistcoats, which were given to those that were most in want.

Saturday, 25.--King George was gathered to his fathers. When will England have a better Prince?Many of us agreed to observe Friday, 31, as a day of fasting and prayer for the blessing of God

upon our nation, and in particular on his present Majesty. We met at five, at nine, at one, and athalf-past eight. I expected to be a little tired, but was more lively after twelve at night than I wasat six in the morning.

Wesley Writes to the London Chronicle

1761. January, Friday 2.--I wrote the following letter:"To the Editor of the London Chronicle.

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"Sir,--Of all the seats of woe on this side hell, few, I suppose, exceed or even equal Newgate.If any region of horror could exceed it a few years ago, Newgate in Bristol did; so great was thefilth, the stench, the misery and wickedness, which shocked all who had a spark of humanity left.

How was I surprised then, when I was there a few weeks ago! 1) Every part of it, above stairsand below, even the pit wherein the felons are confined at night is as clean and sweet as a gentleman'shouse; it being now a rule that every prisoner wash and clean his apartment thoroughly twice aweek. 2) Here is no fighting or brawling. If any thinks himself ill-used, the cause is immediatelyreferred to the keeper, who hears the contending parties face to face and decides the affair at once.3) The usual grounds of quarreling are removed. For it is very rarely that anyone cheats or wrongsanother, as being sure, if anything of this kind is discovered, to be committed to a closer confinement.

4) Here is no drunkenness suffered, however advantageous it might be to the keeper, as wellas the tapster. 5) Nor any whor*dom; the women prisoners being narrowly observed and keptseparate from the men; nor is any woman of the town now admitted, no, not at any price. 6) Allpossible care is taken to prevent idleness; those who are willing to work at their callings are providedwith tools and materials, partly by the keeper, who gives them credit at a very moderate profit;partly by the alms occasionally given, which are divided with the utmost prudence and impartiality.Accordingly, at this time, among others, a shoemaker, a tailor, a brazier, and a coachmaker areworking at their several trades.

7) Only on the Lord's day they neither work nor play, but dress themselves as clean as they can,to attend the public service in the chapel, at which every person under the roof is present. None isexcused, unless sick; in which case he is provided, gratis, both with advice and medicines. 8) Andin order to assist them in things of the greatest concern (besides a sermon every Sunday andThursday), they have a large Bible chained on one side of the chapel, which any of the prisonersmay read. By the blessing of God on these regulations the prison now has a new face: nothingoffends either the eye or ear, and the whole has the appearance of a quiet, serious family. And doesnot the keeper of Newgate deserve to be remembered full as well as the Man of Ross? May theLord remember him in that day! Meantime, will no one follow his example? I am, Sir,

"Your humble servant,"John Wesley."

Saturday, March 14.--l rode (from Birmingham) to Wednesbury. Sunday, 15. I made a shift topreach within at eight in the morning; but in the afternoon I knew not what to do, having a pain inmy side and a sore throat. However, I resolved to speak as long as I could. I stood at one end ofthe house, and the people (supposed to be eight or ten thousand) in the field adjoining. I spokefrom, "I count all things but loss, for the excellency of the knowledge of Christ Jesus my Lord"[Phil. 3:8]. When I had done speaking, my complaints were gone.

Monday, 16.--I intended to rest two or three days; but being pressed to visit Shrewsbury, andhaving no other time, I rode over today, though upon a miserable beast. When I came, my headached as well as my side. I found the door of the place where I was to preach surrounded by anumerous rnob. But they seemed met only to starve. Yet part of them came in; almost all that did(a large number) behaved quietly and seriously.

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Preaching in the Inn Yard

Tuesday, 17.--At five the congregation was large and appeared not a little affected. The difficultynow was how to get back, for I could not ride the horse on which I came. But this too was providedfor. We met in the street with one who lent me his horse, which was so easy that I grew better andbetter till I came to Wolverhampton. None had yet preached abroad in this furious town; but I wasresolved, with God's help, to make a trial, and I ordered a table to be set in the inn-yard. Such anumber of wild men I have seldom seen; but they gave me no disturbance, either while I preached,or when I afterward walked through the midst of them.

About five I preached to a far larger congregation at Dudley, and all as quiet as at London. Thescene is changed since the dirt and stones of this town were flying about me on every side.

Saturday, May 2 (Aberdeen).--In the afternoon I sent to the principal and regent to desire leaveto preach in the College Close. This was readily granted; but as it begin to rain, I was desired to gointo the hall. I suppose this is fully a hundred feet long, and seated all around. The congregationwas large, notwithstanding the rain; and fully as large at five in the morning.

Wesley Preaches at Aberdeen

Monday, 4.--About noon I took a walk to the King's College, in Old Aberdeen. It has threesides of a square, handsomely built, not unlike Queen's College in Oxford. Going up to see the hall,we found a large company of ladies, with several gentlemen. They looked and spoke to one another,after which one of the gentlemen took courage and came to me, He said, "We came last night tothe College Close, but could not hear, and should be extremely obliged if you would give us a shortdiscourse here." I knew not what God might have to do; and so began without delay on "God wasin Christ, reconciling the world unto himself" [II Cor. 5:19]. I believe the word was not lost: it fellas dew on the tender glass.

In the afternoon I was walking in the library of the Marischal College, when the principal, andthe divinity professor, came to me; and the latter invited me to his lodgings, where I spent an hourvery agreeably. In the evening, the eagerness of the people made them ready to trample each otherunder foot. It was some time before they were still enough to hear; but then they devoured everyword. After preaching, Sir Archibald Grant (whom business had called to town) sent and desiredto speak to me. I could not then, but promised to wait upon him, with God's leave, in my return toEdinburgh.

Tuesday, 5.--I accepted the principal's invitation, and spent an hour with him at his house. Iobserved no stiffness at all, but the easy good breeding of a man of sense and learning. I supposeboth he and all the professors, with some of the magistrates, attended in the evening. I set all thewindows open; but the hall, notwithstanding, was as hot as a bagnio. style="#_ftn30"

name="_ftnref30">[1]

Wednesday, 6.--At half-hour after six I stood in the College Close and proclaimed Christcrucified. My voice was so strengthened that all could hear, and all were earnestly attentive.

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Wesley's Criticism of Edinburgh

Monday, 11.--I took my leave of Edinburgh for the present. The situation of the city, on a hillshelving down on both sides, as well as to the east, with the stately castle upon a craggy rock onthe west, is inexpressibly fine. And the main street, so broad and finely paved, with the lofty houseson either hand (many of them seven or eight stories high), is far beyond any in Great Britain. Buthow can it be suffered that all manner of filth should still be thrown even into this street continually?Where are the magistracy, the gentry, the nobility of the land? Have they no concern for the honorof their nation? How long shall the capital city of Scotland, yea, and the chief street of it, stinkworse than a common sewer? Will no lover of his country, or of decency and common sense, finda remedy for this?

Holyrood House, at the entrance of Edinburgh, the ancient palace of the Scottish kings, is anoble structure. It was rebuilt and furnished by King Charles the Second. One side of it is a picturegallery wherein are pictures of all the Scottish kings, and an original one of the celebrated QueenMary. It is scarcely possible for any who looks at this to think her such a monster as some havepainted her; nor indeed for any who considers the circ*mstances of her death, equal to that of anancient martyr.

A Busy Week

Monday, June 15.--l rode to Durham, having appointed to preach there at noon. The meadow,near the riverside, was quite convenient, and the small rain neither disturbed me nor the congregation.In the afternoon I rode to Hartlepool. But I had much ado to preach; my strength was gone as wellas my voice; and indeed, they generally go together. Three days in a week I can preach thrice a daywithout hurting myself; but I had now far exceeded this, besides meeting classes and exhorting thesocieties. I was obliged to lie down a good part of Tuesday. However, in the afternoon I preachedat Cherington, and in the evening at Hartlepool again, though not without difficulty. Wednesday,17. I rode to Stockton, where, a little before the time of preaching, my voice and strength wererestored at once. The next evening it began to rain just as I began to preach; but it was suspendedtill the service was over; it then rained again till eight in the morning.

Friday, 19.--It was hard work to ride eight miles (so called) in two hours and a half, the rainbeating upon us, and the by-road being exceedingly slippery. But we forgot all this when we cameto the Grange, so greatly was God present with His people. Thence we rode to Darlington. Herewe were under a difficulty again; not half the people could come in, and the rain forbade mypreaching without. But at one (the hour of preaching) the rain stopped and did not begin again tillpast two; so the people stood very conveniently in the yard, and many did not care to go away.When I went in, they crowded to the door and windows, and stayed till I took horse. At seven I

preached at Yarm, style="#_ftn31" name="_ftnref31">[1] and desired one of our brethren to takemy place in the morning.

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Wesley and Impositions

Sunday, 21.--I rode to Osmotherley, where the minister read prayers seriously and preached auseful sermon. After service I began in the churchyard: I believe many were wounded and manycomforted. After dinner I called on Mr. Adams, who first invited me to Osmotherley. He wasreading the strange account of the two missionaries who have lately made such a figure in thenewspapers. I suppose the whole account is just such another gross imposition upon the public asthe man's gathering the people together to see him go into the quart bottle. "Men seven hundredyears old!" And why not seven yards high? He that can believe it, let him believe it.

Monday, 22.--I spoke, one by one, to the society at Hutton Rudby. At eleven I preached oncemore, though in great weakness of body, and met the stewards of all the societies. I then rode toStokesley and, having examined the little society, went on for Guisborough. The sun was burninghot; but in a quarter of an hour a cloud interposed, and he troubled us no more. I was desired by agentleman of the town to preach in the market place; and there a table was placed for me, but itwas in a bad neighborhood; for there was so vehement a stench of stinking fish as was ready tosuffocate me, and the people roared like the waves of the sea. But the voice of the Lord was mightier,and in a few minutes the whole multitude was still and seriously attended while I proclaimed "JesusChrist, made of God unto us wisdom, and righteousness, and sanctification, and redemption" [1Cor. 1:30].

Tuesday, 23.--I began about five, near the same place, and had a great part of the same audience;yet they were not the same. The change might easily be read in their countenance. When we tookhorse and just faced the sun, it was hard work for man and beast; but about eight the wind shifted,and blowing in our face, kept us cool till we came to Whitby.

In the evening I preached on the top of the hill, to which you ascend by a hundred ninety-onesteps. The congregation was exceedingly large, and ninety-nine in a hundred were attentive. WhenI began, the sun shone full in my face; but he soon clouded and shone no more till I had done.

Wednesday, 24.--l walked round the old Abbey, which, both with regard to its size (being, Ijudge, a hundred yards long) and the workmanship of it, is one of the finest, if not the finest, ruinin the kingdom. Hence we rode to Robin Hood's Bay, where I preached at six in the Lower Street,near the quay. In the midst of the sermon a large cat, frightened out of a chamber, leaped downupon a woman's head, and ran over the heads or shoulders of many more; but none of them movedor cried out any more than if it had been a butterfly.

Thursday, 25.--I had a pleasant ride to Scarborough, the wind tempering the heat of the sun. Ihad designed to preach abroad in the evening; but the thunder, lightning, and rain prevented.However, I stood on a balcony, and several hundreds of people stood below; and, notwithstandingthe heavy rain, would not stir till I concluded.

Friday, July 3.--We returned to York, where I was desired to call upon a poor prisoner in thecastle. I had formerly occasion to take notice of a hideous monster, called a chancery bill; I nowsaw the fellow to it, called a declaration. The plain fact was this: some time since a man who livednear Yarm assisted others in running some brandy. His share was nearly four pounds. After he hadwholly left off that bad work and was following his own business, that of a weaver, he was arrestedand sent to York gaol; and, not long after, comes down a declaration, "that Jac. Wh--- had landeda vessel laded with brandy and Geneva, at the port of London, and sold them there, whereby he

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was indebted to his Majesty five hundred and seventy-seven pounds and upwards." And to tell thisworthy story, the lawyer takes up thirteen or fourteen sheets of treble stamped paper.

A Monster Called a Declaration

O England, England! will this reproach never be rolled away from thee? Is there anything likethis to be found, either among Papists, Turks, or heathens? In the name of truth, justice, mercy, andcommon sense I ask, 1) Why do men lie for lying sake? Is it only to keep their hands in? What needelse of saying it was the port of London when everyone knew the brandy was landed above threehundred miles from thence? What a monstrous contempt of truth does this show, or rather hatredto it! 2) Where is the justice of swelling four pounds into five hundred and seventy-seven? 3) Whereis the common sense of taking up fourteen sheets to tell a story that may be told in ten lines? 4)Where is the mercy of thus grinding the face of the poor? thus sucking the blood of a poor, beggaredprisoner? Would not this be execrable villainy if the paper and writing together were only sixpencea sheet, when they have stripped him already of his little all and not left him fourteen groats in theworld?

Sunday, 5.--Believing one hindrance of the work of God in York was the neglect offield-preaching, I preached this morning at eight, in an open place near the city walls. Abundanceof people ran together, most of whom were deeply attentive. One or two only were angry and threwa few stones; but it was labor lost; for none regarded them.

Sunday, 12.--I had appointed to be at Haworth; but the church would not nearly contain thepeople who came from all sides. However, Mr. Grimshaw had provided for this by fixing a scaffoldon the outside of one of the windows, through which I went after prayers, and the people likewiseall went out into the churchyard. The afternoon congregation was larger still. What has God wroughtin the midst of those rough mountains!

Some Impudent Women

Monday, 13.--About five I preached at Paddiham, another place eminent for all manner ofwickedness. The multitude of people obliged me to stand in the yard of the preaching-house. Overagainst me, at a little distance, sat some of the most impuident women I ever saw; yet I am not surethat God did not reach their hearts, for

They roar'd, and would have blush'd, if capable of shame.Friday, 24.--About one I preached at Bramley, where Jonas Rushford, about fourteen years old,

gave me the following relation: "About this time last year I was desired by two of our neighborsto go with them to Mr. Crowther's at Skipton, who would not speak to them, about a man that hadbeen missing twenty days, but bid them bring a boy twelve or thirteen years old. When we camein, he stood reading a book.

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Seen in a Looking Glass

"He put me into a bed, with a looking glass in my hand, and covered me all over. Then he askedme whom I had a mind to see; and I said, 'My mother.' I presently saw her with a lock of wool inher hand, standing just in the place, and the clothes she was in, as she told me afterwards. Then hebid me look again for the man that was missing, who was one of our neighbors. And I looked andsaw him riding toward Idle, but he was very drunk; and he stopped at the alehouse and drank twopints more, and he pulled out a guinea to change. Two men stood by, a big man and a little man;and they went on before him, and got two hedge-stakes; and when he came up, on Windle Common,at the top of the hill, they pulled him off his horse, killed him, and threw him into a coalpit. And Isaw it all as plain as if I was close to them. And if I saw the men, I should know them again.

"We went back to Bradford that night; and the next day I went with our neighbors and showedthem the spot where he was killed, and the pit he was thrown into; and a man went down andbrought him up. And it was as I had told them; his handkerchief was tied about his mouth, andfastened behind his neck."

Is it improbable only, or flatly impossible, when all the circ*mstances are considered, that thisshould all be pure fiction? They that can believe this, may believe a man's getting into a bottle.

Monday, July 27.--l preached at Staincross about eleven; about five, at Barley Hall; the nextmorning at Sheffield. In the afternoon I rode on to Matlock Bath. The valley which reaches fromthe town to the bath is pleasant beyond expression. In the bottom of this runs a little river, close towhich a mountain rises, almost perpendicular, to an enormous height; part is covered with green,part with ragged and naked rocks. On the other side, the mountain rises gradually with tufts of treeshere and there. The brow on both sides is fringed with trees, which seem to answer each other.

Wesley at Matlock Bath and Boston

Many of our friends were come from various parts. At six I preached standing under the hollowof a rock, on one side of a small plain, on the other side of which was a tall mountain. There weremany well-dressed hearers, this being the high season; and all of them behaved well. But as I walkedback, a gentleman-like man asked me, "Why do you talk thus of faith? Stuff, nonsensel" Uponinquiry, I found he was an eminent deist. What, has the plague crept into the Peak of Derbyshire?

Thursday, August 13.--l took a walk through Boston. I think it is not much smaller than Leeds,but, in general, it is far better built. The church is indeed a fine building. It is larger, loftier, nay,and rather more lightsome, than even St. Peter's at Norwich; and the steeple is, I suppose, the highesttower in England, nor less remarkable for the architecture than the height.

Saturday, November 14.--l spent an hour with a little company near Grosvenor Square. Formany years this has been the darkest, driest spot of all in or near London. But God has now wateredthe barren wilderness and it has become a fruitful field.

Preaching at Deptford, Welling, and Sevenoaks, in my way, on Thursday, December 3, I cameto Shoreham. There I read the celebrated Life of St. Katherine, of Genoa. Mr. Lesley calls one "adevil of a saint": I am sure this was a fool of a saint; that is, if it was not the folly of her historian,

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who has aggrandized her into a mere idiot. Indeed we seldom find a saint of God's making, saintedby the Bishop of Rome.

Friday, 25 (London).--We began, as usual, at four. A few days since, one who lived in knownsin, finding heavy conviction broke away and ran out, she knew, not whither. She met one whooffered her a shilling a week to come and take care of her child. She went gladly. The woman'shusband hearing her stir between three and four began cursing and swearing bitterly. His wife said,"I wish thou wouldest go with her, and see if anything will do thee good." He did so. In the firsthymn God broke his heart and he was in tears all the rest of the service. How soon did Godrecompense this poor woman for taking the stranger inl

Preaching by Moonlight

1762. Monday, January 4.--After preaching to a large congregation at Wrestlingworth, we rodeon to Harston. I never preached a whole sermon by moonlight before. However, it was a solemnseason; a season of holy mourning to some; to others, of joy unspeakable.

Monday, March 29.--I preached about twelve in the new room at Chepstow. One of thecongregation was a neighboring clergyman, who had lived in the same staircase with me at ChristChurch and was then far more serious than I. Blessed be God, who has looked upon me at last!Now let me redeem the timel

In the afternoon we had such a storm of hail as I scarcely ever saw in my life. The roads likewisewere so extremely bad that we did not reach Hereford till past eight. Having been well batteredboth by hail, rain, and wind, I got to bed as soon as I could, but was wakened many times by theclattering of the curtains. In the morning I found the casem*nt wide open; but I was never the worse.I took horse at six, with William Crane and Francis Walker. The wind was piercing cold, and wehad many showers of snow and rain; but the worst was, part of the road was scarcely passable; sothat at Church Stretton, one of our horses lay down and would go no farther. However, WilliamCrane and I pushed on, and before seven reached Shrewsbury.

A large company quickly gathered together. Many of them were wild enough, but the far greaterpart were calm and attentive and came again at five in the morning.

Some Rough Journeys

Wednesday, 31.--Having been invited to preach at Wem, style="#_ftn32"

name="_ftnref32">[1] Mrs. Glynne desired she might take me thither in a post chaise; but inlittle more than an hour we were fast enough; however, the horses pulled till the traces broke. Ishould then have walked had I been alone, though the mud was deep, and the snow droveimpetuously; but I could not leave my friend. So I waited patiently till the man had made shift tornend the traces; and the horses pulled amain 22 so that with much ado, not long after the timeappointed, I came to Wem.

22 Correct

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I came, but the person who invited me was gone--gone out of town at four in the morning. Icould find no one who seemed either to expect or desire my company. I inquired after the placewhere Mr. Mather preached; but it was filled with hemp. It remained only to go into the markethouse, but neither any man, woman, nor child cared to follow us; for the north wind roared so loudon every side and poured in from every quarter. However, before I had done singing, two or threecrept in; and after them, two or three hundred; and the power of God was so present among themthat I believe many forgot the storm.

The wind grew still higher in the afternoon so that it was difficult to sit our horses; and it blewfull in our face, but could not prevent our reaching Chester in the evening. Though the warningwas short, the room was full; and full of serious, earnest hearers, many of whom expressed a longingdesire of the whole salvation of God. Here I rested on Thursday.

Friday, April 2.--I rode to Parkgate, and found several ships, but the wind was contrary. Ipreached at five in the small house they have just built; and the hearers were remarkably serious.I gave notice of preaching at five in the morning. But at half-hour after four one brought us wordthat the wind was come fair, and Captain Jordan would sail in less than an hour. We were soon inthe ship, wherein we found about three-score passengers. The sun shone brightly, the wind wasmoderate, the sea smooth, and we wanted nothing but room to stir ourselves; the cabin being filledwith hops, so that we could not get into it but by climbing over them on our hands and knees. Inthe afternoon we were abreast of Holyhead. But the scene was quickly changed: the wind rosehigher and higher and by seven o'clock blew a storm. The sea broke over us continually andsometimes covered the ship, which both pitched and rolled in an uncommon manner. So I wasinformed; for, being a little sick, I lay down at six, and slept with little intermission, till nearly sixin the morning. We were then near Dublin Bay, where we went into a boat which carried us toDunleary. There we met with a chaise just ready, in which we went to Dublin.

Remarkable Speaking Statue

Monday, April 26.--In the evening I preached to a large congregation in the market house atLurgan. I now embraced the opportunity which I bad long desired of talking with Mr. Miller, thecontriver of that statue which was in Lurgan when I was there before. It was the figure of an oldman standing in a case, with a curtain drawn before him, over against a clock which stood on theother side of the room. Every time the clock struck, he opened the door with one hand, drew backthe curtain with the other, turned his head, as if looking round on the company, and then said witha clear, loud, articulate voice, "Past one, two, three," and so on. But so many came to see this (thelike of which all allowed was not to be seen in Europe) that Mr. Miller was in danger of beingruined, not having time to attend his own business; so, as none offered to purchase it or reward himfor his pains, he took the whole machine in pieces; nor has he any thought of ever making anythingof the kind again.

Wednesday, 28.--In the morning I rode to Monaghan. The commotions in Munster having nowalarmed all Ireland, we had hardly alighted, when some wise persons informed the provost therewere three strange sort of men come to the King's Arms. So the provost with his officers camewithout delay to secure the north from so imminent a danger. I had just come out when I was

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required to return into the house. The provost asked me many questions, and perhaps the affairmight have turned serious had I not had two letters with me which I had lately received; one fromthe Bishop of Londonderry, the other from the Earl of Moira. Upon reading these, he excusedhimself for the trouble he had given and wished me a good journey.

Between six and seven I preached at Coot Hill, and in the morning rode on to Enniskillin. Afterriding round and round, we came in the evening to a lone house called Carrick-a-beg. It lay in themidst of horrid mountains; and had no very promising appearance. However, it afforded corn forour horses and potatoes for us. So we made a hearty supper, called in as many as pleased of thefamily to prayers, and, though we had no fastening either for our doors or our windows, slept inpeace.

Wesley and the Oatmeal Sellers

Monday, May 3 (Sligo).--In the evening a company of players began acting in the upper partof the market house, just as we began singing in the lower. The case of these is remarkable. ThePresbyterians for a long time had their public worship here; but when the strollers came to town,they were turned out and from that time had no public worship at all. On Tuesday evening the lowerpart too was occupied by buyers and sellers of oatmeal; but as soon as I began, the people quittedtheir sacks and listened to business of greater importance.

Sunday, 16.--I had observed to the society last week that I had not seen one congregation everin Ireland behave so ill at church as that at Athlone, laughing and staring about during the wholeservice. I had added, "This is your fault; for if you had attended the church, as you ought to havedone, your presence and example would not have failed to influence the whole congregation." Andso it appeared; I saw not one today, either laughing, talking, or staring about; but a remarkableseriousness was spread from the one end of the church to the other.

The Irish Whiteboys

Monday, 24.--l went with two friends to see one of the greatest natural wonders in Ireland--MountEagle, vulgarly called Crow Patrick. The foot of it is fourteen miles from Castlebar. There we leftour horses and procured a guide. It was just twelve when we alighted; the sun was burning hot, andwe had not a breath of wind. Part of the ascent was a good deal steeper than an ordinary pair ofstairs. About two we gained the top, which is an oval, grassy plain, about a hundred and fifty yardsin length and seventy or eighty in breadth. The upper part of the mountain much resembles thePeak of Teneriffe. I think it cannot rise much less than a mile perpendicular from the plain below.There is an immense prospect on one side toward the sea, and on the other over the land. But asmost of it is waste and uncultivated, the prospect is not very pleasing.

Monday, June 14.--I rode to Cork. Here I procured an exact account of the late commotions.About the beginning of December last, a few men met by night near Nenagh, in the county ofLimerick, and threw down the fences of some commons, which had been lately inclosed. Near the

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same time the others met in the county of Tipperary, of Waterford, and of Cork. As no one offeredto suppress or hinder them, they increased in number continually and called themselves Whiteboys,wearing white co*ckades and white linen frocks. In February, there were five or six parties of them,two or three hundred men in each, who moved up and down, chiefly in the night; but for what enddid not appear. Only they leveled a few fences, dug up some grounds, and hamstrung some cattle,perhaps fifty or sixty in all.

One body of them came into Cloheen, of about five hundred foot and two hundred horse. Theymoved as exactly as regular troops and appeared to be thoroughly disciplined. They now sent lettersto several gentlemen, threatening to pull down their houses. They compelled everyone they met totake an oath to be true to Queen Sive (whatever that meant) and the Whiteboys; not to reveal theirsecrets; and to join them when called upon. It was supposed that eight or ten thousand were nowactually risen, many of them well armed and that a far greater number were ready to rise wheneverthey should be called upon. Those who refused to swear, they threatened to bury alive. Two orthree they did bury up to the neck, and left them; these would quickly have perished had they notbeen found in time by some traveling by. At length, toward Easter, a body of troops, chiefly lighthorse, was sent against them. Many were apprehended and committed to gaol; the rest of themdisappeared. This is the plain, naked fact, which has been so variously represented.

Whitewashing Kilkenny Marble

Saturday, July 10.--We rode to Kilkenny, one of the pleasantest and the most ancient cities inthe kingdom and not inferior to any at all in wickedness, or in hatred to this way. I was thereforeglad of a permission to preach in the Town Hall, where a small, serious company attended in theevening. Sunday, 11. I went to the cathedral, one of the best built which I have seen in Ireland.

The pillars are all of black marble; but the late Bishop ordered them to be whitewashed. Indeed,marble is so plentiful near this town that the very streets are paved with it.

Monday, 12.--I went to Dunmore Cave, three or four miles from Kilkenny. It is fully asremarkable as Poole's Hole, or any other in the Peak. The opening is round, parallel to the horizonand seventy or eighty yards across. In the midst of this there is a kind of arch, twenty or thirty feethigh. By this you enter into the first cave, which is nearly round and forty or fifty feet in diarneter.It is encompassed with spar-stones, just like those on the sides of Poole's Hole. On one side of thecave is a narrow passage which goes under the rock two or three hundred yards; on the other, ahollow which no one has ever been able to find an end of. I suppose this hole too, as well as manyothers, was formed by the waters of the deluge retreating into the great abyss, with which probablyit communicates.

Monday, 26.--In some respects the work of God in Dublin was more remarkable than even thatin London. 1) It is far greater, in proportion to the time and to the number of people. That societyhad above seven-and-twenty hundred members; this not a fifth part of the number. Six months afterthe flame broke out there, we had about thirty witnesses of the great salvation. In Dublin there wereabout forty in less than four months. 2.) The work was more pure. In all this time, while they weremildly and tenderly treated, there were none of them headstrong or unadvisable; none that were

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wiser than their teachers; none who dreamed of being immortal or infallible or incapable oftemptation: in short, no whimsical or enthusiastic persons; all were calm and sober-minded.

Wesley in Cornwall

Friday, August 27.--l set out for the west and having preached at Shepton and Middlesey in theway, came on Saturday to Exeter. When I began the service there, the congregation (beside ourselves)were two women and one man. Before I had done, the room was about half full. This comes ofomitting field-preaching.

Sunday, 29.--I preached at eight on Southernay Green, to an extremely quiet congregation. Atthe cathedral we had a useful sermon, and the whole service was performed with great seriousnessand decency. Such an organ I never saw or heard before, so large, beautiful, and so finely toned;and the music of "Glory Be to God in the Highest" I think exceeded the Messiah itself. I was wellpleased to partake of the Lord's supper with my old opponent, Bishop Lavington. Oh, may we sitdown together in the kingdom of our Fatherl

At five I went to Southernay Green again and found a multitude of people; but a lewd, profane,drunken vagabond had so stirred up many of the baser sort that there was much noise, hurry, andconfusion. While I was preaching, several things were thrown, and much pains taken to overturnthe table; and after I concluded, many endeavored to throw me down, but I walked through themidst and left them.

Saturday, September 4.--After preaching in Grampound, I rode on to Truro. I almost expectedthere would be some disturbance, as it was market day, and I stood in the street at a small distancefrom the market. But all was quiet. Indeed both persecution and popular tumult seem to be forgottenin Cornwall.

Sunday, 5.--As I was enforcing, in the same place, those solemn words, "God forbid that Ishould glory, save in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ" [Gal. 6:14], a poor man began to makesome tumult; but many cried out, "Constables, take him away." They did so, and the hurry wasover. At one I preached in the main street at Redruth, where rich and poor were equally attentive.The wind was so high at five that I could not stand in the usual place at Gwennap. But at a smalldistance was a hollow, capable of containing many thousand people. I stood on one side of thisamphitheater toward the top, with the people beneath and on all sides, and enlarged on those wordsin the Gospel for the day (Luke 10:23, 24), "Blessed are the eyes which see the things that ye see,and which hear the things that ye hear."

Widnesday, 15.--The more I converse with the believers in Cornwall, the more I am convincedthat they have sustained great loss for want of hearing the doctrine of Christian perfection clearlyand strongly enforced. I see that wherever this is not done, the believers grow dead and cold. Norcan this be prevented but by keeping up in them an hourly expectation of being perfected in love.I say an hourly expectation; for to expect it at death, or some time hence, is much the same as notexpecting it at all.

That detestable practice of cheating the King (smuggling) is no more found in our societies.And since that accursed thing has been put away, the work of God has everywhere increased.

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Monday, October 25.--l preached at one, in the shell of the new house at Shepton Mallet. Indigging the foundation they found a quarry of stone, which was more than sufficient for the house.

Thursday, 28.--One who had adorned the gospel in life and in death, having desired that I shouldpreach her funeral sermon, I went with a few friends to the house and sang before the body to theroom. I did this the rather to show my approbation of that solemn custom and to encourage othersto follow it. As we walked, our company swiftly increased, so that we had a very numerouscongregation at the room. And who can tell, but some of these may bless God from it to all eternity?

Wesley's Day of Pentecost

Many years ago my brother frequently said, "Your day of Pentecost is not fully come; but Idoubt not it will; and you will then hear of persons sanctified as frequently as you do now of personsjustified." Any unprejudiced reader may observe that it was now fully come. And accordingly wedid hear of persons sanctified, in London and most other parts of England, and in Dublin and manyother parts of Ireland, as frequently as of persons justified; although instances of the latter were farmore frequent than they had been for twenty years before. That many of these did not retain thegift of God is no proof that it was not given them. That many do retain it to this day is matter ofpraise and thanksgiving. And many of them are gone to Him whom they loved, praising Him withtheir latest breath; just in the spirit of Ann Steed, the first witness in Bristol of the great salvation;who, being worn out with sickness and racking pain, after she had commended to God all that wereround her, lifted up her eyes, cried aloud, "Glory! Hallelujah!" and died.

Chapter 13. Wesley in Scotland Again; Methodist's Wealth; "No Law forMethodists"; Exhausting Days; Whitefield

Wesley in Aberdeen Again

1763. Monday, May 16.--Setting out a month later than usual, I judged it needful to make themore haste; so I took post chaises and by that means easily reached Newcastle on Wednesday, 18.Thence I went on at leisure and came to Edinburgh, on Saturday, 21. The next day I had thesatisfaction of spending a little time with Mr. Whitefield. Humanly speaking, he is worn out; butwe have to do with Him who hath all power in heaven and earth.

Monday, 23.--I rode to Forfar and on Tuesday, 24, rode on to Aberdeen.Wednesday, 25.--l inquired into the state of things here. Surely never was there a more open

door. The four ministers of Aberdeen, the minister of the adjoining town, and the three ministersof Old Aberdeen, hitherto seem to have no dislike but rather to wish us "good luck in the name ofthe Lord." Most of the townspeople as yet seem to wish us well, so that there is no open oppositionof any kind. Oh, what spirit ought a preacher to be of that he may be able to bear all this sunshine!

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About noon I went to Gordon's Hospital, built near the town for poor children. It is anexceedingly handsome building and (what is not common) kept exceedingly clean. The gardensare pleasant, well laid out, and in extremely good order; but the old bachelor who founded it hasexpressly provided that no woman should ever be there.

At seven, the evening being fair and mild, I preached to a multitude of people in the CollegeClose on "Stand in the ways, and see, and ask for the old paths" [Jer. 6:16]. But the next evening,the weather being raw and cold, I preached in the College Hall. What an amazing willingness tohear runs through this whole kingdom! There want 23 only a few zealous, active laborers, who desirenothing but God, and they might soon carry the gospel through all this country, even as high as theOrkneys.

Plain Dealing in Scotland

Friday, 27.--I set out for Edinburgh again. About one I preached at Brechin. All were deeplyattentive. Perhaps a few may not be forgetful hearers. Afterward we rode on to Broughty Castle,two or three miles below Dundee. We were in hopes of passing the river here, though we could notat the town; but we found out horses could not pass till eleven or twelve at night. So we judged itwould be best to go over ourselves and leave them behind. In a little time we procured a kind of

boat, about half as long as a London wherry, style="#_ftn35" name="_ftnref35">[1] and threeor four feet broad. Soon after we had put off, I perceived it leaked on all sides, nor had we anythingto lade 24 out the water. When we came toward the middle of the river, which was three miles over,the wind being high, and the water rough, our boatmen seemed a little surprised; but we encouragedthem to pull away, and in less than half an hour we landed safe. Our horses were brought after us,and the next day we rode on to Kinghorn Ferry and had a pleasant passage to Leith.

Sunday, 29.--I preached at seven in the High School yard, Edinburgh. It being the time of theGeneral Assembly, which drew together not the ministers only, but abundance of the nobility andgentry, many of both sorts were present; but abundantly more at five in the afternoon. I spake asplainly as ever I did in my life. But I never knew any in Scotland offended at plain dealing. In thisrespect the North Britons are a pattern to all mankind.

Tuesday, June 7.--There is something remarkable in the manner wherein God revived His workin these parts. A few months ago the generality of people in this circuit were exceedingly lifeless.Samuel Meggot, perceiving this, advised the society at Barnard Castle to observe every Friday withfasting and prayer. The very first Friday they met together, God broke in upon them in a wonderfulmanner; and His work has been increasing among them ever since. The neighboring societies heardof this, agreed to follow the same rule, and soon experienced the same blessing.

Is not the neglect of this plain duty (I mean fasting, ranked by our Lord with almsgiving andprayer) one general occasion of deadness among Christians? Can anyone willingly neglect it andbe guiltless?

23 Correct to the text24 Correct to the text

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The Drunkard's Magnificat

Thursday, 16.--At five in the evening I preached at Dewsbury and on Friday, 17, reachedManchester. Here I received a particular account of a remarkable incident: An eminent drunkardof Congleton used to divert himself, whenever there was preaching there, by standing over againstthe house, cursing and swearing at the preacher. One evening he had a fancy to step in and hearwhat the man had to say. He did so: but it made him so uneasy that he could not sleep all night. Inthe morning he was more uneasy still; he walked in the fields, but all in vain, till it came in hismind to go to one of his merry companions, who was always ready to abuse the Methodists. Hetold him how he was and asked what he should do. "Do!" said Samuel, "go and join the society. Iwill; for I was never so uneasy in my life." They did so without delay. But presently David criedout, "I am sorry I joined; for I shall get drunk again, and they will turn me out." However, he stoodfirm for four days; on the fifth, he was persuaded by the old companions to "take one pint," andthen another, and another, till one of them said, "See, here is a Methodist drunk!"

David started up, and knocked him over, chair and all. He then drove the rest out of the house,caught up the landlady, carried her out, threw her into the kennel; went back to the house, brokedown the door, threw it into the street, and then ran into the fields, tore his hair, and rolled up anddown on the ground. In a day or two was a love-feast; he stole in, getting behind, that none mightsee him. While Mr. Furze was at prayer, he was seized with a dreadful agony, both of body andmind. This caused many to wrestle with God for him. In a while he sprang up on his feet, stretchedout his hands, and cried aloud, "All my sins are forgiven!" At the same instant, one on the otherside of the room cried out, "Jesus is mine! And He has taken away all my sins." This was SamuelH. David burst through the people, caught him in his arms, and said, "Come, let us sing the VirginMary's song; I never could sing it before. 'My soul doth magnify the Lord, and my spirit doth rejoicein God my Saviour."' And their following behavior plainly showed the reality of their profession.

Monday, 20.--I preached at Maxfield about noon. As I had not been well and was not quiterecovered, our brethren insisted on sending me in a chaise to Burslem. Between four and five Iquitted the chaise and took my horse. Presently after, hearing a cry, I looked back and saw thechaise upside down (the wheel having violently struck against a stone), and well nigh dashed inpieces. About seven I preached to a large congregation at Burslem; these poor potters, four yearsago, were as wild and ignorant as any of the colliers in Kingswood. Lord, Thou hast power overThine own clayl

Wesley Praises WalesSaturday, August 20 (Brecknock).--We took horse at four and rode through one of the pleasantest

countries in the world. When we came to Trecastle, we had ridden fifty miles in Monmouthshireand Brecknockshire; and I will be bold to say, all England does not afford such a line of fifty miles'length, for fields, meadows, woods, brooks, and gently rising mountains, fruitful to the very top.Carmarthenshire, into which we came soon after, has at least as fruitful a soil; but it is not sopleasant, because it has fewer mountains, though abundance of brooks and rivers. About five Ipreached on the green at Carmarthen to a large number of deeply attentive people. Here twogentlemen from Pembroke met me, with whom we rode to St. Clare, intending to lodge there. Butthe inn was quite full so we concluded to try for Larn, though we knew not the way and it was nowquite dark. Just then came up an honest man who was riding thither, and we willingly bore himcompany.

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Thursday, 25--l was more convinced than ever that the preaching like an apostle, without joiningtogether those that are awakened and training them up in the ways of God, is only begetting childrenfor the murderer. How much preaching has there been for these twenty years all over FembrokeshirelBut no regular societies, no discipline, no order or connection; and the consequence is that nine inten of the once-awakened are now faster asleep than ever.

Friday, 26.--We designed to take horse at four (from Haverfordwest), but the rain poured downso that one could scarcely look out. About six, however, we set out and rode through heavy rain toSt. Clare. Having then little hopes of crossing the sands, we determined to go round by Carmarthen;but the hostler told us we might save several miles by going to Llansteffan's Ferry. We came thitherabout noon, where a good woman informed us the boat was aground and would not pass till theevening; so we judged it best to go by Carmarthen still. But when we had ridden three or four miles,I recollected that I had heard of a ford which would save us some miles' riding. We inquired of anold man, who soon mounted his horse, showed us the way, and rode through the river before us.

Soon after, my mare dropped a shoe, which event occasioned so much loss of time that wecould not ride the sands, but were obliged to go round through a miserable road to Llanellos. Tomend the matter, our guide lost his way, both before we came to Llanellos and after; so that it wasas much as we could do to reach Bocher Ferry a little after sunset. Knowing it was impossible thento reach Penreese, as we designed, we went on straight to Swansea.

Methodists and Their Wealth

Saturday, September 17 (Bristol).--I preached on the green at Bedminster. I am apt to thinkmany of the hearers scarcely ever heard a Methodist before, or perhaps any other preacher. Whatbut field-preaching could reach these poor sinners? And are not their souls also precious in thesight of God?

Sunday, 18.--I preached in the morning in Princess Street, to a numerous congregation. Twoor three gentlemen, so called, laughed at first; but in a few minutes they were as serious as the rest.On Monday evening I gave our brethren a solemn caution not to "love the world, neither the thingsof the world." This will be their grand danger: as they are industrious and frugal, they must needsincrease in goods. This appears already: in London, Bristol, and most other trading towns, thosewho are in business have increased in substance seven-fold, some of them twenty, yea, ahundred-fold. What need, then, have these of the strongest warnings, lest they be entangled thereinand perish?

Friday, 23.--l preached at Bath. Riding home we saw a coffin being carried into St. George'schurch, with many children attending it. When we came near, we found they were our own children,attending a corpse of one of their school fellows, who had died of the smallpox; and God therebytouched many of their hearts in a manner they never knew before.

Monday 26.--I preached to the prisoners in Newgate, and in the afternoon rode over toKingswood, where I had a solemn watch night and an opportunity of speaking closely to the children.One is dead, two recovered, seven are ill still; and the hearts of all are like melting wax.

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Saturday, October 1.--I returned to London and found our house in ruins, a great part of it beingtaken down in order to a 25 thorough repair. But as much remained as I wanted: six foot squaresuffices me by day or by night.

Thursday, December 22.--I spent a little time in a visit to Mr. M--; twenty years ago, he was azealous and useful magistrate, now a picture of human nature in disgrace; feeble in body and mind,slow of speech and of understanding. Lord, let me not live to be uselessl

1764. Monday, January 16.--I rode to High Wycombe, and preached to a more numerous andserious congregation than ever I saw there before. Shall there be yet another day of visitation tothis careless people?

A large number was present at five in the morning, but my face and gums were so swelled Icould hardly speak. After I took horse, they grew worse and worse, till it began to rain. I was thenpersuaded to put on an oil-case hood, which (the wind being very high) kept rubbing continuallyon my cheek till both pain and swelling were gone.

A Difficult Crossing

Between twelve and one we crossed Ensham Ferry. The water was like a sea on both sides. Iasked the ferryman, "Can we ride the causeway?" He said, "Yes, sir, if you keep in the middle."But this was the difficulty, as the whole causeway was covered with water to a considerable depth.And this in many parts ran over the causeway with the swiftness and violence of a sluice. Once mymare lost both her forefeet, but she gave a spring, and recovered the causeway; otherwise we musthave taken a swim, for the water on either side was ten or twelve feet deep. However, after one ortwo more plunges, we got through and came safe to Whitney.

Monday, February 6.--I opened the new chapel at Wapping.Thursday, 16.--I once more took a serious walk through the tombs in Westminster Abbey. What

heaps of unmeaning stone and marble! But there was one tomb which showed common sense: thatbeautiful figure of Mr. Nightingale endeavoring to screen his lovely wife from death. Here indeedthe marble seems to speak, and the statues appear only not alive.

Friday, 24.--l returned to London. Wednesday, 29. I heard Judith, an oratorio, performed at theLock. Some parts of it are exceedingly fine; but there are two things in all modern pieces of musicwhich I could never reconcile to common sense. One is singing the same words ten times over; theother, singing different words by different persons at one and the same time. And this, in the mostsolemn addresses to God, whether by way of prayer or of thanksgiving. This can never be defendedby all the musicians in Europe till reason is quite out of date.

Wesley at Birmingham, Walsal, and Derby

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Wednesday, March 21.--We had an exceedingly large congregation at Birmingham, in whatwas formerly the playhouse. Happy would it be if all the playhouses in the kingdom were convertedto so good a use. After service the mob gathered and threw some dirt and stones at those who weregoing out. But it is probable they will soon be calmed, as some of them are in gaol already. A fewendeavored to make a disturbance the next evening during the preaching, but it was lost labor; thecongregation would not be diverted from taking earnest heed to the things that were spoken.

Friday, 23.--l rode to Dudley, formerly a den of lions but now as quiet as Bristol. They had justfinished their preaching-house, which was thoroughly filled. I saw no trifler, but many in tears.

Monday, 26.--I was desired to preach at Walsal. James Jones was alarmed at the motion,apprehending there would be much disturbance. However, I determined to make the trial. Cominginto the house, I met with a token for good. A woman was telling her neighbor why she came: "Ihad a desire," said she, "to hear this man; yet I durst not, because I heard so much ill of him; butthis morning I dreamed I was praying earnestly, and I heard a voice, saying, 'See the eighth verseof the first chapter of St. John.' I waked and got my Bible, and read, 'He was not that Light, butwas sent to bear witness of that Light.' I got up, and came away with all my heart."

The house not being capable of containing the people, about seven I began preaching abroad;and there was no opposer, no, nor a trifler to be seen. All present were earnestly attentive. How isWalsal changed! How has God either tamed the wild beasts or chained them up!

Tuesday, 27.--We rode to Derby. Mr. Dobinson believed it would be best for me to preach inthe market place, as there seemed to be a general inclination in the town, even among people offashion, to hear me. He had mentioned it to the mayor, who said he did not apprehend there wouldbe the least disturbance; but if there should be anything of the kind, he would take care to suppressit. A multitude of people were gathered at five and were pretty quiet till I had named my text. Then"the beasts of the people" lifted up their voice, hallooing and shouting on every side. Finding itimpossible to be heard, I walked softly away. An innumerable retinue followed me; but only a fewpebble stones were thrown, and no one hurt at all. Most of the rabble followed quite to Mr. D--'shouse; but it seems, without any malice prepense; 26 for they stood stock-still about an hour andthen quietly went away.

Saturday, 31 (Rotherham).--An odd circ*mstance occurred during the morning preaching. Itwas well that only serious persons were present. An ass walked gravely in at the gate, came up tothe door of the house, lifted up his head, and stood stock-still, in a posture of deep attention. Mightnot "the dumb beast reprove" many who have far less decency and not much more understanding?

"No Law for Methodists"

At noon I preached (the room being too small to contain the people) in a yard, near the bridge,in Doncaster. The wind was high and exceedingly sharp, and blew all the time on the side of myhead. In the afternoon I was seized with a sore throat almost as soon as I came to Epworth; however,I preached, though with some difficulty; but afterward I could hardly speak. Being better the nextday, Sunday, April 1, I preached about one at Westwood Side, and soon after four, in the market

26 Correct to the text.

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place at Epworth, to a numerous congregation. At first, indeed, but few could hear; but the more Ispoke, the more my voice was strengthened, till toward the close all my pain and weakness weregone, and all could hear distinctly.

Monday, April 2.--I had a day of rest. Tuesday, 3, I preached, about nine, at Scotter, a town sixor seven miles east of Epworth, where a sudden flame is broken out, many being convinced of sinalmost at once, and many justified. But there were many adversaries stirred up by a bad man whotold them, "There is no law for Methodists." Hence continual riots followed; till, after a while, anupright magistrate took the cause in hand and so managed both the rioters and him who set themat work that they have been quiet as lambs ever since.

Thursday, 5.--About eleven I preached at Elsham. The two persons who are the most zealousand active here are the steward and gardener of a gentleman whom the minister persuaded to turnthem off unless they would leave "this way." He gave them a week to consider of it; at the end ofwhich they calmly answered, "Sir, we choose rather to want bread here than to want 'a drop ofwater' hereafter." He replied, "Then follow your own conscience, so you do my business as wellas formerly."

Friday, 6.--I preached at Ferry at nine in the morning, and in the evening; and, about noon, inSir N. H.'s hall at Gainsborough. Almost as soon as I began to speak, a co*ck began to crow overmy head; but he was quickly dislodged, and the whole congregation, rich and poor, were quiet andattentive.

Wesley Unhorsed

Sunday, 8.--I set out for Misterton, though the common road was impassable, being all underwater; but we found a way to ride around. I preached at eight, and I saw not one inattentive hearer.In our return, my mare rushing violently through a gate, struck my heel against the gatepost andleft me behind her in an instant, laid on my back at full length. She stood still till I rose and mountedagain; neither of us was hurt at all.

Tuesday, 10.--The wind abating, we took boat at Barton with two such brutes as I have seldomseen. Their blasphemy and stupid, gross obscenity were beyond all I ever heard. We first spoke tothem mildly; but it had no effect. At length we were constrained to rebuke them sharply, and theykept themselves tolerably within bounds till we landed at Hull. I preached at five, two hours soonerthan was expected; by this means we had tolerable room for the greatest part of them that came;and I believe not many of them came in vain.

Monday, 16.--At six I began preaching in the street at Thirsk. The congregation was exceedinglylarge. Just as I named my text, "What is a man profited, if he shall gain the whole world and losehis own soul?" a man on horseback, who had stopped to see what was the matter, changed colorand trembled. Probably he might have resolved to save his soul had not his drunken companiondragged him away.

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Wesley on Holy Island

Monday, May 21.--I took my leave of Newcastle; and about noon preached in the market placeat Morpeth. A few of the hearers were a little ludicrous at first, but their mirth was quickly spoiled.In the evening I preached in the Courthouse at AInwick, where I rested the next day. Wednesday,23.--I rode over the sands to Holy Island, once the famous seat of a bishop, now the residence ofa few poor families who live chiefly by fishing. At one side of the town are the ruins of a cathedral,with an adjoining monastery. It appears to have been a lofty and elegant building, the middle aislebeing almost entire. I preached in what was once the market place, to almost all the inhabitants ofthe island, and distributed some little books among them for which they were exceedingly thankful.In the evening I preached at Berwick-upon-Tweed; the next evening at Dunbar; and on Friday, 25,about ten, at Haddington, in Provost D.'s yard, to a very elegant congregation. But I expect littlegood will be done here, for we begin at the wrong end: religion must not go from the greatest tothe least, or the power would appear to be of men.

In the evening I preached at Musselborough and the next, on the Calton Hill at Edinburgh. Itbeing the time of the General Assembly, many of the ministers were there. The wind was high andsharp, and blew away a few delicate ones. But most of the congregation did not stir till I hadconcluded.

Sunday, 27.--At seven I preached in the High School yard, on the other side of the city. Themorning was extremely cold. In the evening it blew a storm. However, having appointed to be onthe Calton Hill, I began there, to a huge congregation. At first, the wind was a little troublesome,but I soon forgot it. And so did the people for an hour and a half, in which I fully delivered my ownsoul.

Wesley at the General Assembly

Monday, 28.--I spent some hours at the General Assembly, composed of about a hundred andfifty ministers. I was surprised to find 1) that anyone was admitted, even lads, twelve or fourteenyears old; 2) that the chief speakers were lawyers, six or seven on one side only; 3) that a singlequestion took up the whole time, which, when I went away, seemed to be as far from a conclusionas ever, namely, "Shall Mr. Lindsay be removed to Kilmarnock parish or not?" The argument forit was, "He has a large family, and this living is twice as good as his own." The argument againstit was, "The people are resolved not to hear him and will leave the kirk if he comes." If then thereal point in view had "the greater good of the Church," been, as their law directs, instead of takingup five hours, the debate might have been determined in five minutes.

On Monday and Tuesday I spoke to the members of the society severally. Thursday, 31.--I rodeto Dundee, and, about half an hour after six, preached on the side of a meadow near the town. Poorand rich attended. Indeed, there is seldom fear of wanting a congregation in Scotland. But themisfortune is, they know everything; so they learn nothing.

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At Inverness

Thursday, June 7.--I rode over to Sir Archibald Grant's, twelve computed miles from Aberdeen.It is surprising to see how the country between is improved even within these three years. On everyside the wild, dreary moors are ploughed up and covered with rising corn. All the ground near SirArchibald's, in particular, is as well cultivated as most in England. About seven I preached. Thekirk was pretty well filled, though upon short notice. Certainly this is a nation "swift to hear, andslow to speak," though not "slow to wrath."

Sunday, 10.--About eight we reached Inverness. I could not preach abroad because of the rain;nor could I hear of any convenient room, so that I was afraid my coming hither would be in vain;all ways seemed to be blocked up. At ten I went to the kirk. After service, Mr. Fraser, one of theministers, invited us to dinner and then to drink tea. As we were drinking tea, he asked at what hourI would please to preach. I said, "At half-hour past five." The high kirk was filled in a very shorttime, and I have seldom found greater liberty of spirit. The other minister came afterward to ourinn and showed the most cordial affection. Were it only for this day, I should not have regrettedthe riding a hundred miles.

Monday, 11.--A gentleman who lives three miles from the town invited me to his house, assuringme the minister of his parish would be glad if I would make use of his kirk; but time would notpermit, as I had appointed to be at Aberdeen on Wednesday. All I could do was to preach oncemore at Inverness. I think the church was fuller now than before; and I could not but observe theremarkable behavior of the whole congregation after service. Neither man, woman, nor child spokeone word all the way down the main street. Indeed the seriousness of the people is the less surprisingwhen it is considered that, for at least a hundred years, this town has had such a succession of piousministers as very few in Great Britain have known.

After Edinburgh, Glasgow, and Aberdeen, I think Inverness is the largest town I have seen inScotland. The main streets are broad and straight; the houses mostly old, but not very bad nor verygood. It stands in a pleasant and fruitful country and has all things needful for life and godliness.The people in general speak remarkably good English and are of a friendly courteous behavior.

A Sermon and Congregation to Order

About eleven we took horse. While we were dining at Nairn, the innkeeper said, "Sir, thegentlemen of the town have read the little book you gave me on Saturday, and would be glad ifyou would please to give them a sermon." Upon my consenting, the bell was immediately rung,and the congregation was quickly in the kirk. Oh, what a difference is there between South andNorth Britain! Everyone here at least loves to hear the Word of God, and none takes it into his headto speak one uncivil word to any for endeavoring to save their souls.

Doubting whether Mr. Grant had come home, Mr. Kershaw called at the Grange Green, nearForres, while I rode forward. Mr. Grant soon called me back. I have seldom seen a more agreeableplace. The house is an old castle, which stands on a little hill, with a delightful prospect all fourways; and the hospitable master has left nothing undone to make it still more agreeable. He showedus all his improvements, which are very considerable in every branch of husbandry. In his gardens

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many things were more forward than at Aberdeen, yea, or Newcastle. And how is it that none butone Highland gentleman has discovered that we have a tree in Britain, as easily raised as an ash,the wood of which is fully as fine a red as mahogany, namely, the laburnum? I defy any mahoganyto exceed the chairs which he has lately made of this.

Tuesday, 12.--We rode through the pleasant and fertile county of Murray to Elgin. I neversuspected before that there was any such country as this near a hundred and fifty miles beyondEdinburgh; a country which is supposed to have generally six weeks more sunshine in a year thanany part of Great Britain.

At Elgin are the ruins of a noble cathedral, the largest that I remember to have seen in thekingdom. We rode thence to the Spey, the most rapid river, next the Rhine, that I ever saw. Thoughthe water was not breast-high to our horses, they could very hardly keep their feet. We dined atKeith and rode on to Strathbogie, much improved by the linen manufacture. All the country fromFochabers to Strathbogie has little houses scattered up and down; and not only the valleys, but themountains themselves, are improved with the utmost care. They want only more trees to make themmore pleasant than most of the mountains in England. The whole family at our inn, eleven or twelvein number, gladly joined with us in prayer at night. Indeed, so they did at every inn where welodged; for among all the sins they have imported from England, the Scots have not yet learned, atleast not the common people, to scoff at sacred things.

Wednesday, 13.--We reached Aberdeen about one. Between six and seven, both this eveningand the next, I preached in the shell of the new house and found it a time of much consolation.Friday, 15. We set out early and came to Dundee just as the boat was going off. We designed tolodge at the house on the other side, but could not get either eat, drink, or good words; so we wereconstrained to ride on to Cupar. After traveling nearly ninety miles, I found no weariness at all,neither were our horses hurt. Thou, O Lord, dost save both man and beast!

Wesley and a Scotch Communion

Saturday, 16.--We had a ready passage at Kinghorn, and in the evening I preached on the CaltonHill to a very large congregation; but a still larger assembled at seven on Sunday morning in theHigh School yard. Being afterward informed that the Lord's supper was to be administered in thewest kirk, I knew not what to do; but at length I judged it best to embrace the opportunity, thoughI did not admire the manner of administration. After the usual morning service, the ministerenumerated several sorts of sinners, whom he forbade to approach. Two long tables were set onthe sides of one aisle, covered with tablecloths. On each side of them a bench was placed for thepeople. Each table held four or five and thirty.

Three ministers sat at the top, behind a cross-table; one of them made a long exhortation, closedwith the words of our Lord; and, then, breaking the bread, gave it to him who sat on each side him.A piece of bread was then given to him who sat first on each of the four benches. He broke off alittle piece, and gave the bread to the next; so it went on, the deacons giving more when wanted.A cup was then given to the first person on each bench, and so by one to another. The ministercontinued his exhortation all the time they were receiving; then four verses of the Twenty-secondPsalm were sung, while new persons sat down at the tables. A second minister then prayed,

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consecrated, and exhorted. I was informed the service usually lasted till five in the evening. Howmuch more simple, as well as more solemn, is the service of the Church of England!

The evening congregation on the hill was far the largest I have seen in the kingdom, and themost deeply affected. Many were in tears; more seemed cut to the heart. Surely this time will notsoon be forgotten. Will it not appear in the annals of eternity?

Wesley's Likes and Dislikes

Monday, July 2.--I gave a fair hearing to two of our brethren who had proved bankrupts. Suchwe immediately exclude from our society, unless it plainly appears not to be their own fault. Boththese were in a prosperous way till they fell into that wretched trade of bill-broking, wherein noman continues long without being wholly ruined.By this means, not being sufficiently accurate intheir accounts, they ran back without being sensible of it. Yet it was quite clear that I--- R--- is anhonest man; I would hope the same concerning the other.

Tuesday, 3 (Leeds).--I was reflecting on an odd circ*mstance, which I cannot account for. Inever relish a tune at first hearing, not till I have almost learned to sing it; and as I learn it moreperfectly, I gradually lose my relish for it. I observe something similar in poetry; yea, in all theobjects of imagination. I seldom relish verses at first hearing; till I have heard them over and over,they give me no pleasure; and they give me next to none when I have heard them a few times more,so as to be quite familiar. Just so a face or a picture, which does not strike me at first, becomesmore pleasing as I grow more acquainted with it; but only to a certain point: for when I am toomuch acquainted, it is no longer pleasing. Oh, how imperfectly do we understand even the machinewhich we carry about us!

Thursday, 5.--I had the comfort of leaving our brethren at Leeds united in peace and love. Aboutone I preached in a meadow at Wakefield. At first the sun was inconvenient, but it was not manyminutes before that inconvenience was removed by the clouds coming between. We had not onlya larger, but a far more attentive, congregation than ever was seen here before. One, indeed, a kindof gentleman, was walking away with great unconcern when I spoke aloud. "Does Callio care fornone of these things? But where will you go, with the wrath of God on your head and the curse ofGod on your back?" He stopped short, stood still, and went no farther till the sermon was ended.

Saturday, 14.--In the evening I preached at Liverpool; and the next day, Sunday, 15, the housewas full enough. Many of the rich and fashionable were there and behaved with decency. Indeed,I have always observed more courtesy and humanity at Liverpool than at most seaports in England.

She Thought, "I Laugh Prettily"

Monday, 16.--In the evening the house was fuller, if possible, than the night before. I preachedon the "one thing needful"; and the rich behaved as seriously as the poor. Only one younggentlewoman (I heard) laughed much. Poor thing! Doubtless she thought, "I laugh prettily."

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Friday, 20.--At noon we made the same shift at Congleton as when I was here last. I stood inthe window, having put as many women as it would contain into the house. The rest, with the men,stood below in the meadow; many of the townsmen were wild enough. I have scarcely found suchenlargement of heart since I came from Newcastle. The brutes resisted long, but were at lengthovercome, not above five or six excepted. Surely man shall not long have the upper hand; God willget unto Himself the victory.

It rained all the day till seven in the evening, when I began preaching at Burslem. Even the poorpotters here are a more civilized people than the better sort (so called) at Congleton. A few stoodwith their hats on; but none spoke a word or offered to make the least disturbance.

Saturday, 21.-- rode to Bilbrook, near Wolverhampton, and preached between two and three.Thence we went on to Madeley, an exceedingly pleasant village, encompassed with trees and hills.It was a great comfort to me to converse once more with a Methodist of the old stamp, denyinghimself, taking up his cross, and resolved to be "altogether a Christian."

Sunday, 22.--At ten Mr. Fletcher read prayers, and I preached on those words in the gospel, "Iam the good Shepherd: the good Shepherd layeth down his life for the sheep" [John 10:11]. Thechurch would nothing near contain the congregation; but a window near the pulpit being takendown, those who could not come in stood in the churchyard, and I believe all could hear. Thecongregation, they said, used to be much smaller in the afternoon than in the morning; but I couldnot discern the least difference, either in number or seriousness.

I found employment enough for the intermediate hours, in praying with various companies whohung about the house, insatiably hungering and thirsting after the good Word.

An Exhausting Day

Wednesday, 25.--I took horse a little after four and, about two, preached in the market place atLlanidloes, two or three and forty miles from Shrewsbury. At three we rode forward through themountains to the Fountainhead. I was for lodging there; but Mr. B-- being quite unwilling, wemounted again about seven. After having ridden an hour, we found we were quite out of the way,having been wrongly directed at setting out. We were then told to ride over some grounds; but ourpath soon ended in the edge of a bog. However, we got through to a little house where an honestman, instantly mounting his horse, galloped before us, up hill and down, till he brought us into aroad which, he said, led straight to Roes Fair.

We rode on till another met us and said, "No; this is the way to Aberystwith. If you go to RoesFair, you must turn back and ride down to yonder bridge." The master of the little house near thebridge then directed us to the next village, where we inquired again (it being past nine), and wereonce more set exactly wrong. Having wandered an hour upon the mountains, through rocks, andbogs, and precipices, we, with abundance of difficulty, got back to the little house near the bridge.It was in vain to think of rest there, it being full of drunken, roaring miners; besides that, there wasbut one bed in the house, and neither grass, nor hay, nor corn, to be had. So we hired one of themto walk with us to Roes Fair, though he was miserably drunk till, by falling all his length in a purlingstream, he came tolerably to his senses. Between eleven and twelve we came to the inn; but neitherhere could we get any hay.

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When we were in bed, the good hostler and miner thought good to mount our beasts. I believeit was not long before we rose that they put them into the stable. But the mule was cut in severalplaces, and my mare was bleeding like a pig, from a wound behind, two inches deep, made, itseemed, by a stroke with a pitchfork. What to do we could not tell till I remembered I had a letterfor one Mr. Nathaniel Williams, whom, upon inquiry, I found to live but a mile off. We walkedthither and found “an Israelite indeed," who gladly received both man and beast.

After I had got a little rest,: Mr. W. desired me to give an exhortation to a few of his neighbors.None was more struck therewith than one of his own family, who before cared for none of thesethings. He sent a servant with us after dinner to Tregarron from whence we had a plain road toLampeter.

Friday, 27.--We rode through a lovely vale and over pleasant and fruitful hills to Carmarthen.Thence, after a short bait, we went on to Pembroke and came before I was expected; so I restedthat night, having not quite recovered my journey from Shrewsbury to Roes Fair.

Sunday, 29.--The minister of St. Mary's sent me word he was very willing I should preach inhis church; but, before service began, the mayor sent to forbid it; so he preached a very usefulsermon himself. The mayor's behavior so disgusted many of the gentry that they resolved to hearwhere they could; and accordingly flocked together in the evening from all parts of the town.Perhaps the taking up this cross may profit them more than my sermon in the church would havedone.

Seven Hours on Horseback

Monday, 30.--l rode to Haverfordwest; but no notice had been given, nor did any in the townknow of my coming. However, after a short time, I walked up toward the castle and began singinga hymn. The people presently ran together from all quarters. They have curiosity at least; and some,I cannot doubt, were moved by a nobler principle. Were zealous and active laborers here, what aharvest might there be, even in this corner of the land! We returned through heavy rain to Pembroke.

Tuesday, 31.--We set out for Glamorganshire and rode up and down steep and stony mountains,for about five hours, to Larn. Having procured a pretty ready passage there, we went on to LansteffanFerry, where we were in some danger of being swallowed up in the mud before we could reach thewater. Between one and two we reached Kidwelly, having been more than seven hours on horseback,in which time we could have ridden round by Carmarthen with more ease both to man and beast.

I have, therefore, taken my leave of these ferries; considering we save no time by crossing them(not even when we have a ready passage), and so have all the trouble, danger, and expense, cleargains. I wonder that any man of common sense, who has once made the experiment, should everride from Pembroke to Swansea any other way than by Carmarthen.

The Ride from Pembroke to Swansea

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An honest man at Kidwelly told us there was no difficulty in riding the sands; so we rode on.In ten minutes one overtook us who used to guide persons over them; and it was well he did, or, inall probability, we had been swallowed up. The whole sands are at least ten miles over, with manystreams of quicksands intermixed. But our guide was thoroughly acquainted with them and withthe road on the other side. By his help, between five and six, we came well tired to Oxwych inCower.

I had sent two persons on Sunday that they might be there early on Monday, and so sent noticeof my coming all over the country; but they came to Oxwych scarcely a quarter of an hour beforeme. So the poor people had no notice at all, nor was there any to take us in; the person with whomthe preacher used to lodge was three miles out of town. After I had stayed a while in the street (forthere was no public house), a poor woman gave me house room. Having had nothing since breakfast,I was very willing to eat or drink; but she simply told me that she had nothing in the house but adram of gin. However, I afterward procured a dish of tea at another house and was much refreshed.About seven I preached to a little company, and again in the morning. They were all attention sothat even for the sake of this handful of people I did not regret my labor.

Sunday, November 4.--I proposed to the leaders the assisting the Society for the Reformationof Manners with regard to their heavy debt. One of them asked, "Ought we not to pay our own debtfirst?" After some consultations, it was agreed to attempt it. The general debt of the society inLondon, occasioned chiefly by repairing the Foundry and chapels and by building at Wapping andSnowsfields, was about nine hundred pounds. This I laid before the society in the evening anddesired them all to set their shoulders to the work, either by a present contribution or by subscribingwhat they could pay, on the first of January, February or March.

Monday, 5 (London).—My scraps of time this week I employed in setting down my presentthoughts upon a single life, which indeed, are just the same they have been these thirty years; andthe same they must be, unless I give up my Bible.

Wesley's Experiments with Lions

Monday, December 31.--l thought it would be worth while to make an odd experiment.Remembering how surprisingly fond of music the lion at Edinburgh was, I determined to try whetherthis was the case with all animals of the same kind. I accordingly went to the Tower with one whoplays on the German flute. He began playing near four or five lions; only one of these (the rest notseeming to regard it at all) rose up, came to the front of his den, and seemed to be all attention.Meantime, a tiger in the same den started up, leaped over the lion's back, turned and ran under hisbelly, leaped over him again, and so to and fro incessantly. Can we account for this by any principleof mechanism? Can we account for it at all?

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Chapter 14. Justice for Methodists; Methodist Character; Instructions toParents; Wesley's Opinion of Mary Queen of Scots

1765. Tuesday, January 1.--This week I wrote an answer to a warm letter, published in the

London Magazine, the author whereof is much displeased that I presume to doubt of the modernastronomy. I cannot help it. Nay, the more I consider, the more my doubts increase so that, atpresent, I doubt whether any man on earth knows either the distance or magnitude, I will not sayof a fixed star, but of Saturn, or Jupiter; yea, of the sun or moon.

Sunday, 20.--I employed all my leisure hours this week in revising my letters and papers.Abundance of them I committed to the flames. Perhaps some of the rest may see the light when Iam gone.

Breakfast with Mr. Whitefield

Monday, October 21.--I went in the coach from Bristol to Salisbury, and on Thursday 24, cameto London.

Monday, 28.--I breakfasted with Mr. Whitefield, who seemed to be an old, old man, being fairlyworn out in his Master's service, though he has hardly seen fifty years; and yet it pleases God thatI, who am now in my sixty-third year, find no disorder, no weakness, no decay, no difference fromwhat I was at five-and-twenty; only that I have fewer teeth and more grey hairs.

Sunday, November 24.--I preached on those words in the lesson for the day, "The Lord ourrighteousness" [Jer. 23:6]. I said not one thing which I have not said at least fifty times within thistwelvemonth. Yet it appeared to many entirely new, and they much importuned me to print mysermon, supposing it would stop the mouths of all gainsayers. Alas, for their simplicity! In spite ofall I can print, say, or do, will not those who seek occasion of offense find occasion?

Tuesday, December 3.--l rode to Dover and found a little company more united together thanthey have been for many years. While several of them continued to rob the King, we seemed to beploughing upon the sand; but since they have cut off the right hand, the Word of God sinks deepinto their hearts.

Thursday, 5.--l rode back to Feversham. Here I was quickly informed that the mob and themagistrates had agreed together to drive Methodism, so called, out of the town. After preaching, Itold them what we had been constrained to do by the magistrate at Rolvenden; who perhaps wouldhave been richer, by some hundred pounds, had he never meddled with the Methodists; I concluded,"Since we have both God and the law on our side, if we can have peace by fair means, we had muchrather; we should be exceedingly glad; but if not, we will have peace."

Wednesday, 18.--Riding through the Borough, all my mare’s feet flew up, and she fell with myleg under her. A gentleman, stepping out, lifted me up and helped me into his shop. I was exceedinglysick but was presently relieved by a little hartshorn and water. After resting a few minutes, I tooka coach; but when I was cold, found myself much worse, being bruised on my right arm, my breast,my knee, leg, and ankle, which swelled exceedingly. However, I went on to Shoreham, where byapplying treacle twice a day, all the soreness was removed, and I recovered some strength so as tobe able to walk a little on plain ground. The Word of God does at length bear fruit here also, and

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Mr. P. is comforted over all his trouble. Saturday, 21. Being not yet able to ride, I returned in achariot to London.

Sunday, 22.--I was ill able to go through the service at West Street; but God provided for thisalso. Mr. Greaves, being just ordained, came straight to the chapel, and gave me the assistance Iwanted.

Thursday, 26.--I should have been glad of a few days' rest, but it could not be at this busy season.However, being electrified morning and evening, my lameness mended, though but slowly.

1766. Friday, January 31.--Mr- Whitefield called upon me. He breathes nothing but peace andlove. Bigotry cannot stand before him but hides its head wherever he comes.

Two Deeds

Wednesday, February 5 (London).--One called upon me who had been cheated out of a largefortune and was now perishing for want of bread. I had a desire to clothe him and send him backto his own country, but was short of money. However, I appointed him to call again in an hour. Hedid so; but before he came, one from whom I expected nothing less, put twenty guineas into myhand; so I ordered him to be clothed from head to foot and sent him straight away to Dublin.

Monday, April 7.--l preached at Warrington, about noon, to a large congregation, rich and poor,learned and unlearned. I never spoke more plainly; nor have I ever seen a congregation listen withmore attention. Thence I rode to Liverpool and thoroughly regulated the society, which had greatneed of it. Wednesday, 9. I took much pains with a sensible woman who had taken several imprudentsteps. But it was labor lost--neither argument nor persuasion made the least impression. Oh, whatpower less than almighty can convince a thoroughpaced enthusiast!

Thursday, 10.--I looked over the wonderful deed which was lately made here on which I observed1) it takes up three large skins of parchment and so could not cost less than six guineas; whereasour own deed, transcribed by a friend, would not have cost six shillings; 2) it is verbose beyond allsense and reason, and withal so ambiguously worded that one passage only might find matter fora suit of ten or twelve years in Chancery; 3) it everywhere calls the house a meeting-house, a namewhich I particularly object to; 4) it leaves no power either to the assistant or me so much as to placeor displace a steward; 5) neither I, nor all the Conference, have power to send the same preachertwo years together. To crown all, 6) if a preacher is not appointed at the Conference, the trusteesand the congregation are to choose one, by most votesl And can anyone wonder I dislike this deed,which tears the Methodist discipline up by the roots?

Is it not strange that any who have the least regard either for me or our discipline should scrupleto alter this uncouth deed?

Wesley Covered with Mud

Tuesday, June 24.--Before eight we reached Dumfries and after a short bait pushed on in hopesof reaching Solway Frith before the sea came in. Designing to call at an inn by the frith side, we

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inquired the way and were directed to leave the main road and go straight to the house which wesaw before us. In ten minutes Duncan Wright was embogged; 27 however, the horse plunged on andgot through. I was inclined to turn back; but Duncan telling me I needed only go a little to the left,I did so and sank at once to my horse's shoulders. He sprang up twice, and twice sank again, eachtime deeper than before. At the third plunge he threw me on one side, and we both made shift toscramble out. I was covered with fine, soft mud from my feet to the crown of my head; yet, blessedbe God, not hurt at all. But we could not cross till between seven and eight o'clock. An honest mancrossed with us, who went two miles out of his way to guide us over the sands to Skilburness, wherewe found a little, clean house, and passed a comfortable night.

Saturday, July 19.--I took a view of Beverley minster, such a parish church as has scarcely itsfellow in England. It is a most beautiful as well as stately building, both within and without, andis kept more nicely clean than any cathedral which I have seen in the kingdom; but where will itbe when the earth is burned up and the elements melt with fervent heat? About one I preached atPocklington (though my strength was much exhausted), and in the evening at York.

Sunday, 27.--As Baildon church would not nearly contain the congregation, after the prayerswere ended, I came out into the churchyard, both morning and afternoon. The wind was extremelyhigh and blew in my face all the time; yet, I believe, all the people could hear. At Bradford therewas so huge a multitude and the rain so damped my voice that many in the skirts of the congregationcould not hear distinctly. They have just built a preaching-house, fifty-four feet square, the largestoctagon we have in England; and it is the first of the kind where the roof is built with commonsense, rising only a third of its breadth; yet it is as firm as any in England, nor does it at all hurt thewalls. Why then does any roof rise higher? Only through want of skill, or want of honesty, in thebuilder.

Tuesday, 29.--In the evening I preached near the preaching-house at Paddiham and stronglyinsisted on communion with God as the only religion that would avail us. At the close of the sermoncame Mr. M. His long, white beard showed that his present disorder was of some continuance. Inall other respects, he was quite sensible; but he told me with much concern, "You can have no placein heaven without a beard! Therefore, I beg, let yours grow immediately."

Wesley Secures Justice for Methodists

Saturday, August 30.--We rode to Stallbridge, long the seat of war, by a senseless, insolent mobencouraged by their betters, so called to outrage their quiet neighbors. For what? Why, they weremad: they were Methodists. So, to bring them to their senses, they would beat their brains out. Theybroke their windows, leaving not one whole pane with glass, spoiled their goods, and assaultedtheir persons with dirt, rotten eggs, and stones whenever they appeared in the street. But nomagistrate, though they applied to several, would show them either mercy or justice. At length theywrote to me. I ordered a lawyer to write to the rioters. He did so, but they set him at naught. Wethen moved the Court of King's bench. By various artifices, they got the trial put off, from oneassizes to another, for eighteen months. But it fell so much the heavier on themselves, when they

27 Correct to the text.

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were found guilty; and, from that time, finding there is law for Methodists, they have suffered themto be at peace.

I preached near the main street, without the least disturbance, to a large and attentivecongregation. Thence we rode on to Axminster, but were thoroughly wet before we came thither.The rain obliged me to preach within at six; but at seven on Sunday morning, I cried in the marketplace, "The kingdom of God is at hand; repent ye, and believe the gospel" [Mark 1:15].

In the evening I preached in the street at Ashburton. Many behaved with decency; but the rest,with such stupid rudeness as I have not seen, for a long time, in any part of England.

Monday, September 1.--I came to Plymouth Dock, where, after heavy storms, there is now acalm. The house, notwithstanding the new galleries, was extremely crowded in the evening. Istrongly exhorted the backsliders to return to God; and I believe many received "the word ofexhortation."

Tuesday, 7.--Being invited to preach in the Tabernacle at Plymouth, I began about two in theafternoon. In the evening I was offered the use of Mr. Whitefield's room at the dock; but, large asit is, it would not contain the congregation. At the close of the sermon, a large stone was thrownin at one of the windows, which came just behind me and fell at my feet, the best place that couldhave been found. So no one was hurt or frightened, not many knowing anything of the matter.

Gwennap's Famous Amphitheater

Sunday, 7.--At eight I preached in Mousehole, a large village southwest from Newlyn. ThenceI went to Buryan church, and, as soon as the service was ended, preached near the churchyard toa numerous congregation. Just after I began, I saw a gentleman before me, shaking his whip andvehemently striving to say something. But he was abundantly too warm to say anything intelligibly.So, after walking a while to and fro, he wisely took horse and rode away.

Friday, 12.--I rode to St. Hilary and in the evening preached near the new house on "Awake,thou that steepest" [Eph. 5:14]. In returning to my lodging, it being dark, my horse was just steppinginto a tinpit when an honest man caught him by the bridle and turned his head the other way.

Sunday, 14.--l preached in St. Agnes at eight. The congregation in Redruth, at one, was thelargest I ever had seen there; but small, compared to that which assembled at five, in the naturalamphitheater at Gwennap; far the finest I know in the kingdom. It is a round, green hollow, gentlyshelving down, about fifty feet deep; but I suppose it is two hundred across one way, and near threehundred the other. I believe there were fully twenty thousand people; and, the evening being calm,all could hear.

Monday, 15.--l preached at Cubert and next morning rode on to St. CoIumb. Being desired tobreak the ice here, I began preaching, without delay, in a gentleman's yard adjoining to the mainstreet. I chose this, as neither too public nor too private. I fear the greater part of the audienceunderstood full little of what they heard. However, they behaved with seriousness and good manners.

Hence I rode to Port Isaac, now one of the liveliest places in Cornwall. The weather beinguncertain, I preached near the house. But there was no rain while I preached, except the graciousrain which God sent upon His inheritance.

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Here Mr. Buckingham met me, who, for fear of offending the bishop, broke off all commercewith the Methodists. He had no sooner done this than the bishop rewarded him by turning him outof his curacy; had he continued to walk in Christian simplicity, he would probably have had it tothis day.

Wednesday, 17.--I twice stopped a violent bleeding from a cut by applying a brier leaf. Theroom at Launceston would not nearly contain the congregation in the evening, to whom I stronglyapplied the case of the impotent man at the pool of Bethesda: Many were much affected: but, oh,how few are willing to be made wholel

Wesley on a Country Life

Monday, November 3.--I rode to Brentford from London, where all was quiet, both in thecongregation and the society. Tuesday, 4. I preached af Brentford, Battersea, Deptford and Welling,and examined the several societies. Wednesday, 5. I rode by Shoreham to Sevenoaks. In the littlejourneys which I have lately taken, have thought much on the huge encomiums which have beenfor many ages bestowed on a country life. How have all the learn world cried out,

O fortunate nimium, sua si bona norint,AgricolmlBut, after all, what a flat contradiction is this to universal experience! See that little house,

under the wood, by the riverside! There is rural life in perfection. How happy then is the farmerthat lives there? Let us take a detail of his happiness. He rises with, or before, the sun, calls hisservants, looks to his swine and cows, then to his stables and barns. He sees to the ploughing andsowing his ground, in winter or in spring. In summer and autumn he hurries and sweats among hismowers and reapers. And where is his happiness in the meantime? Which of these employmentsdo we envy? Or do we envy the delicate repast that succeeds, which the poet so languishes for?

O quindo faba, Pythagorm cognate, simulqueUncta satis pingui ponentur oluscula lardo!"Oh, the happiness of eating beans well greased with fat bacon! Nay, and cabbage, tool"--Was

Horace in his senses when he talked thus, or the servile herd of his imitators? Our eyes and earsmay convince us there is not a less happy body of men in all England than the country farmers. Ingeneral their life is supremely dull; and it is usually unhappy too. For of all people in the kingdomthey are most discontented, seldom satisfied either with God or man.

Wesley and the Character of a Methodist

1767. Thursday, March 5.--l at length obliged Dr. D. by entering into the lists with him. Theletter I wrote (though not published till two or three weeks after) was as follows:

"To the Editor of Lloyd's Evening Post.

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"Sir,--Many times the publisher of the Christian Magazine has attacked me without fear or wit;and hereby he has convinced his impartial readers of one thing at least--that (as the vulgar say) hisfingers itch to be at me; that he has a passionate desire to measure swords with me. But I have otherwork upon my hands: I can employ the short remainder of my life to better purpose.

"The occasion of his late attack is this: Five or six and thirty years ago, I much admired thecharacter of a perfect Christian drawn by Clemens Alexandrinus. Five or six and twenty years ago,a thought came into my mind of drawing such a character myself, only in a more scriptural mannerand mostly in the very words of Scripture: this I entitled, 'The Character of a Methodist,' believingthat curiosity would incite more persons to read it, and also that some prejudice might thereby beremoved from candid men. But that none might imagine I intended a panegyric either on myselfor my friends, I guarded against this in the very title page, saying both in the name of myself andthem, 'Not as though I had already attained, either were already perfect.' To the same effect I speakin the conclusion, 'These are the same principles and practices of our sect; these are the marks ofa true Methodist'; that is, a true Christian, as I immediately after explain myself: 'by these alone dothose who are in derision so called desire to be distinguished from other men.' (P. ii.) 'By thesemarks do we labor to distinguish ourselves from those whose minds or lives are not according tothe gospel of Christ.' (P. 12.)

"Upon this Rusticulus, or Dr. Dodd, says, 'A Methodist, according to Mr. Wesley, is one whois perfect, and sinneth not in thought, word, or deed.'

"Sir, have me excused. This is not 'according to Mr. Wesley.’ I have told all the world I am notperfect; and yet you allow me to be a Methodist. I tell you flatly, I have not attained the characterI draw. Will you pin it upon me in spite of my teeth?

"'But Mr. Wesley says, the other Methodists have.' I say no such thing. What I say, after havinggiven a scriptural account of a perfect Christian, is this: 'By these marks the Methodists desire tobe distinguished from other men; by these we labor to distinguish ourselves.' And do not youyourself desire and labor after the very same thing?

"But you insist, 'Mr. Wesley affirms the Methodists (that is, all Methodists) to be perfectly holyand righteous.' Where do I affirm this? Not in the tract before us. In the front of this I affirm justthe contrary; and that I affirm it anywhere else is more than I know. Be pleased, Sir, to point outthe place: till this is done, all you add (bitterly enough) is mere brutum fulmen; and the Methodists(so called) may still declare (without any impeachment of their sincerity) that they do not come tothe holy table 'trusting in their own righteousness, but in God's manifold and great mercies.' I am,Sir,

"Yours,“John Wesley."

The Sexton's Strange Apparition

Saturday, August 1.--Before I left Glasgow I heard so strange an account that I desired to hearit from the person himself. He was a sexton and yet for many years had little troubled himself aboutreligion. I set down his words and leave every man to form his own judgment upon them: "Sixteenweeks ago, I was walking, an hour before sunset, behind the high kirk; and, looking on one side, I

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saw one close to me who looked in my face and asked me how I did. I answered, 'Pretty well.' Hesaid, 'You have had many troubles; but how have you improved them?' He then told me all thatever I did; yea, and the thoughts that had been in my heart; adding, 'Be ready for my second coming';and he was gone I knew not how. I trembled all over, and had no strength in me; but sank down tothe ground. From that time I groaned continually under the load of sin, till at the Lord's supper itwas all taken away."

Friday, September 25.--l was desired to preach at Freshford; but the people durst not come tothe house because of the smallpox, of which Joseph Allen, "an Israelite indeed," had died the daybefore. So they placed a table near the churchyard. But I had no sooner begun to speak than thebells began to ring, by the procurement of a neighboring gentleman. However, it was labor lost;for my voice prevailed, and the people heard me distinctly. Nay, a person extremely deaf, who hadnot been able to hear a sermon for several years, told his neighbors, with great joy that he had heardand understood all, from the beginning to the end.

Queer Houses at Sheerness

Monday, November 23.--I went to Canterbury. Here I met with the Life of Mahomet, written,I suppose, by the Count de Boulanvilliers. Whoever the author is, he is a very pert, shallow,self-conceited coxcomb, remarkable for nothing but his immense assurance and thorough contemptof Christianity. And the book is a dull, ill-digested romance, supported by no authorities at all;whereas Dean Prideaux (a writer of ten times his sense) cites his authorities for everything headvances.

In the afternoon I rode to Dover; but the gentleman I was to lodge with was gone a long journey.He went to bed well, but dead in the morning: such a vapor is life! At six I preached, but the housewould by no means contain the congregation. Most of the officers of the garrison were there. I havenot found so much life here for some years.

Sunday, December 13.--Today I found a little soreness on the edge of my tongue, which thenext day spread to my gums, then to my lips, which inflamed, swelled, and, the skin bursting, bledconsiderably. Afterward, the roof of my mouth was extremely sore so that I could chew nothing.To this was added a continual spitting. I knew a little rest would cure all. But this was not to behad; for I had appointed to be at Sheerness on Wednesday, the sixteenth. Accordingly, I took horsebetween five and six and came thither between five and six in the evening.

At half an hour after six, I began reading prayers (the governor of the fort having given me theuse of the chapel), and afterward preached, though not without difficulty, to a large and seriouscongregation. The next evening it was considerably increased, so that the chapel was as hot as anoven. In coming out, the air, being exceedingly sharp, quite took away my voice, so that I knewnot how I should be able the next day to read prayers or preach to so large a congregation. But inthe afternoon the governor cut the knot, sending word that I must preach in the chapel no more. Aroom being offered, which held full as many people as I was able to preach to, we had a comfortablehour; and many seemed resolved to "seek the Lord while he may be found."

Such a town as many of these live in is scarcely to be found again in England. In the dockadjoining the fort there are six old men-of-war. These are divided into small tenements, forty, fifty,

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or sixty in a ship, with little chimneys and windows; and each of these contains a family. In one ofthem, where we called, a man and his wife, and six little children lived. And yet all the ship wassweet and tolerably clean; sweeter than most sailing ships I have been in. Saturday, 19. I returnedto London.

Wesley in the Marshalsea Prison

1768. Saturday, January 2.--I called on a poor man in the Marshalsea, whose case appeared tobe uncommon. He is by birth a Dutchman, a chemist by profession. Being but half-employed athome, he was advised to come to London, where he doubted not of having full employment. Hewas recommended to a countryman of his to lodge, who after six weeks arrested him for muchmore than he owed, and hurried him away to prison, having a wife near her time, without money,friend, or a word of English to speak. I wrote the case to Mr. T--, who immediately gave fifteenpounds; by means of which, with a little addition, he was set at liberty and put in a way of living.But I never saw him since, and for good reason: for he could now live without me.

Monday, 4.--At my leisure hours this week, I read Dr. Priestley's ingenious book on electricity.He seems to have accurately collected and well digested all that is known on that curious subject.But how little is that all! Indeed the use of it we know; at least, in some good degree. We know itis a thousand medicines in one: in particular, that it is the most efficacious medicine in nervousdisorders of every kind which has ever yet been discovered. But if we aim at theory, we knownothing. We are soon

Lost and bewilder'd in the fruitless search.Monday, 11.--This week I spent my scraps of time in reading Mr. Wodrow's History of the

Sufferings of the Church of Scotland. It would transcend belief but that the vouchers are too authenticto admit of any exception. Oh, what a blessed Governor was that good-natured man, so called, KingCharles the Second! Bloody Queen Mary was a lamb, a mere dove, in comparison to him!

Monday, February 8.--I met with a surprising poem, entitled, Choheleth; or, the Preacher. Itis a paraphrase, in tolerable verse, on the Book of Ecclesiastes. I really think the author of it (aTurkey Merchant) understands both the difficult expressions and the connection of the whole betterthan any other either ancient or modern writer whom I have seen. He was at Lisbon during the greatearthquake, just then sitting in his nightgown and slippers. Before he could dress himself, part ofthe house he was in fell and blocked him up. By this means his life was saved, for all who had runout were dashed in pieces by the falling houses.

Wesley Travels North

Monday, March 14.--l set out on my northern journey, and preached at Stroud in the evening.Tuesday, 15. About noon I preached at Painswick and in the evening at Gloucester. The mob herewas for a considerable time both noisy and mischievous. But an honest magistrate, taking the matter

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in hand, quickly tamed the beasts of the people. So may any magistrate, if he will; so that wherevera mob continues any time, all they do is to be imputed not so much to the rabble as to the justices.

Wednesday, 16.--About nine I preached at Cheltenham--a quiet, comfortable place; though itwould not have been so, if either the rector or the Anabaptist minister could have prevented it. Boththese have blown the trumpet with their might; but the people had no ears to hear. In the afternoonI preached at Upton and then rode on to Worcester. But the difficulty was where to preach. Noroom was large enough to contain the people, and it was too cold for them to stand abroad. Atlength we went to a friend's, near the town whose barn was larger than many churches. Here anumerous congregation soon assembled, and again at five and at ten in the morning. Nothing iswanting here but a commodious house; and will not God provide this also?

Friday, 18.--The vicar of Pebworth had given notice in the church on Sunday that I was topreach there on Friday. But the squire of the parish said, "It is contrary to the canons (wise squire!)and it shall not be." So I preached about a mile from it, at Broadmarston, by the side of Mr. Eden'shouse. The congregation was exceedingly large and remarkably attentive. In the morning, the chapel(so it anciently was) was well filled at five. The simplicity and earnestness of the people promisea glorious harvest.

Saturday, 19.--We rode to Birmingham. The tumults which subsisted here so many years arenow wholly suppressed by a resolute magistrate. After preaching, I was pleased to see a venerablemonument of antiquity, George Bridgins, in the one hundred and seventh year of his age. He canstill walk to the preaching and retains his senses and understanding tolerably well. But what a dreamwill even a life of a hundred years appear to him the moment he awakes in eternity!

Preaching in a North Wind

Sunday, 20.--About one I preached on West Bromwich heath; in the evening, near thepreaching-house in Wednesbury. The north wind cut like a razor; but the congregation, and I aswell, had something else to think of.

Tuesday, 22.--I read over a small book, Poems, by Miss Whately, a farmer's daughter. She hadlittle advantage from education, but an astonishing genius. Some of her elegies I think quite equalto Mr. Gray’s. If she had had proper helps for a few years, I question whether she would not haveexcelled any female poet that ever yet appeared in England.

Wednesday, 30.--l rode to a little town called New Mills, in the High Peak of Derbyshire. Ipreached at noon in their large new chapel, which (in consideration that preaching-houses haveneed of air) has a casem*nt in every window, three inches square! That is the custom of the country!

Wesley Instructs Parents

In the evening and the following morning I brought strange things to the ears of many inManchester, concerning the government of their families and the education of their children. Butsome still made that very silly answer, "Oh, he has no children of his own!" Neither had St. Paul,

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nor (that we know) any of the apostles. What then? Were they therefore unable to instruct parents?Not so. They were able to instruct everyone that had a soul to be saved.

Wednesday, April 6.--About eleven I preached at Wigan in a place near the middle of the townwhich I suppose was formerly a playhouse. It was very full and very warm. Most of the congregationwere wild as wild might be; yet none made the least disturbance. Afterward, as I walked down thestreet, they stared sufficiently; but none said an uncivil word.

In the evening we had a huge congregation at Liverpool; but some pretty, gay, fluttering thingsdid not behave with so much good manners as the mob at Wigan. The congregations in generalwere quite well behaved, as well as large, both morning and evening; and I found the society bothmore numerous and more lively than ever it was before.

Monday, 11.--I rode to Bolton; on Wednesday, to Kendal. Seceders and mongrel Methodistshave so surfeited the people here that there is small prospect of doing good; however, I once more“cast" my "bread upon the waters" and left the event to God.

Thursday, 14.—I rode on, through continued rain, to Ambleside. It cleared up before we cameto Keswick, and we set out thence in a fair day; but on the mountains the storm met us again andbeat on us so impetuously that our horses could scarcely turn their faces against it. However, wemade shift to reach co*ckermouth; but there was no room for preaching, the town being in an uproarthrough the election for members of Parliament; so, after drying ourselves, we thought it best togo on to Whitehaven.

Wesley and Mary Queen of Scots

Tuesday, 26.--I came to Aberdeen.Here I found a society truly alive, knit together in peace and love. The congregations were large

both morning and evening, and, as usual, deeply attentive. But a company of strolling players,who have at length found place here also, stole away the gay part of the hearers. Poor Scotland!Poor Aberdeen! This only was wanting to make them as completely irreligious as England.

Friday, 29.--I read over an extremely sensible book, but one that surprised me much; it is Aninquiry into the Proofs of the Charges commonly advanced against Mary Queen of Scots. By meansof original papers, he has made it more clear than one would imagine it possible at this distance:1) that she was altogether innocent of the murder of Lord Darnley, and no way privy to it; 2) thatshe married Lord Bothwell (then nearly seventy years old, herself but four-and-twenty) from thepressing instance of the nobility in a body, who at the same time assured her he was innocent ofthe King's murder; 3) that Murray, Morton, and Lethington themselves contrived that murder inorder to charge it upon her, as well as forged those vile letters and sonnets which, they palmed uponthe world for hers.

"But how then can we account for the quite contrary story, which has been almost universallyreceived?" Most easily. It was penned and published in French, English, and Latin (by QueenElizabeth's order) by George Buchanan, who was secretary to Lord Murray, and in Queen Elizabeth'spay; so he was sure to throw dirt enough. Nor was she at liberty to answer for herself. "But whatthen was Queen Elizabeth?" As just and merciful as Nero and as good a Christian as Mohammed.

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Sunday, May 1.--I preached at seven in the new room; in the afternoon at the College kirk, inOld Aberdeen. At six, knowing our house could not contain the congregation, I preached in thecastle gate, on the paved stones. A large number of people were all attention; but there were manyrude, stupid creatures round about them who knew as little of reason as of religion; I never sawsuch brutes in Scotland before. One of them threw a potato, which fell on my arm; I turned to them,and some were ashamed.

Wesley at Scoon and Holyrood

Monday, 2.--I set out early from Aberdeen and about noon preached in Brechin. After sermon,the provost desired to see me and said, "Sir, my son had epileptic fits from his infancy; Dr. Ogylvieprescribed for him many times and at length told me he could do no more. I desired Mr. Blair lastMonday to speak to you. On Tuesday morning my son said to his mother that he had just beendreaming that his fits were gone and he was perfectly well. Soon after I gave him the drops youadvised; he is perfectly well and has not had one fit since.

Thursday, 5.--We rode through the pleasant and fruitful Carse of Gowry, a plain, fifteen orsixteen miles long, between the river Tay and the mountains, very thickly inhabited, to Perth. Inthe afternoon we walked over to the royal palace at Scoon. It is a large old house, delightfullysituated, but swiftly running to ruin. Yet there are a few good pictures and some fine tapestry left,in what they call the Queen's and the King's chambers. And what is far more curious, there is a bedand a set of hangings in the (once) royal apartment, which was wrought by poor Queen Mary whileshe was imprisoned in the Castle of Lochlevin. It is some of the finest needlework I have ever seen,and plainly shows both her exquisite skill and unwearied industry.

Saturday, 14.--l walked once more through Holyrood House, a noble pile of building; but thegreatest part of it left to itself and so (like the palace at Scone) swiftly running to ruin. The tapestryis dirty and quite faded; the fine ceilings dropping down; many of the pictures in the gallery aretorn or cut through. This was the work of good General Hawley's soldiers (like General, like men!),who, after running away from the Scots at Falkirk, revenged themselves on the harmless canvasl

Sunday, 15.--At eight I preached in the High School yard, and I believe not a few of the hearerswere cut to the heart. Between twelve and one a far larger congregation assembled on the CastleHill. I believe my voice commanded them all while I opened and enforced those awful words, "Isaw the dead, small and great, stand before God" [Rev. 20:12]. In the evening our house wassufficiently crowded, even with the rich and honorable. "Who hath warned" these "to flee from thewrath to come?" [Matt. 3:7]. Oh, may they at length awake and "arise from the dead!"

Wesley's Old Schoolfellow

Wednesday, June 1.—Many of the militia were present at Barnard Castle in the evening andbehaved with decency. I was well pleased to lodge at a gentleman's, an old schoolfellow, half a

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mile from the town. What a dream are the fifty or sixty years that have slipped away since we wereat the Charterhouse!

Thursday, 2.--I preached at noon at a farmer's house, near Brough in Westmoreland. The sunwas hot enough, but some shady trees covered both me and most of the congregation. A little birdperched on one of them and sang, without intermission, from the beginning of the service unto theend. Many of the people came from far, but I believe none of them regretted their labor.

Friday, 3.--In running down one of the mountains yesterday, I got a sprain in my thigh. It wasworse today, but as I rode to Barnard Castle, the sun shone so hot upon it that before I came to thetown it was quite well. In the evening the commanding officer gave orders there should be noexercise that all the Durham militia (what a contrast!) might be at liberty to attend the preaching.Accordingly, we had a little army of officers as well as soldiers, and all behaved well. A largenumber of them were present at five in the morning.

Tuesday, 7.--l went down by water to South Shields and preached at noon to far more thancould hear. We went, after dinner, to Tynemouth Castle, a magnificent heap of ruins. Within thewalls are the remains of a very large church, which seems to have been of exquisite workmanship.The stones are joined by so strong a cement that, but for Cromwell's cannon, they might have stooda thousand years.

Wesley's Wife Ill

Sunday, August 14.--Hearing my wife was dangerously ill, I took chaise immediately andreached the Foundry before one in the morning. Finding the fever was turned and the danger over,about two I set out again, and in the afternoon came (not at all tired) to Bristol.

Wednesday, September 7 (Penzance).--After the early preaching, the select society met; sucha company of lively believers, full of faith and love, I never found in this county before. This, andthe three following days, I preached at as many places as I could, though I was at first in doubtwhether I could preach eight days together, mostly in the open air, three or four times a day. Butmy strength was as my work; I hardly felt any weariness, first or last.

Sunday, 11.--About nine I preached at St. Agnes and again between one and two. At first I tookmy old stand at Gwennap, in the natural amphitheater. I suppose no human voice could havecommanded such an audience on plain ground; but the ground rising all around gave me such anadvantage that I believe all could hear distinctly.

Monday, 12.--I preached about noon at Callistick and in the evening at Kerley. It rained all thetime; but that did not divert the attention of a large congregation. At noon, Tuesday, 13, I preachedin Truro and in the evening at Mevagissey. It was a season of solemn joy; I have not often foundthe like. Surely God's thoughts are not as our thoughts! Can any good be done at Mevagissey?

Friday, 16.--I rode, through heavy rain to Polperro. Here the room over which we were to lodgebeing filled with pilchards and conger-eels, the perfume was too potent for me; I was not sorrywhen one of our friends invited me to lodge at her house. Soon after I began to preach, heavy rainbegan; yet none went away till the whole service was ended.

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Saturday, 17.--When we came to Crimble Passage, we were at a full stop. The boatmen told usthe storm was so high that it was not possible to pass; however, at length we persuaded them toventure out, and we did not ship one sea till we got over.

Sunday, 18.--Our room at the Dock contained the morning congregation tolerably well. Betweenone and two I began preaching on the quay in Plymouth. Notwithstanding the rain, abundance ofpeople stood to hear. But one silly man talked without ceasing, till I desired the people to open tothe right and left, and let me look him in the face. They did so. He pulled off his hat and quietlywent away.

Wesley and Seaport Towns

Wednesday, November 30.--l rode to Dover and came in just before a violent storm began. Itdid not hinder the people. Many were obliged to go away after the house was filled. What a desireto hear runs through all the seaport towns wherever we come! Surely God is besieging this nationand attacking it at all the entrances!

Wednesday, December 14.--l saw the Westminster scholars act the Adelphi of Terence, anentertainment not unworthy of a Christian. Oh, how do these heathens shame us! Their very comediescontain both excellent sense, the liveliest pictures of men and manner, and so fine strokes of genuinemorality as are seldom found in the writings of Christians.

Chapter 15. Wesley Opens a New Church; Comments on Rousseau; Geology;Swedenborg, and Riding Horseback; Gwennap and 20,000 People; Death of

Whitefield

1769. Monday, January 9.--I spent a comfortable and profitable hour with Mr. Whitefield, incalling to mind the former times and the manner wherein God prepared us for a work which it hadnot then entered into our hearts to conceive.

Friday, February 17 (Yarmouth).--I abridged Dr. Watts's pretty Treatise on the Passions. Hishundred and seventy-seven pages will make a useful tract of four-and-twenty. Why do persons whotreat the same subjects with me, write so much larger books? Of many reasons, is not this thechief--we do not write with the same view? Their principal end is to get money; my only one, todo good.

Monday, 27 (London. 28 )--I had one more agreeable conversation with my old friend and fellowlaborer, George Whitefield. His soul appeared to be vigorous still, but his body was sinking apace;unless God interposes, he must soon finish his labors.

Wesley's Land-shark

28 Correct to the text

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Thursday, March 30 (Dublin).--I was summoned to the Court of Conscience by a poor creaturewho fed my horses three or four times while I was on board. For this service he demanded tenshillings. I gave him half a crown. When I informed the Court of this, he was sharply reproved. Letall beware of these land-sharks on our seacoasts!--My scraps of time this week, I employed inreading the account of Commodore Byron. I never before read of any who endured such hardshipsand survived them. Surely no novel in the world can be more affecting, or more surprising, thanthis history.

Wednesday, April 19 (Armagh).--We took horse about ten, being desired to call at Kinnard(ten or eleven miles out of the way), where a little society had been lately formed who were muchalive to God. At the town-end, I was met by a messenger from Archdeacon C--e who desired Iwould take a bed with him; and soon after by another who told me the Archdeacon desired I wouldalight at his door. I did so and found an old friend whom I had not seen for four or five and thirtyyears.

Wesley Opens a New Church

He received me with the most cordial affection and, after a time, said, "We have been buildinga new church, which my neighbors expected me to open; but if you please to do it, it will be aswell." Hearing the bell, the people flocked together from all parts of the town, and "received theword with all readiness of mind." I saw the hand of God was in this, for the strengthening of thisloving people.

Hence we rode through a pleasant country to Charlemount, where I preached to a very largeand serious congregation. [We were gathered] near the fort, which has a ditch round it, with someface of a fortification; it probably (according to custom) costs the Government a thousand a yearfor not three farthings' service!

Thursday, 20.--I went on to Castle Caulfield and preached on the green adjoining to the castle,to a plain, serious people, who still retain all their earnestness and simplicity. Thence I rode toCookstown, a town consisting of one street about a mile long, running directly through a bog. Ipreached to most of the inhabitants of the town; and so the next day, morning and evening. Many“received the word with gladness." Perhaps they will not all be stony-ground hearers.

We took the new road to Dungiven. But it was hard work.

Nigh founder'd, on we fated.Treading the crude consistence.We were nearly five hours going fourteen miles, partly on horseback, partly on foot. We had,

as usual, a full house at Londonderry in the evening and again at eight on Sunday morning. In theafternoon we had a brilliant congregation. But such a sight gives me no great pleasure, as I havevery little hope of doing them good; only with God all things are possible." Both this evening andthe next I spoke exceedingly plain to the members of the society. In no other place in Ireland havemore pains been taken by the most able of our preachers. And to how little purpose! Bands theyhave none: four-and-forty persons in society! The greater part of these heartless and cold. Theaudience in general dead as stones. However, we are to deliver our message; and let our Lord doas seemeth Hirn good.

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A Forsaken Beauty

Thursday, May 25.--l rode to Bandon. In the evening we were obliged to be in the house; butthe next, Friday, 26, I stood in the main street, and cried to a numerous congregation, “Fear Godand keep his commandments: for this is the whole of man" [Eccles. 12:13). Afterward I visited onethat a year or two ago was in high life, an eminent beauty, adored by her husband, admired andcaressed by some of the first men in the nation. She was now without husband, without friend,without fortune, confined to her bed, in constant pain, and in black despair, believing herself forsakenof God and possessed by a legion of devils! Yet I found great liberty in praying for her and a stronghope that she will die in peace.

Tuesday, June 37.--[From a letter "to a pious and sensible woman"] "By Christian perfection,I mean 1) loving God with all our heart. Do you object to this? I mean 2) a heart and life all devotedto God. Do you desire less? I mean 3) regaining the whole image of God. What objection to this?I mean 4) having all the mind that was in Christ. Is this going too far? I mean 5) walking uniformlyas Christ walked. And this surely no Christian will object to. If anyone means anything more oranything else by perfection, I have no concern with it. But if this is wrong, yet what need of thisheat about it, this violence, I had almost said, fury of opposition, carried so far as even not to layout anything with this man, or that woman, who professes it?"

Monday, July 3.--l rode to Coolylough (where was the quarterly meeting) and preached ateleven and in the evening. While we were singing, I was surprised to see the horses from all partsof the ground gathering about us. Is it true then that horses, as well as lions and tigers have an earfor music?

Sunday, 30.--At five I preached at Leeds; and on Monday, 31, prepared all things for the ensuingConference. Tuesday, August 1, it began; and a more loving one we never had. On Thursday Imentioned the case of our brethren at New York, who had built the first Methodist preaching-housein America and were in great want of money and much more of preachers. Two of our preachers,Richard Boardman and Joseph Pillmoor, willingly offered themselves for the service; by whomwe determined to send them fifty pounds, as a token of our brotherly love.

Wesley at the Countess of Huntingdon's

Wednesday, August 23.--l went on to Trevecka. Here we found a concourse of people from allparts, come to celebrate the Countess of Huntingdon's birthday and the anniversary of her school,which was opened on the twenty-fourth of August, last year. I preached in the evening to as manyas her chapel could well contain; which is extremely neat, or rather, elegant; as are the dining room,the school, and all the house. About nine Howell Harris desired me to give a short exhortation tohis family. I did so; and then went back to my Lady's and laid me down in peace.

Thursday, 24.--I administered the Lord's supper to the family. At ten the public service began.Mr. Fletcher preached an exceedingly lively sermon in the court, the chapel being far too small.After him, Mr. William Williams preached in Welsh, till between one and two o'clock. At two wedined. Meantime, a large number of people had baskets of bread and meat carried to them in thecourt. At three I took my turn there, then Mr. Fletcher, and about five the congregation was dismissed.

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Between seven and eight the love-feast began at which I believe many were comforted. In theevening several of us retired into the neighboring wood, which is exceedingly pleasantly laid outin walks. One of these leads to a little mount, raised in the midst of a meadow, and commanding adelightful prospect. This is Howell Harris's work, who has likewise greatly enlarged and beautifiedhis house; with the gardens, orchards, walks, and pieces of water that surround it, it is a kind oflittle paradise.

Friday, 25.--We rode through a lovely country to Chepstow. I had designed to go straight on,but yielded to the importunity of our friends to stay and preach in the evening. Meantime, I took awalk through Mr. Morris's woods. There is scarcely anything like them in the kingdom. They standon the top and down the side of a steep mountain, hanging in a semicircular form over the river.Through these woods abundance of serpentine walks are cut, wherein many seats and alcoves areplaced; most of them command a surprising prospect of rocks and fields on the other side of theriver. And must all these be burned up? What will become of us then, if we set our hearts uponthem?

The Gentleman with Rotten Eggs

Friday, September 8.--I preached about nine at Taunton and then rode on to Bridgewater. Thisafternoon I went to the top of Brent Hill. I know not that I ever before saw such a prospect. Westwardone may see to the mouth of the Bristol Channel; and the three other ways, as far as the eye canreach. And most of the land which you see is well cultivated, well wooded, and well watered; theglobe of earth, in its present condition, can hardly afford a more pleasing scene.

Tuesday, 19.--Between twelve and one, I preached at Freshford; on White's Hill, near Bradford,in the evening. By this means many had an opportunity of hearing who would not have come tothe room. I had designed to preach there again the next evening, but a gentleman in the town desiredme to preach at his door. The beasts of the people were tolerably quiet till I had nearly finished mysermon. They then lifted up their voices, especially one, called a gentleman, who had filled hispocket with rotten eggs. But, a young man coming unawares clapped his hands on each side andmashed them all at once. In an instant he was perfume all over, though it was not so sweet as balsam.

Tuesday, October 24.--l preached at Alston, in a large maltroom, where one side of my headwas very warm, through the crowd of people, the other very cold, having an open window at myear. Between six and seven I preached at Northampton; and it was an awful season.

This evening there was such an aurora borealis as I never saw before; the colors, both the white,the flame color, and the scarlet, were exceedingly strong and beautiful. But they were awful too,and an abundance of people were frightened into many good resolutions.

Wesley on Geology and Rousseau

Tuesday, December 26.--I read the letters from our preachers in America informing us that Godhad begun a glorious work there; that both in New York and Philadelphia multitudes flock to hear

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and behave with the deepest seriousness; and that the society in each place already contains abovea hundred members.

Friday, 29, 29 we observed as a day of fasting and prayer, partly on account of the confused stateof public affairs, partly as preparatory to the solemn engagement which we were about to renew.

1770. Monday, January 1.--About eighteen hundred of us met together; it was a most solemnseason. As we did openly avouch the Lord to be our God, so did He avouch us to be His people[see Deut. 26.17, 18].

Wednesday, 17.--In a little journey which I took into Bedfordshire, I finished Dr. Burnet’sTheory of the Earth. He is doubtless one of the first-rate writers, both as to sense and style; hislanguage is remarkably clear, unaffected, nervous, and elegant. And as to his theory, none can denythat it is ingenious and consistent with itself. And it is highly probable 1) that the earth arose outof the chaos in some such manner as he describes; 2) that the antediluvian earth was without highor abrupt mountains, and without sea, being one uniform crust, enclosing the great abyss; 3) thatthe flood was caused by the breaking of this crust and its sinking into the abyss of waters; and 4)that the present state of the earth, both internal and external, shows it to be the ruins of the formerearth. This is the substance of his two former books, and thus far I can go with him.

I have no objection to the substance of his third book upon the general conflagration, but thinkit one of the noblest tracts which is extant in our language. And I do not much object to the fourth,concerning the new heavens and the new earth. The substance of it is highly probable.

Saturday, February 3, and at my leisure moments on several of the following days, I read withmuch expectation a celebrated book—Rousseau upon Education. But how was I disappointed! Surea more consummate coxcomb never saw the sun! How amazingly full of himself! Whatever hespeaks, he pronounces as an oracle. But many of his oracles are as palpably false, as that "youngchildren never love old people." No! Do they never love grandfathers and grandmothers? Frequentlymore than they do their own parents. Indeed, they love all that love them and that with more warmthand sincerity than when they come to riper years.

But I object to his temper, more than to his judgment: he is a mere misanthrope; a cynic allover. So indeed is his brother-infidel, Voltaire, and well-nigh as great a coxcomb. But he hidesboth his doggedness and vanity a little better; whereas here it stares us in the face continually.

As to his book, it is whimsical to the last degree, grounded neither upon reason nor experience.To cite particular passages would be endless; but anyone may observe concerning the whole thatthe advices which are good are trite and common, only disguised under new expressions. And thosewhich are new, which are really his own, are lighter than vanity itself. Such discoveries I alwaysexpect from those who are too wise to believe their Bibles.

Swedenborg an Entertaining Madman

Wednesday, 28.--I sat down to read and seriously consider some of the writing of BaronSwedenborg. I began with huge prejudice in his favor, knowing him to be a pious man, one of astrong understanding, of much learning, and one who thoroughly believed himself. But I could not

29 Correct

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hold out long. Any one of his visions puts his real character out of doubt. He is one of the mostingenious, lively, entertaining madmen that ever set pen to paper. But his waking dreams are sowild, so far remote both from Scripture and common sense, that one might as easily swallow thestories of "Tom Thumb," or "Jack the Giant-Killer."

Monday, March 5.--l came to Newbury, where I had been much importuned to preach. Butwhere? The Dissenters would not permit me to preach in their meeting-house. Some were thendesirous to hire the old playhouse, but the good mayor would not suffer it to be so profaned! So Imade use of a workshop--a large, commodious place. But it would by no means contain thecongregation. All that could hear behaved well, and I was in hopes God would have a people inthis place also. The next evening I preached at Bristol, and spent the rest of the week there.

Wesley and His Horses

Wednesday, 21.--In the following days I went on slowly, through Staffordshire and Cheshireto Manchester. In this journey, as well as in many others, I observed a mistake that almost universallyprevails; I desire all travelers to take good notice of it, for it may save them both from trouble anddanger. Nearly thirty years ago I was thinking, "How is it that no horse ever stumbles while I amreading?" (History, poetry, and philosophy I commonly read on horseback, having other employmentat other times.) No account can possibly be given but this: because then I throw the reins on hisneck. I then set myself to observe; and I aver, that in riding above a hundred thousand miles, Iscarcely ever remember any horse (except, two, that would fall head over heels anyway) to fall ormake a considerable stumble while I rode with a slack rein. To fancy, therefore, that a tight reinprevents stumbling is a capital blunder. I have repeated the trial more frequently than most men inthe kingdom can do. A slack rein will prevent stumbling if anything will. But in some horses nothingcan.

Wednesday, April 25.--Taking horse at five, we rode to Dunkeld, the first considerable townin the Highlands. We were agreeably surprised: a pleasanter situation cannot be easily imagined.Afterward we went some miles on a smooth, delightful road, hanging over the river Tay; and thenwent on, winding through the mountains, to the Castle of Blair. The mountains, for the next twentymiles, were much higher and covered with snow. In the evening we came to Dalwhinny, the dearestinn I have met with in North Britain. In the morning we were informed that so much snow hadfallen in the night that we could get no farther. And indeed, three young women, attempting tocross the mountain to Blair, were swallowed up in the snow. However, we resolved, with God'shelp, to go as far as we could. But, about noon, we were at a full stop; the snow, driving togetheron the top of the mountain, had quite blocked up the road. We dismounted and, striking out of theroad warily, sometimes to the left, sometimes to the right, with many stumbles but no hurt, we goton to Dalmagarry and before sunset to Inverness.

Friday, 27.--I breakfasted with the senior minister, Mr. McKenzie, a: pious and friendly man.At six in the evening I began preaching in the church and with very uncommon liberty of spirit. Atseven in the morning I preached in the library, a large commodious room; but it would not containthe congregation; many were constrained to go away. Afterward I rode over to Fort George, a veryregular fortification, capable of containing four thousand men. As I was just taking horse, the

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commanding officer sent word that I was welcome to preach. But it was a little too late: I had thenbut just time to ride back to Inverness.

Wesley at Nairn, Elgin, and Aberdeen

Monday, 30.--We set out in a fine morning. A little before we reached Nairn, we were met bya messenger from the minister, Mr. Dunbar; he desired that I would breakfast with him and givethem a sermon in his church. Afterward we hastened to Elgin, through a pleasant and well-cultivatedcountry. When we set out from hence, the rain began and poured down till we came to the Spey,the most impetuous river I ever saw. Finding the large boat was in no haste to move, I stepped intoa small one, just going off. It whirled us over the stream almost in a minute. I waited at the inn atFochabers (dark and dirty enough in all reason), till our friends overtook me with the horses. Theoutside of the inn at Keith was of the same hue, and promised us no great things. But we wereagreeably disappointed. We found plenty of everything and so dried ourselves at leisure.

Sunday, May 6.--I preached in the college kirk at Old Aberdeen, to a very serious (thoughmostly genteel) congregation. In the evening I preached at our own room and early in the morningtook my leave of this loving people. We came to Montrose about noon. I had designed to preachthere but found no notice had been given. However, I went down to the green and sang a hymn.People presently flocked from all parts, and God gave me great freedom of speech; I hope we didnot meet in vain.

At seven in the evening I preached at Arbroath, properly Aberbrothwick. The whole town seemsmoved: the congregation was the largest I have seen since we left Inverness. And the society, thoughbut of nine months' standing, is the largest in the kingdom, next that of Aberdeen.

Tuesday, 8.--I took a view of the small remains of the abbey. I know nothing like it in all NorthBritain. I paced it and found it a hundred yards long. The breadth is proportionable. Part of the westend, which is still standing, shows it was fully as high as Westminster Abbey. The south end of thecross aisle likewise is standing, near the top of which is a large circular window. The zealousReformers, they told us, burnt this down. God deliver us from reforming mobs!

I have seen no town in Scotland which increases so fast, or which is built with so much commonsense, as this. Two entirely new streets and part of a third have been built within these two years.They run parallel with each other and have a row of gardens between them. So that every househas a garden, and thus both health and convenience are consulted.

Where Are the Highlands?

Monday, 14.--After ten years' inquiry, I have learned what are the Highlands of Scotland. Sometold me, "The Highlands begin when you cross the Tay"; others, "when you cross the North Esk";and others, "when you cross the river Spey." But all of them missed the mark. The truth of thematter is, the Highlands are bounded by no river at all, but by carns, or heaps of stones laid in arow, southwest and northeast, from sea to sea. These formerly divided the kingdom of the Picts

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from that of the Caledonians, which included all the country north of the carns; several whereofare still remaining. It takes in Argyleshire, most of Perthshire, Murrayshire, with all the northwestcounties. This is called the Highlands because a considerable part of it (though not the whole) ismountainous. But it is not more mountainous than North Wales, nor than many parts of Englandand Ireland; nor do I believe it has any mountain higher than Snowdon Hill, or the Skiddaw inCumberland. Talking Erse [Gaelic], therefore, is not the thing that distinguishes these from theLowlands. Neither is this or that river; both the Tay, the Esk, and the Spey running through theHighlands, not south of them.

Friday, 18.--We rode over to the Earl of Haddington's seat, finely situated between two woods.The house is exceedingly large and pleasant, commanding a wide prospect both ways; and the Earlis cutting walks through the woods, smoothing the ground and much enlarging and beautifying hisgarden. Yet he is to diel In the evening, I trust God broke some of the stony hearts of Dunbar. Alittle increase here is in the society likewise, and all the members walk unblamably.

Wesley and the Turnpikes

Friday, June 15.--l was agreeably surprised to find the whole road from Thirsk to Stokesley,which used to be extremely bad, better than most turnpikes. The gentlemen had exerted themselvesand raised money enough to mend it effectually. So they have done for several hundred miles inScotland, and throughout all Connaught in Ireland; and so they undoubtedly might do throughoutall England, without saddling the poor people with the vile imposition of turnpikes forever.

In the aftemoon we come to Whitby. Having preached thrice a day for five days, I was willingto preach in the house; but notice had been given of my preaching in the market place; so I beganat six, to a large congregation most of them deeply attentive.

Sunday, 17.--We had a poor sermon at church. However, I went again in the afternoon,remembering the words of Mr. Philip Henry, "If the preacher does not know his duty, I bless Godthat I know mine."

Thursday, 28.--I can hardly believe that I am this day entered into the sixty-eighth year of myage. How marvelous are the ways of God! How has He kept me even from a child! From ten tothirteen or fourteen, I had little but bread to eat, and not great plenty of that. I believe this was sofar from hurting me that it laid the foundation of lasting health. When I grew up, in consequenceof reading Dr. Cheyne, I chose to eat sparingly and to drink water. This was another great meansof continuing my health til I was about seven-and-twenty. I then began spitting of blood, whichcontinued several years. A warm climate cured this. I was afterward brought to the brink of deathby a fever; but it left me healthier than before. Eleven years after, I was in the third stage of aconsumption; in three months it pleased God to remove this also. Since that time I have knownneither pain nor sickness, and am now healthier than I was forty years ago. This hath God wrought!

Wesley in St. Albans Abbey

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Monday, July 30.--l preached at Bingham, ten miles from Nottingham. I really admired theexquisite stupidity of the people. They gaped and stared while I was speaking of death and judgment,as if they had never heard of such things before. And they were not helped by two surly, ill-manneredclergymen, who seemed to be just as wise as themselves. The congregation at Houghton in theevening was more noble, behaving with the utmost decency.

Tuesday, 31.--At nine I preached in the market place at Loughborough, to almost as large acongregation as at Nottingham and equally attentive. Thence I rode to Markfield. Notwithstandingthe harvest, the church was quickly filled. And great was our rejoicing in our great High Priest,through whom we "came boldly to the throne of grace." In the evening I preached in the CastleYard at Leicester, to a multitude of awakened and unawakened. One feeble attempt was made todisturb them. A man was sent to cry fresh salmon at a little distance; but he might as well havespared the pains, for none took the least notice of him.

Wednesday, August 1.--I rode to Northampton. It being still extremely hot, I determined notto be cooped up, but took my stand on the side of the common, and cried aloud to a large multitudeof rich and poor, "Acquaint thyself now with him, and be at peace" [Job 27:21].

Thursday, 2.--Some friends from London met us at St. Albans. Before dinner we took a walkin the abbey, one of the most ancient buildings in the kingdom, nearly a thousand years old; andone of the largest, being five hundred and sixty feet in length (considerably more than WestminsterAbbey), and broad and high in proportion. Near the east end is the tomb and vault of good DukeHumphrey. Some now living remember since his body was entire. style="#_ftn42"

name="_ftnref42">[1] But after the coffin was opened, so many were curious to taste the liquorin which it was preserved that in a little time the corpse was left bare, and then soon molderedaway. A few bones are now all that remain. How little is the spirit concerned at this!

Wesley and the Druid Monuments

Tuesday, 21.--I rode on to Tiverton, and thence through Launceston, Camelford, Port Isaac,Cubert, St. Agnes, and Redruth, to St. Ives. Here God has made all our enemies to be at peace withus, so that I might have preached in any part of the town. But I rather chose a meadow, where suchas would might sit down, either on the grass or on the hedges--so the Cornish term their broad stonewalls, which are usually covered with grass. Here I enforced, "Fear God, and keep hiscommandments; for this is the whole duty of man."

Saturday, September 1.--I took a walk to the top of that celebrated hill, Carn Brae. Here aremany monuments of remote antiquity, scarcely to be found in any other part of Europe: Druid altarsof enormous size, being only huge rocks, strangely suspended one upon the other; and rock basins,followed on the surface of the rock, it is supposed, to contain the holy water. It is probable theseare at least coeval with Pompey's theater, if not with the pyramids of Egypt. And what are they thebetter for this? Of what consequence is it either to the dead or the living whether they have withstoodthe wastes of time for three thousand or three hundred years?

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Congregation of 20,000

Sunday, 2.--At five in the evening I preached in the natural amphitheater at Gwennap. Thepeople covered a circle of nearly fourscore yards diameter and could not be fewer than twentythousand. Yet, upon inquiry, I found they could all hear distinctly, it being a calm, still evening.

After visiting Medros, Plymouth, and Collumpton, I came on Friday, 7, to Taunton. Presently,after preaching, I took horse. The rain obliged us to make haste; but in a while the saddle cameover his neck, and then turned under his belly. I had then only to throw myself off, or I would havefallen under him. I was a little bruised, but soon mounted again and rode to Lymphsham, and thenext day to Bristol.

Sunday, 9.--My voice was weak when I preached at Princes Street in the morning. It was strongerat two in the afternoon, while I was preaching under the sycamore tree in Kingswood; and strongestof all at five in the evening, when we assembled near King's Square in Bristol.

Thursday, October 11.--About eleven I preached at Winchester, to a genteel and yet seriouscongregation. I was a little tired before I came to Portsmouth, but the congregation soon made meforget my weariness. Indeed the people in general here are more noble than most in the south ofEngland. They receive the Word of God "with all readiness of mind," and showed civility, at least,to all that preach it.

Fire at Portsmouth Dock

Friday, 12.--I walked round the Dock, which is much larger than any in England. The late firebegan in a place where no one comes, just at low water, and at a time when all were fast asleep.None can doubt its being done by design. It spread with such amazing violence, among tow, andcordage, and dry wood, that none could come near without the utmost danger. Nor was anythingexpected, but the whole dock would be consumed, if not the town also. But this God would notpermit. It stopped on one side, close to the commissioner's house; and just as it was seizing thetown on the other side, the wind changed and drove it back. Afterward the fury of it was checkedby water, by sand, and by pulling down some buildings. And yet it was fully five weeks before itwas wholly put out.

Wesley Preaches Whitefield's Funeral Sermon

Saturday, November 10.--I returned to London, and had the melancholy news of Mr. Whitefield'sdeath confirmed by his executors, who desired me to preach his funeral sermon on Sunday, theeighteenth. In order to write this, I retired to Lewisham on Monday; and on Sunday following, wentto the chapel in Tottenham Court Road. An immense multitude was gathered together from allcorners of the town. I was at first afraid that a great part of the congregation would not be able tohear; but it pleased God so to strengthen my voice that even those at the door heard distinctly. It

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was an awful season: all were still as night; most appeared to be deeply affected; and an impressionwas made on many, which one would hope will not speedily be effaced.

The time appointed for my beginning at the Tabernacle was half-hour after five; but it was quitefilled at three, so I began at four. At first the noise was exceedingly great; but it ceased when Ibegan to speak; and my voice was again so strengthened that all who were within could hear, unlessan accidental noise hindered here or there for a few moments. Oh, that all may hear the voice ofHim with whom are the issues of life and death; and who so loudly, by this unexpected stroke, callsall His children to love one another!

Friday, 23.--Being desired by the trustees of the tabernacle at Greenwich to preach Mr.Whitefield's funeral sermon there, I went over today for that purpose; but neither would this housecontain the congregation. Those who could not get in made some noise at first, but in a little whileall were silent. Here, likewise, I trust God has given a blow to that bigotry which had prevailed formany years.

Monday, December 3.--l took a little journey into Kent. In the evening I preached at Chatham,in the new house, which was sufficiently crowded with attentive hearers.

Tuesday, 4.--l preached at Canterbury.Wednesday, 5.--We went to Dover where, with some difficulty, we climbed to the top of

Shakespeare's cliff. It is exceedingly high and commands a vast prospect both by sea and land; butit is nothing so terrible in itself as it is in his description. I preached to a very serious congregationin the evening as well as in the morning. The same, likewise, we observed at Canterbury; so that Ihope to see good days here also.

Friday, 7.--l preached in Feversham at nine and in the evening at Chatham. So we go throughwater and firel And all is well, so we are doing or suffering the will of our Lotd!

Wednesday, 19.--About noon I preached at Dorking. The hearers were many and seemed allattention. About a hundred attended at Ryegate in the evening, and between twenty and thirty inthe morning; dull indeed as stones.

Chapter 16. Windsor Park; Wesley as Art Critic; Glasgow and Perth; At 70,Wesley Preaches to 30,000 People

1771. Wednesday, January 2.--I preached in the evening, at Deptford, a kind of funeral sermonfor Mr. Whitefield. In every place I wish to show all possible respect to the memory of that greatand good man.

Wednesday, 23.--For what cause I know not to this day,---[Wesley's wife] set out for Newcastle,purposing "never to return." Non cam reliqui: non dimisi: non revocabo--[l did not desert her: Idid not send her away: I will not recall her.]

Friday, 25.--I revised and transcribed my will, declaring as simply, as plainly, and as briefly asI could, nothing more nor nothing else, but "what I would have done with the worldly goods whichI leave behind me."

Thursday, Feb. 14.--l went through both the upper and lower rooms of the London workhouse.It contains about a hundred children, who are in as good order as any private family. And the whole

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house is as clean, from top to bottom, as any gentleman's needs be. And why is not every workhousein London, yea, through the kingdom, in the same order? Purely for want either of sense, or ofhonesty and activity, in them that superintend it.

Monday, 25.--I showed a friend, coming out of the country, the tombs in Westminster Abbey.The two with which I still think none of the others worthy to be compared are that of Mrs.Nightingale, and that of the Admiral rising out of his tomb at the resurrection. But the vile flatteryinscribed on many of them reminded me of that just reflection:

If on the sculptured marble you rely,Pity that worth like his should ever die.If credit to the real life you give,Pity a wretch like him should ever live!

The Earl of Desmond's Castle

Wednesday, May 22 (Ireland).--After preaching at Balligarane, I rode to Ashkayton. There areno ruins, I believe, in the kingdom of Ireland, to be compared to these. The old Earl of Desmond'sCastle is very large, and has been exceedingly strong. Not far from this, and formerly communicatingwith it by a gallery, is his great hall, or banqueting room. The walls are still firm and entire; andthese with the fine carvings of the windowframes (all of polished marble) give some idea of whatit was once. Its last master lived like a prince for many years and rebelled over and over againstQueen Elizabeth. After his last rebellion, his army being totally routed, he fled into the woods withtwo or three hundred men. But the pursuit was so hot that these were soon scattered from him, andhe crept alone into a small cabin. He was sitting there when a soldier came in and struck him. Herose and said, "I am the Earl of Desmond." The wretch, rejoicing that he had found so great a prize,cut off his head at once. Queen Elizabeth and King James allowed a pension to his relict 30 for manyyears. I have seen a striking picture of her, in her widow's weeds, said to be taken when she was ahundred and forty years old.

At a small distance from the castle stands the old abbey, the finest ruin of the kind in thekingdom. Not only the walls of the church and many of the apartments but the whole cloisters areentire. They are built of black marble exquisitely polished and vaulted over with the same. So thatthey are as firm now as when they were built, perhaps seven or eight hundred years ago; and, if notpurposely destroyed (as most of the ancient buildings in Ireland have been), may last these thousandyears. But add these to the years they have stood already and what is it to eternity? A moment!

Monday, June 24.--This day I entered the sixty-ninth year of my age. I am still a wonder tomyself. My voice and strength are the same as at nine-and-twenty. This also hath God wrought.

Wesley in Winchester Cathedral

Tuesday, October 1.--I went on to Salisbury. Wednesday, 2. I preached at Whitchurch; Thursday,3, at Winchester. I now found time to take a view of the cathedral. Here the sight of that bad

30 Correct

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Cardinal's tomb, whom the sculptor has placed in a posture of prayer, brought to my mind thosefine lines of Shakespeare, which he put into the mouth of King Henry the Sixth:

Lord Cardinal,If thou hast any Hope of beaven's grace,Give us a sign. He dies, and makes no sign.On Thursday and Friday evening I preached at Portsmouth Common. Saturday, 5. I set out at

two. About ten some of our London friends met me at Cobbam, with whom I took a walk in theneighboring gardens, inexpressibly pleasant through the variety of hills and dales and the admirablecontrivance of the whole. And now, after spending his life in bringing it to perfection, thegrey-headed owner advertises it to be sold! Is there anything under the sun that can satisfy a spiritmade for God?

Wednesday, 16.--I preached at South Lye. Here it was that I preached my first sermon,six-and-forty years ago. One man was in my present audience who heard it. Most of the rest aregone to their long home.

Wednesday, 30.--l walked over to Winchelsea from Rye, said to have been once a large citywith abundance of trade and of inhabitants, the sea washing the foot of the hill on which it stands.The situation is exceedingly bold, the hill being high and steep on all sides. But the town is shrunkalmost into nothing, and the seven churches into half a one. I preached at eleven in the new squareto a considerable number of serious people; and at Rye in the evening where were many that are"not far from the kingdom of God."

Tuesday, November 5.--In our way to Bury we called at Felsham, near which is the seat of thelate Mr. Reynolds. The house is, I think, the best contrived and the most beautiful I ever saw. Ithas four fronts, and five rooms on a floor, elegantly, though not sumptuously, furnished. At a smalldistance stands a delightful grove. On every side of this, the poor rich man, who had no hope beyondthe grave, placed seats, to enjoy life as long as he could. But being resolved none of his familyshould be "put into the ground," he built a structure in the midst of the grove, vaulted above andbeneath, with niches for coffins, strong enough to stand for ages. In one of these he had soon thesatisfaction of laying the remains of his only child; and two years after, those of his wife. After twoyears more, in the year 1759, having eaten, and drunk, and forgotten God for eighty-four years, hewent himself to give an account of his stewardship.

Wesley at Windsor Park

Friday, 29.--We viewed the improvements of that active and useful man, the late Duke ofCumberland. The most remarkable work is the triangular tower which he built on the edge ofWindsor Park. It is surrounded with shrubberies and woods, having some straight, some serpentine,walks in them, and commands a beautiful prospect all three ways: a very extensive one to thesouthwest. In the lower part is an alcove which must be extremely pleasant in a summer evening.There is a little circular projection at each corner, one of which is filled by a geometrical staircase;the other two contain little apartments, one of which is a study. I was agreeably surprised to findmany of the books not only religious, but admirably well chosen. Perhaps the great man spent many

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hours here, with only Him that seeth in secret; and who can say how deep that change went, whichwas so discernible in the latter part of his life?

Hence we went to Mr. Bateman's house, the oddest I ever saw with my eyes. Everything breathesantiquity; scarcely a bedstead is to be seen that is not a hundred and fifty years old; and everythingis quite out of the common way: he scorns to have anything like his neighbors. For six hours, Isuppose, these elegant oddities would much delight a curious man; but after six months they wouldprobably give him no more pleasure than a collection of feathers.

Monday, December 16.--I rode to Dorking, where were many a people; but none were cut tothe heart. Tuesday, 17. I went on to Ryegate-place. In King Henry the Fourth's time, this was aneminent monastery. At the dissolution of monasteries, it fell into the hands of the great spoiler,Henry the Eighth. Queen Elizabeth, pleased with the situation, chose it for one of her palaces. Thegentleman who possesses it now has entirely changed the form of it, pulling down whole piles ofancient building and greatly altering what remains. Yet, after all that is taken away, it still looksmore like a palace than a private house. The staircase is of the same model with that at HamptonCourt; one would scarcely know which is the original. The chimney-piece in the hall is probablyone of the most curious pieces of woodwork now in the kingdom. But how long? How many of itsonce bustling inhabitants are already under the earth! And how little a time will it be before thehouse itself, yea the earth shall be burned up!

Saturday, 21.--I met an old friend, James Hutton, whom I had not seen for five-and-twentyyears. I felt this made no difference; my heart was quite open; his seemed to be the same; and weconversed just as we did in 1738, when we met in Fetter Lane.

Monday, 23, and so all the following days when I was not particularly engaged, I spent an hourin the morning with our preachers, as I used to do with my pupils at Oxford. Wednesday, 25. Ipreached early at the Foundry; morning and afternoon, at the chapel. In returning thence at night,a coach ran full against my chaise, and broke one of the shafts and the traces in pieces. I was thankfulthat this was all; that neither man nor beast received the least hurt.

Monday, 30.--At my brother's request, I sat again for my picture. This melancholy employmentalways reminds me of that natural reflection—

Behold, what frailty we in man may seeHis shadow is less given to change than he.1772.--Tuesday, January 14.--l spent an agreeable hour with Dr. S--, the oldest acquaintance I

now have. He is the greatest genius in little things that ever fell under my notice. Almost everythingabout him is of his own invention, either in whole or in part. Even his firescreen, his lamps ofvarious sorts, his inkhorn, his very save-all. I really believe, were he seriously to set about it, hecould invent the best mousetrap that ever was in the world.

Wesley as Art Critic

Thursday, 16.--I set out for Luton. The snow lay so deep on the road that it was not withoutmuch difficulty and some danger that we at last reached the town. I was offered the use of thechurch. The frost was exceedingly sharp, and the glass was taken out of the windows. However,for the sake of the people, I accepted the offer, though I might just as well have preached in the

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open air. I suppose four times as many people were present as would have been at the room; andabout a hundred in the morning. So I did not repent of my journey through the snow.

Friday, February 7.--l called on a friend at Hampton Court, who went with me through thehouse. It struck me more than anything of the kind I have seen in England, more than BlenheimHouse itself. One great difference is, everything there appears designedly grand and splendid; hereeverything is quite, as it were, natural, and one thinks it cannot be otherwise. If the expression maybe allowed, there is a kind of stiffness runs through the one, and an easiness through the other. Ofpictures I do not pretend to be a judge; but there is one, by Paul Rubens, which particularly struckme, both with the design and the execution of it. It is Zacharias and Elisabeth, with John the Baptist,two or three years old, coming to visit Mary, and our Lord sitting upon her knee. The passions aresurprisingly expressed, even in the children; but I could not see either the decency or common senseof painting them stark naked. Nothing can defend or excuse this; it is shockingly absurd, even anIndian being the judge. I allow, a man who paints thus may have a good hand but certainly nobrains.

Wesley on A Sentimental Journey

Tuesday, 11.--I casually took a volume of what is called, A Sentimental Journey through Franceand Italy. Sentimental! what is that? It is not English: he might as well say continental. It is notsense. It conveys no determinate idea, yet one fool makes many. And this nonsensical word (whowould believe it?) has becomes a fashionable onel However, the book agrees full well with thetitle; for one is as queer as the other. For oddity, uncouthness, and unlikeness to all the world beside,I suppose, the writer is without a rival.

Wednesday, 12.--In returning, I read a very different book, published by an honest Quaker, onthat execrable sum of all villanies, commonly called the slave trade. I read of nothing like it in theheathen world, whether ancient or modern; and it infinitely exceeds, in every instance of barbarity,whatever Christian slaves suffer in Mohammedan countries.

Friday, 14.--I began to execute a design, which had long been in my thoughts, to print as accuratean edition of my works, as a bookseller would do. Surely I ought to be as exact for God's sake, ashe would be for money.

Monday, 17.--One gave me a very remarkable account: A gay young woman lately came up toLondon. Curiosity led her to hear a sermon, which cut her to the heart. One standing by observedhow she was affected and took occasion to talk with her. She lamented that she should hear nomore such serrnons, as she was to go into the country the next day; but she begged her newacquaintance to write to her there, which she promised to do. In the country her convictions soincreased that she resolved to put an end to her own life. With this design she was going upstairs,when her father called her and gave her a letter from London. It was from her new acquaintance,who told her, "Christ is just ready to receive you: now is the day of salvation." She cried out, "Itis, it is! Christ is mine!" and was filled with joy unspeakable. She begged her father to give herpen, ink, and paper that she might answer her friend immediately. She told her what God had donefor her soul, and added, "We have no time to lose! The Lord is at hand! Now, even now, we arestepping into eternity." She directed her letter, dropped down, and died.

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Wesley and the Boarding School

Friday, 21.--I met several of my friends, who had begun a subscription to prevent my riding onhorseback, which I cannot do quite so well, since a hurt which I got some months ago. If theycontinue it, well, if not, I shall have strength according to my need.

Monday, April 6 (Manchester).--In the afternoon I drank tea at Am. O. But how was I shocked!The children that used to cling about me and drink in every word had been at a boarding school.There they had unlearned all religion and even seriousness and had learned pride vanity, affectation,and whatever could guard them against the knowledge and love of God. Methodist parents whowould send your girls headlong to hell, send them to a fashionable boarding school!

Tuesday, 14.--l set out for Carlisle. A great part of the road was miserably bad. However, wereached it in the afternoon and found a small company of plain, loving people. The place wherethey had appointed me to preach was out of the gate; yet it was tolerably filled with attentive hearers.Afterward, inquiring for the Glasgow road, I found it was not much round to go by Edinburgh; soI chose that road and went five miles forward this evening, to one of our friends' houses. Here wehad a hearty welcome, under a lowly roof, with sweet and quiet rest.

Wednesday, 15.--Though it was a lone house, we had a large congregation at five in the morning.Afterward we rode for upwards of twenty miles, through a most delightful country, the fruitfulmountains rising on either hand, and the clear stream running beneath. In the afternoon we had afurious storm of rain and snow; however, we reached Selkirk safe. Here I observed a little piece ofstateliness which was quite new to me: the maid came in, and said, "Sir, the lord of the stable waitsto know if he should feed your horses." We call him ostler in England. After supper all the familyseemed glad to join with us in prayer.

Thursday, 16.--We went on through the mountains, covered with snow, to Edinburgh.Saturday, 18.—I set out for Glasgow. One would rather have imagined it was the middle of

January than the middle of April. The snow covered the mountains on either hand, and the frostwas exceedingly sharp; so I preached within, both this evening and on Sunday morning. But in theevening the multitude constrained me to stand in the street. My text was, "What God has cleansed,that call not thou common" [Acts 10:15]. Hence I took occasion to fall upon their miserable bigotryfor opinions and modes of worship. Many seemed to be not a little convinced; but how long willthe impression continue?

Wesley at Greenock and Glasgow

Monday, 20.--I went on to Greenock, a seaport town, twenty miles west of Glasgow. It is builtvery much like Plymouth Dock, and has a safe and spacious harbor. The trade and inhabitants, andconsequently the houses, are increasing swiftly; and so is cursing, swearing, drunkenness,Sabbath-breaking, and all manner of wickedness. Our room is about thrice as large as that atGlasgow; but it would not near contain thecongregation. I spoke exceedingly plain, and not withouthope that we may see some fruit, even among this hardhearted generation.

Tuesday, 21.--The house was very full in the morning, and they showed an excellent spirit.After I had spoken a few words on the head, everyone stood up at the singing. In the afternoon I

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preached at Port Glasgow, a large town two miles east of Greenock. Many gay people were there,careless enough; but the greater part seemed to hear with understanding. In the evening I preachedat Greenock; God gave them a loud call, whither they will hear or whether they will forbear.

Wednesday, 22.--About eight I preached once more in the Masons' Lodge, at Port Glasgow.The house was crowded greatly; and I suppose all the gentry of the town were part of thecongregation. Resolving not to shoot over their heads, as I had done the day before, I spoke stronglyof death and judgment, heaven and hell. This they seemed to comprehend; and there was no morelaughing among them, or talking with each other; but all were quietly and deeply attentive.

In the evening, when I began at Glasgow, the congregation being but small, I chose a subjectfit for experienced Christians; but soon after, a heap of fine gay people came in; yet I could notdecently break off what I was about, though they gaped and stared abundantly. I could only givea short exhortation in the close, more suited to their capacity.

Wesley Receives the Freedom of Perth

Tuesday, 28 (Dunkeld).--We, walked through the Duke of Athol's gardens, in which was onething I never saw before—a summerhouse in the middle of a greenhouse, by means of which onemight in the depth of winter enjoy the warmth of May, and sit surrounded with greens and flowerson every side.

In the evening I preached oncemore at Perth, to a large and serious congregation. Afterwardthey did me an honor I never thought of--presented me with the freedom of the city.

In my way to Perth, I read over the first volume of Dr. Robertson's History of Charles the Fifth.I know not when I have been so disappointed. It might as well be called the History of Alexanderthe Great. Here is a quarto volume of eight or ten shillings' price, containing dry, verbose dissertationson feudal government, the substance of all which might be comprised in half a sheet of paper! But"Charles the Fifth!" Where is Charles the Fifth?

Leave off thy reflections, and give us thy tale!Wednesday, 29.--I went on to Brechin and preached in the town hall to a congregation of all

sorts, Seceders, Glassites, Non-jurors, and whatnot. Oh, what excuse have ministers in Scotlandfor not declaring the whole counsel of God, where the bulk of the people not only endure, but loveplain dealingl

Friday and Saturday.--I rested at Aberdeen. Sunday, May 3.--l went in the morning to the Englishchurch. Here, likewise, I could not but admire the exemplary decency of the congregation. Thiswas the more remarkable, because so miserable a reader I never heard before. Listening with allattention, I understood but one single word, Balak, in the first lesson; and one more, begat, was allI could possibly distinguish in the second. Is there no man of spirit belonging to this congregation?Why is such a burlesque upon public worship suffered? Would it not be far better to pay thisgentleman for doing nothing, than for doing mischief and for bringing a scandal upon religion?

About three I preached at the College kirk in the Old Town to a large congregation, rich andpoor; at six, in our own house, on the narrow way. I spoke exceedingly plainly, both this eveningand the next; yet none were offended. What encouragement has every preacher in this country "bymanifestation of the truth" to "commend" himself "to every man's conscience in the sight of God!"

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Tuesday, 5.--In the evening I preached in the new house at Arbroath (properly Aberbrotheek).In this town there is a change indeed! It was wicked to a proverb: remarkable for Sabbath-breaking,cursing, swearing, drunkenness, and a general contempt of religion. But it is not so now. Openwickedness disappears; no oaths are heard, no drunkenness seen in the streets. And many have notonly ceased from evil and learned to do well, but are witnesses of the inward kingdom of God,"righteousness, peace, and joy in the Holy Ghost."

Wednesday, 6.--The magistrates here also did me the honor of presenting me with the freedomof their corporation. I value it as a token of their respect, though I shall hardly make any furtheruse of it.

Wesley Visits the Bass Rock

Wednesday, 20.--In the evening I preached at Dunbar. Thursday, 21. I went to the Bass, sevenmiles from it, which, in the horrid reign of Charles the Second, was the prison of those venerablemen who suffered the loss of all things for a good conscience. It is a high rock surrounded by thesea, two or three miles in circumference, and about two miles from the shore. The strong east windmade the water so rough that the boat could hardly live; and when we came to the only landing-place(the other sides being quite perpendicular), it was with much difficulty that we got up, climbing onour hands and knees. The castle, as one may judge by what remains, was utterly inaccessible. Thewalls of the chapel and of the Governor's house are tolerably entire. The garden walls are still seennear the top of the rock, with the well in the midst of it. And round the walls there are spots of grassthat feed eighteen or twenty sheep.

But the proper natives of the island are Solund geese, a bird about the size of a Muscovy duck,which breed by thousands, from generation to generation, on the sides of the rock. It is peculiar tothese that they lay but one egg, which they do not sit upon at all,but keep it under one foot (as wesaw with our eyes), till it is hatched.

How many prayers did the holy men confined here offer up, in that evil day! And how manythanksgivings should we return, for all the liberty, civil and religious, which we enjoy!

At our return, we walked over the ruins of Tantallon Castle, once the seat of the great Earls ofDouglas. The front walls (it was foursquare) are still standing, and by their vast height and hugethickness give us a little idea of what it once was. Such is human greatness!

Friday, 22.--We took a view of the famous Roman camp, lying on a mountain two or threemiles from the town. It is encompassed with two broad and deep ditches and is not easy of approachon any side. Here lay General Lesley with his army, while Cromwell was starving below. He hadno way to escape; but the enthusiastic fury of the Scots delivered him. When they marched into thevalley to swallow him up, he mowed them down like grass.

Saturday, 23.--l went on to Alnwick and preached in the town hall. What a difference betweenan English and a Scotch congregation! These judge themselves rather than the preacher; and theiraim is not only to know but to love and obey.

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Through the Dales

Monday, June 1.--I began a little tour through the Dales. About nine, I preached at Kiphill; atone, at Wolsingham. Here we began to trace the revival of the work of God; and here began thehorrid mountains we had to climb over. However, before six, we reached Barnard Castle. I preachedat the end of the preaching-house to a large congregation of established Christians. At five in themorning, the house was nearly full of persons ripe for the height and depth of the gospel.

Tuesday, 2.--We rode to New Orygan in Teesdale. The people were deeply attentive; but, Ithink, not deeply affected. From the top of the next enormous mountain, we had a view of Weardale.It is a lovely prospect. The green gently rising meadows and fields on both sides of the little river,clear as crystal, were sprinkled over with innumerable little houses; three in four of which (if notnine. in ten) are sprung up since the Methodists came hither. Since that time, the beasts are turnedinto men, and the wilderness in a fruitful field.

Thursday, 4.--At five I took my leave of this blessed peopIe. I was a little surprised, in lookingattentively upon them, to observe so beautiful faces as I never saw before in one congregation;many of the children in particular, twelve or fourteen of whom (chiefly boys) sat full in my view.But I allow, much more might be owing to grace than nature, to the heaven within, that shoneoutward.

Field-preaching as Wesley's Cross

Friday, August 21.--I preached again about eight, and then rode back to Harford. After dinnerwe hastened to the Passage; but the watermen were not in haste to fetch us over; so I sat down ona convenient stone, and finished the little tract I had in hand. However, I got to Pembroke in timeand preached in the town hall, where we had a solemn and comfortable opportunity.

Sunday, September 6.--I preached on the quay, at Kingswood, and near King's Square. To thisday field-preaching is a cross to me. But I know my commission and see no other way of "preachingthe gospel to every creature."

Wednesday, October 14.--A book was given me to write on, The Works of Mr. Thomson, ofwhose poetical abilities I had always had a low opinion; but looking into one of his tragedies,“Edward and Eleonora," I was agreeably surprised. The sentiments are just and noble; the dictionstrong, smooth, and elegant; and the plot conducted with the utmost art and wrought off in a mostsurprising manner. It is quite his masterpiece, and I really think might vie with any modernperformance of the kind.

Good or Bad Spirits?

Saturday, 31.--A young man of good sense and an unblamable character gave me a strangeaccount of what (he said) had happened to himself and three other persons in the same house. Asthey all feared God, I thought the matter deserved a further examination. So in the afternoon I talked

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largely with them all. The sum of their account was this: "Nearly two years ago, Martin S-- andWilliam J-- saw, in dream, two or three times repeated to each of them, a person who told themthere was a large treasure hid in such a spot, three miles from Norwich, consisting of money andplate, buried in a chest, between six and eight feet deep. They did not much regard this, till eachof them, when they were broad awake, saw an elderly man and woman standing by their bedside,who told them the same thing, and bade them go and dig it up, between eight and twelve at night.Soon after, they went; but, being afraid, took a third man with them. They began digging at eight,and after they had dug six feet, saw the top of a coffer, or chest. But presently it sank down intothe earth; and there appeared over the place a large globe of bright fire, which, after some time,rose higher and higher, till it was quite out of sight. Not long after, the man and woman appearedagain, and said, 'You spoiled all, by bringing that man with you.’ From this time, both they andSarah and Mary J--, who live in the same house with them, have heard, several times in a weekdelightful music, for a quarter of an hour at a time. They often hear it before those persons appear;often when they do not appear.” They asked me whether they were good or bad spirits; but I couldnot resolve them.

A Remarkable Dream

Tuesday, November 17.--One was relating a remarkable story, which I thought worthy to beremembered. Two years ago, a gentleman of large fortune in Kent dreamed that he was walkingthrough the churchyard and saw a new monument with the following inscription:

Here lieth the Body

OF

SAMUEL SAVAGE, ESQ.,WHO DEPARTED THIS LIFE ON SEPTEMBER -- 1772, AGED --.

He told his friends in the morning and was much affected; but the impression soon wore off.But on that day he did depart, and a stone was erected with that very inscription.

A gentlewoman present added an account equally surprising which she received from theperson's own mouth:

"Mrs. B--, when about fourteen years of age, being at a boarding school a mile or two from herfather's, dreamed she was on the top of the church steeple, when a man came up and threw herdown to the roof of the church. Yet she seemed not much hurt, till he came to her again and threwher to the bottom. She thought she looked hard at him, and said, 'Now you have hurt me sadly, butI shall hurt you worse'; and waked. A week after, she was to go to her father's. She set out early inthe morning. At the entrance of a little wood, she stopped and doubted whether she should not goround, instead of through it. But, knowing no reason, she went straight through till she came to theother side. Just as she was going over the style, a man pulled her back by the hair. She immediatelyknew it was the same man whom she had seen in her dream. She fell on her knees, and beggedhim, 'For God's sake, do not hurt me any more.' He put his hands round her neck and squeezed herso that she instantly lost her senses. He then stripped her, carried her a little way, and threw herinto a ditch.

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"Meantime, her father's servant coming back to the school, and hearing she was gone withouthim, walked back. Coming to the style, he heard several groans and, looking about, saw many dropsof blood. He traced them to the ditch, whence the groans came. He lifted her up, not knowing herat all, as her face was covered with blood, carried her to a neighboring house; running to the village,he quickly brought a surgeon. She was just alive; but her throat was much hurt, so that she couldnot speak at all.

"Just then a young man of the village was missing. Search being made, he was apprehended inan alehouse two miles off. He had all her clothes with him in a bag, which, he said, he found. Itwas three months before she was able to go abroad. He was arraigned at the Assizes. She knewhim perfectly and swore to the man. He was condemned, and soon after executed."

Wednesday, December 2.--I preached at the new preaching-house, in the parish of Bromley.In speaking severally to the members of the society, I was surprised at the openness and artlessnessof the people. Such I should never have expected to find within ten miles of London.

Wesley's Letters and Friends

1773. Friday, January 1.--We (as usual) solemnly renewed our covenant with God.Monday, 4.--I began revising my letters and papers. One of them was written above a hundred

and fifty years ago (in 1619), I suppose, by my grandfather's father, to her he was to marry in a fewdays. Several were written by my brothers and me when at school, many while we were at theUniversity, abundantly testifying (if it be worth knowing) what was our aim from our youth up.

Thursday, 7.--l called where a child was dying of the smallpox and rescued her from death andthe doctors; they were giving her saffron, etc., to drive them out! Can anyone be so ignorant still?

We observed Friday, 8, as a day of fasting and prayer, on account of the general want of tradeand scarcity of provisions. The next week I made an end of revising my letters; and from those Ihad both written and received, I could not but make one remark--that for above these forty years,of all the friends who were once the most closely united and afterwards separated from me, everyone had separated himself! He left me, not I him. And from both mine and their own letters, thesteps whereby they did this are clear and undeniable.

Wednesday, February 24.--A very remarkable paragraph was published in one of the Edinburghpapers:

"We learn from the Rosses, in the county of Donegal, in Ireland, that a Danish man-of-war,called the North Crown, commanded by the Baron D'Ulfeld, arrived off those islands, from a voyageof discovery toward the Pole. They sailed from Bornholme, in Norway the first of June, 1769, withstores for eighteen months, and some able astronomers, landscape painters, and every apparatussuitable to the design; and steering N by E half E, for thirty- seven days, with a fair wind and opensea, discovered a large rocky island, which having doubled, they proceeded WNW, till theseventeenth of September, when they found themselves in a strong current, between two high lands,seemingly about ten leagues distant, which carried them at a prodigious rate for three days when,to their great joy, they saw the mainland of America that lies between the most westerly part of thesettlements on Hudson's River and California. Here they anchored in a fine cove and found abundanceof wild deer and buffaloes, with which they victualed; and sailing southward, in three months got

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into the Pacific Ocean, and returned by the Straits of Le Maine and the West India Islands. Theyhave brought many curiosities, particularly a prodigious bird, called a contor [condor], or contose,about six feet in height, of the eagle kind, whose wings, expanded, measure twenty-two feet fourinches. After bartering some skins with the country people, for meal, rum, and other necessaries,they sailed for Bremen, to wait the thaw, previous to their return to Copenhagen.

"February 24, 1773."If this account is true, one would hope not only the King of Denmark will avail himself of so

important a discovery.I came to Liverpool on Saturday, March 20.Monday, 27.--The captain was in haste to get my chaise on board. About eleven we went on

board ourselves, and before one, we ran on a sand bank. So, the ship being fast, we went ashoreagain.

Tuesday, 23.--We embarked again on board the Freemason, with six other cabin passengers,four gentlemen, and two gentlewomen, one of whom was daily afraid of falling in labor. This gaveme several opportunities of talking closely and of praying with her and her companion. We did notcome abreast of Holyhead till Thursday morning. We had then a strong gale and a rolling sea. Mostof the passengers were sick enough, but it did not affect me at all. In the evening the gentlemendesired I would pray with them, so we concluded the day in a solemn and comfortable manner.

Wesley and His Chaise

Friday, 26.--We landed at Dunleary, and hired a coach to Dublin.On Monday and Tuesday I examined the society, a little lessened, but now well united together.

I was a little surprised to find the Commissioners of the Customs would not permit my chaise tobe landed because, they said, the captain of a packet-boat had no right to bring over goods. Poorpretense! However, I was more obliged to them than I then knew; for had it come on shore, it wouldhave been utterly spoiled.

Monday, April 5.--Having hired such a chaise as I could, I drove to Edinderry.Monday, 12.--I preached at Ballinasloe and Aghrim. Tuesday, 13.--As I went into Eyre Court,

the street was full of people, who gave us a loud huzza when we passed through the market place.I preached in the open air, to a multitude of people, all civil and most of them serious. A greatawakening has been in this town lately; and many of the most notorious and profligate sinners areentirely changed and are happy witnesses of the gospel salvation.

Incidents in Ireland

Wednesday, 21.--Some applied to the Quakers at Enniscorthy, for the use of their meeting-house.They refused: so I stood at Hugh McLaughlin's door, and both those within and without could hear.I was in doubt which way to take from hence, one of my chaise-horses being much tired, till agentleman of Ballyrane, near Wexford, told me, if I would preach at his house the next evening,

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he would meet me on the road with a fresh horse. So I complied, though it was some miles out ofthe way. Accordingly, he met us on Thursday, 22, six or seven miles from Enniscorthy. But wefound his mare would not draw at all; so we were forced to go on as we could. I preached in theevening at Ballyrane, to a deeply serious congregation. Early in the morning we set out and at twoin the afternoon came to Ballibac Ferry.

A troop of sailors ran down to the shore to see the chaise put into the boat. I was walking at asmall distance when I beard them cry out, "Avast! Avast! The coach is overset into the river." Ithought, "However, it is well my bags are on shore; so my papers are not spoiled." In less than anhour they fished up the chaise and got it safe into the boat. As it would not hold us all, I got inmyself, leaving the horses to come after. At half-hour after three I came to Passage. Finding nopostchaise could be had, and having no time to spare, I walked on (six or seven miles) to Waterford,and began preaching without delay, on, "My yoke is easy, and my burden is light."

Sunday, 25.--Word being brought me that the Mayor was willing I should preach in the bowlinggreen, I went thither in the evening. A huge multitude was quickly gathered together. I preachedon, "I saw the dead, small and great, stand before God." Some attempted to disturb, but withoutsuccess; the bulk of the congregation were deeply attentive. But as I was drawing to a conclusion,some of the Papists set on their work in earnest. They knocked down John Christian, with two orthree more who had endeavored to quiet them; and then began to roar like the waves of the sea;but hitherto could they come and no farther. Some gentlemen, who stood near me, rushed into themidst of them; and, after bestowing some heavy blows, seized the ringleader and delivered him tothe constable; and one of them undertook to conduct me home. So few received any hurt but therioters themselves; which, I trust, will make them more peaceable for the time to come.

A Neglected School

Thursday, May 13.--We went on, through a most dreary country, to Galway; where, at the latesurvey, there were twenty thousand Papists and five hundred Protestants. But which of them areChristians, have the mind that was in Christ, and walk as He walked? And without this, how littledoes it avail, whether they are called Protestants or Papists! At six I preached in the court- house,to a large congregation, who all behaved well.

Friday, 14--In the evening I preached at Ballinrobe; and on Saturday went on to Castlebar.Entering the town, I was struck with the sight of the Charter school;--no gate to the courtyard, alarge chasm in the wall, heaps of rubbish before the house door, broken windows in abundance,the whole a picture of slothfulness, nastiness, and desolation!

I did not dream there were any inhabitants, till, the next day, I saw about forty boys and girlswalking from church. As I was just behind them, I could not but observe 1) that there was neithermaster nor mistress, though, it seems, they were both well; 2) that both boys and girls werecompletely dirty; 3) that none of them seemed to have any garters on, their stockings hanging abouttheir heels; 4) that in the heels, even of many of the girls' stockings, were holes larger than acrown-piece. I gave a plain account of these things to the trustees of the Charter school in Dublin,whether they are altered or no, I cannot tell.

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Mobbed by Masons

Monday, 24.--About noon I preached at Tonnylommon.One of my horses having a shoe loose, I borrowed Mr. Watson's horse and left him with the

chaise. When we came near Enniskillen, I desired two only to ride with me, and the rest of ourfriends to keep at a distance. Some masons were at work on the first bridge, who gave us somecoarse words. We had abundance more as we rode through the town; but soldiers being in the streetand taking knowledge of me in a respectful manner the mob shrank back. An hour after, Mr. Watsoncame in the chaise. Before he came to the bridge many ran together and began to throw whatevercame next to hand. The bridge itself they had blocked up with large stones so that a carriage couldnot pass; but an old man cried out, "Is this the way you use strangers?" and rolled away the stones.The mob quickly rewarded him by plastering him over with mortar from head to foot. They thenfell upon the carriage, which they cut with stones in several places, and well nigh covered with dirtand mortar. From one end of the town to the other, the stones flew thick about the coachman's head.Some of them were two or three pounds' weight, which they threw with all their might. If but oneof them had struck him, it would have effectually prevented him from driving any farther; and,then, doubtless, they would have given an account of the chaise and horses.

I preached at Sydore in the evening and morning, and then set out for Roosky. The road lay notfar from Enniskillen. When we came pretty near the town, both men and women saluted us, firstwith bad words and then with dirt and stones. My horses soon left them behind, but not till theyhad broken one of the windows, the glass of which came pouring in upon me; but did me no furtherhurt.

About an hour after, John Smith came to Enniskillen. The masons on the bridge preparing forbattle, he was afraid his horse would leap with him into the river; and therefore chose to alight.Immediately they poured in upon him a whole shower of dirt and stones. However, he made hisway through the town, though pretty much daubed and bruised.

Wednesday, 26.--We set out at half-hour past two, and reached Omagh a little before eleven.Finding I could not reach Ding Bridge by two o'clock in the chaise, I rode forward with all thespeed I could; but the horse dropping a shoe, I was so retarded that I did not reach the place tillbetween three and four. I found the minister and the people waiting; but the church would not nearlycontain them, so I preached near it to a mixed multitude of rich and poor, churchmen, Papists, andPresbyterians. l was a little weary and faint when I came, the sun having shone exceedingly hot;but the number and behavior of the congregation made me forget my own weariness.

Having a good horse, I rode to the place where I was to lodge (two miles off) in about an hour.After tea they told me another congregation was waiting, so I began preaching without delay. Iwarned them of the madness which was spreading among them, namely, leaving the church. Mostof them. I believe, will take the advice; I hope all that are of our society.

Wesley at Derry and Armagh

Thursday, 27.--l went on to Londonderry. Friday, 28. I was invited to see the bishop's palace(a grand and beautiful structure) and his garden, newly laid and exceedingly pleasant. Here I

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innocently gave some offense to the gardener by mentioning the English of a Greek word. But heset us right, warmly assuring us that the English name of the flower is not Crane's bill, but Geranium!

Saturday, 29.--We walked out to one of the pleasantest spots which I have seen in the kingdom.It is a garden laid out on the steep side of a hill, one shady walk of which, in particular, commandsall the vale and the hill beyond. The owner finished his walks and died.

Saturday, June 5. Armagh.--I walked over the fine improvements which the Primate has madenear his lodge. The ground is hardly two miles round, but it is laid out to the best advantage. Partis garden, part meadow, part planted with shrubs or trees of various kinds. The house is built offine white stone and is fit for a nobleman. He intends to carry away a bog which lies behind it andhave a large piece of water in its place. He intends also to improve the town greatly and to executemany other grand designs; I doubt too many even for a Primate of Ireland who is above seventyyears old!

The Speaking Statue Again

Monday, 14.--After preaching at Lurgan, I inquired of Mr. Miller whether he had any thoughtsof perfecting his speaking statue, which had so long lain by. He said he had altered his design; thathe intended, if he had life and health, to make two which would not only speak, but sing hymnsalternately with an articulate voice; that he had made a trial and it answered well. But he could nottell when he should finish it, as he had much business of other kinds and could give only his leisurehours to this. How amazing is it that no man of fortune enables him to give all his time to the work!

I preached in the evening at Lisburn. All the time I could spare here was taken up by poorpatients. I generally asked, "What remedies have you used?" and was not a little surprised. Whathas fashion to do with physic? Why (in Ireland, at least), almost as much as with headdress. Blistersfor anything or nothing were all the fashion when I was in Ireland last. Now the grand fashionablemedicine for twenty diseases (who would imagine it?) is mercury sublimate! Why is it not a halteror a pistol? They would cure a little more speedily.

Tuesday, 15.--When I came to Belfast, I learned the real cause of the late insurrections in thisneighborhood. Lord Donegal, the proprietor of almost the whole country, came hither to give histenants new leases. But when they came, they found two merchants of the town had taken theirfarms over their heads; multitudes of them, with their wives and children, were turned out to thewide world. It is no wonder that, as their lives were now bitter to them, they should fly out as theydid. It is rather a wonder that they did not go much farther. And if they had, who would have beenmost in fault? Those who were without home, without money, without food for themselves andfamilies, or those who drove them to this extremity?

The Earthquake at Madeley

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Monday, July 5.--About eleven we crossed Dublin Bar, and were at Hoy lake the next afternoon.This was the first night I ever lay awake in my life, though I was at ease in body and mind. I believefew can say this: in seventy years I never lost one night's sleep!

I went, by moderate stages, from Liverpool to Madeley where I arrived on Friday, 9. The nextmorning we went to see the effects of the late earthquake; such it undoubtedly was. On Monday,27, at four in the morning, a rumbling noise was heard, accompanied with sudden gusts of windand wavings of the ground. Presently the earthquake followed, which shook only the farmer's houseand removed it entire about a yard, but carried the barn about fifteen yards and then swallowed itup in a vast chasm. It tore the ground into numberless chasms, large and small; in the large, threwup mounts, 31 fifteen or twenty feet high; it carried a hedge, with two oaks, above forty feet, andleft them in their natural position. It then moved under the bed of the river; which, making moreresistance, received a ruder shock, being shattered in pieces, and heaved up about thirty feet fromits foundations. By throwing this and many oaks into its channel, the Severn was quite stopped upand constrained to flow backward, till, with incredible fury, it wrought itself a new channel. Sucha scene of desolation I never saw. Will none tremble when God thus terribly shakes the earth?

Monday, August 16.--In the evening I preached at St. Austle; Tuesday, 17, in the coinage hallat Truro; at six, in the main street at Helstone. How changed is this town since a Methodist preachercould not ride through it without hazard of his lifel

A Man of Seventy Preaches to 30,000 People

Saturday, 21.--I preached in Illogan and at Redruth; Sunday, 22, in St. Agnes church town, ateight; about one at Redruth; and at five, in the amphitheater at Gwennap. The people both filled itand covered the ground round about to a considerable distance. Supposing the space to be fourscoreyards square and to contain five persons in a square yard, there must be above two and thirtythousand people, the largest assembly I ever preached to. Yet I found, upon inquiry, all could heareven to the skirts of the congregation! Perhaps the first time that a man of seventy had been heardby thirty thousand persons at once!

Monday, September 13.—My cold remaining, I was ill able to speak. In the evening I wasmuch worse, my palate and throat being greatly inflamed. However, I preached as I could; but Icould then go no farther. I could swallow neither liquids nor solids, and the windpipe seemed nearlyclosed. I lay down at my usual time, but the defluxion of rheum was so uninterrupted that I sleptnot a minute till nearly three in the morning. On the following nine days I grew better.

Sunday, 19.--I thought myself able to speak to the congregation, which I did for half an hour;but afterwards I found a pain in my left side and in my shoulder by turns, exactly as I did atCanterbury twenty years before. In the morning I could scarcely lift my hand to my head; but afterbeing electrified I was much better, so that I preached with tolerable ease in the evening; and thenext evening read the letters, though my voice was weak. From this time I slowly recovered myvoice and my strength, and on Sunday preached without any trouble.

31 Correct

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Monday, October 4.--I went, by Shepton Mallet, to Shaftesbury, and on Tuesday to Salisbury.Wednesday, 6. Taking chaise at two in the morning, in the evening I came well to London. Therest of the week I made what inquiry I could into the state of my accounts. Some confusion hadarisen from the sudden death of my bookkeeper; but it was less than might have been expected.

A Monster Elm

Monday, 11, and the following days, I took a little tour through Bedfordshire andNorthamptonshire. Between Northampton and Towcester we met with a great natural curiosity, thelargest elm I ever saw; it was twenty-eight feet in circumference, six feet more than that which wassome years ago in Magdalen College walks at Oxford.

Chapter 17. Wesley Arrested; A Terrible Ride; A Methodist Isaac Newton;Wesley and the American War

1774. Monday, January 24.--I was desired by Mrs. Wright, of New York, to let her take myeffigy in waxwork. She has that of Mr. Whitefield and many others; but none of them, I think,comes up to a well-drawn picture.

Friday, May 20.--I rode over to Mr. Fraser's, at Monedie, whose mother-in-law was to be buriedthat day. Oh, what a difference is there between the English and the Scotch method of burial! TheEnglish does honor to human nature, and even to the poor remains that were once a temple of theHoly Ghost! But when I see in Scotland a coffin put into the earth and covered up without a wordspoken, it reminds me of what was spoken concerning Jehoiakim, "He shall be buried with theburial of an ass!"

Wesley Arrested in Edinburgh

Wednesday, June 1.--I went to Edinburgh, and the next day examined the society one by one.I was agreeably surprised. They have fairly profited since I was here last. Such a number of personshaving sound Christian experience I never found in this society before. I preached in the eveningto a very elegant congregation, and yet with great enlargement of heart.

Saturday, 4.--l found uncommon liberty at Edinburgh in applying Ezekiel's vision of the drybones. As I was walking home, two men followed me, one of whom said, "Sir, you are my prisoner.I have a warrant from the Sheriff to carry you to the Tolbooth." At first I thought he jested; butfinding the thing was serious, I desired one or two of our friends to go up with me. When we weresafe lodged in a house adjoining to the Tolbooth, I desired the officer to let me see his warrant. Ifound the prosecutor was one George Sutherland, once a member of the society. He had deposed,"That Hugh Saunderson, one of John Wesley's preachers, had taken from his wife one hundredpounds in money and upwards of thirty pounds in goods; and had, besides that, terrified her into

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madness; so that, through the want of her help and the loss of business, he was damaged five hundredpounds."

Before the Sheriff, Archibald co*ckburn, Esq., he had deposed, "That the said John Wesley andHugh Saunderson, to evade her pursuit, were preparing to fly the country; and therefore he desiredhis warrant to search for, seize, and incarcerate them in the Tolbooth, till they should find securityfor their appearance." To this request the Sheriff had assented and given his warrant for that purpose.

But why does he incarcerate John Wesley? Nothing is laid against him, less or more. HughSaunderson preaches in connection with him. What then? Was not the Sheriff strangely overseen?

Mr. Sutherland furiously insisted that the officer should carry us to the Tolbooth without delay.However, hewaited till two or three of our friends came and gave a bond for our appearance on thetwenty-fourth instant. Mr. S. did appear, the cause was heard, and the prosecutor fined one thousandpounds.

Wesley's Terrible Ride

Sunday, 5.--About eight I preached at Ormiston, twelve miles from Edinburgh. The house beingsmall, I stood in the street and proclaimed "the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ." The congregationbehaved with the utmost decency. So did that on the Castle Hill in Edinburgh at noon; though Istrongly insisted, that God “now commandeth all men everywhere to repent" [Acts 17:30]. In theevening the house was thoroughly filled, and many seemed deeply affected. I do not wonder thatSatan, had it been in his power, would have had me otherwise employed this day.

Monday, 20.--About nine I set out from Sunderland for Horsley, with Mr. Hopper and Mr.Smith. I took Mrs. Smith and her two little girls in the chaise with me. About two miles from thetown, just on the brow of the hill, on a sudden both the horses set out, without any visible cause,and flew down the hill like an arrow out of a bow. In a minute John fell off the coachbox. Thehorses then went on full speed, sometimes to the edge of the ditch on the right, sometimes on theleft. A cart came up against them: they avoided it as exactly as if the man had been on the box. Anarrow bridge was at the foot of the hill. They went directly over the middle of it. They ran up thenext hill with the same speed, many persons meeting us, but getting out of the way. Near the topof the hill was a gate which led into a farmer's yard. It stood open. They turned short and ran throughit, without touching the gate on one side or the post on the other.

I thought, "However, the gate which is on the other side of the yard and is shut, will stop them":but they rushed through it as if it had been a cobweb and galloped on through the cornfield. Thelittle girls cried out, "Grandpapa, save us!" I told them, "Nothing will hurt you; do not be afraid";feeling no more fear or care (blessed be God!) than if I had been sitting in my study. The horsesran on till they came to the edge of a steep precipice. Just then Mr. Smith, who could not overtakeus before, galloped in between. They stopped in a moment. Had they gone on ever so little, he andwe must have gone down together!

I am persuaded both evil and good angels had a large share in this transaction: how large wedo not know now, but we shall know hereafter.

Tuesday, 28.--This being my birthday, the first day of my seventy-second year, I was consideringhow is it that I find just the same strength as I did thirty years ago? That my sight is considerably

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better now and my nerves firmer than they were then? That I have none of the infirmities of oldage and have lost several I had in my youth? The grand cause is the good pleasure of God whodoeth whatsoever pleaseth Him. The chief means are: 1) my constantly rising at four, for aboutfifty years; 2) my generally preaching at five in the morning, one of the most healthy exercises inthe world; 3) my never traveling less, by sea or land, than four thousand five hundred miles in ayear.

A Collier's Remarkable Escape

Saturday, July 30.--I went to Madeley and in the evening preached under a sycamore tree, inMadeley Wood, to a large congregation, a good part of them colliers, who drank in every word.Surely never were places more alike than Madeley Wood, Gateshead Fell, and Kingswood.

Sunday, 31.--The church could not contain the congregations either morning or afternoon; butin the evening I preached to a still larger congregation at Broseley, equally attentive. I now learnedthe particulars of a remarkable story, which I had heard imperfectly before: Sometime since, oneof the colliers here, coming home at night, dropped into a coalpit twenty-four yards deep. He calledaloud for help, but none heard all that night and all the following day. The second night, beingweak and faint, he fell asleep and dreamed that his wife, who had been sometime dead, came tohim and greatly comforted him. In the morning, a gentleman going a-hunting, a hare started up justbefore the hounds, ran straight to the mouth of the pit, and was gone; no man could tell how. Thehunters searched all around the pit till they heard a voice from the bottom. They quickly procuredproper help and drew up the man unhurt.

Tuesday, August 2.--I preached at ten in the town hall at Evesham and rode on to Broadmarston.Thursday, 4.--l crossed over to Tewkesbury and preached at noon in a meadow near the town,

under a tall oak. I went thence to Cheltenham. As it was the high season for drinking the waters,the town was full of gentry: so I preached near the market place in the evening, to the largestcongregation that was ever seen there. Some of the footmen at first made a little disturbance; butI turned to them, and they stood reproved.

Saturday, 6.--I walked from Newport to Berkeley Castle. It is a beautiful, though very ancient,building; and every part of it kept in good repair, except the lumber room and the chapel; the latterof which, having been of no use for many years, is now dirty enough. I particularly admired thefine situation and the garden on the top of the house. In one corner of the castle is the room wherepoor Richard II was murdered. His effigy is still preserved, said to be taken before his death. If hewas like this, he had an open, manly countenance, though with a cast of melancholy. In the afternoonwe went on to Bristol.

Wesley at Corfe Castle

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Monday, October 10.--I preached at Salisbury; and on Tuesday, 11, set out for the Isle ofPurbeck. When we came to Corfe Castle, the evening being quite calm and mild, I preached in ameadow near the town to a deeply attentive congregation, gathered from all parts of the island.

Wednesday, 12.--I preached to a large congregation at five, who seemed quite athirst forinstruction. Afterward we took a walk over the remains of the castle, so bravely defended in thelast century, against all the power of the Parliament forces, by the widow of the Lord Chief JusticeBanks. It is one of the noblest ruins I ever saw: the walls are of an immense thickness, defying eventhe assaults of time, and were formerly surrounded by a deep ditch. The house, which stands in themiddle on the very top of the rock, has been a magnificent structure. Sometime since the proprietorfitted up some rooms on the southwest side of this and laid out a little garden, commanding a largeprospect, pleasant beyond description. For a while he was greatly delighted with it: but the eye wasnot satisfied with seeing. It grew familiar; it pleased no more and is now run all to ruin. No wonder:what can delight always but the knowledge and love of God?

A Methodist Isaac Newton

Monday, 31, 32 and the following days, I visited the societies near London. Friday, November4. In the afternoon John Downes (who had preached with us many years) was saying, "I feel sucha love to the people at West Street that I could be content to die with them. I do not find myselfvery well; but I must be with them this evening." He went thither and began preaching, on "Comeunto me, ye that are weary and heavy laden." After speaking ten or twelve minutes, he sank downand spake no more, till his spirit returned to God.

I suppose he was by nature fully as great a genius as Sir Isaac Newton. I will mention but twoor three instances of it: When he was at school learning Algebra, he came one day to his masterand said, "Sir, I can prove this proposition a better way than it is proved in the book." His masterthought it could not be, but upon trial, acknowledged it to be so. Sometime after, his father senthim to Newcastle with a clock which was to be mended. He observed the clockmaker's tools andthe manner how he took it in pieces and put it together again; when he came home, he first madehimself tools, and then made a clock which went as true as any in the town. I suppose such strengthof genius as this has scarcely been known in Europe before.

Another proof of it was this: Thirty years ago, while I was shaving, he was whittling the top ofa stick. I asked, "What are you doing?" He answered, "I am taking your face, which I intend toengrave on a copperplate." Accordingly, without any instruction, he first made himself tools andthen engraved the plate. The second picture which he engraved was that which was prefixed to theNotes upon the New Testament. Such another instance, I suppose, not all England, or perhapsEurope, can produce.

For several months past, he had far deeper communion with God than ever he had had in hislife; and for some days he had been frequently saying, "I am so happy, that I scarcely know howto live. I enjoy such fellowship with God as I thought could not be had on this side heaven." And

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having now finished his course of fifty-two years, after a long conflict with pain, sickness, andpoverty, he gloriously rested from his labors and entered into the joy of his Lord.

Sunday, 13.--After a day of much labor, at my usual time (half-hour past nine), I lay down torest. I told my servants, "I must rise at three, the Norwich coach setting out at four." Hearing oneof them knock, though sooner than I expected, I rose and dressed myself; but afterward looking atmy watch I found it was but half-hour past ten. While I was considering what to do, I heard aconfused sound of many voices below: and looking out at the window toward the yard, I saw itwas as light as day. Meantime, many large flakes of fire were continually flying about the house;all the upper part of which was built of wood, which was nearly as dry as tinder. A large deal-yard,at a very small distance from us, was all in a light fire; from which the northwest wind drove theflames directly upon the Foundry; and there was no possibility of help, for no water could be found.Perceiving I could be of no use, I took my Diary and my papers and retired to a friend's house. Ihad no fear, committing the matter into God's hands and knowing He would do whatever was best.Immediately the wind turned about from northwest to southeast; and our pump supplied the engineswith abundance of water; so that in a little more than two hours, all the danger was over.

Wesley in the Fens

Tuesday, 22.--I took a solemn and affectionate leave of the society at Norwich. About twelvewe took coach. About eight, Wednesday, 23, Mr. Dancer met me with a chaise and carried me toEly. Oh, what want of common sense! Water covered the high road for a mile and a half. I asked,"How must foot-people come to the town?" "Why, they must wade throughl"

About two I preached in a house well filled with plain, loving people. I then took a walk to thecathedral, one of the most beautiful I have seen. The western tower is exceedingly grand, and thenave of an amazing height. Hence we went through a fruitful and pleasant country, though surroundedwith fens, to Sutton. Here many people had lately been stirred up: they had prepared alarge barn.At six o'clock it was well filled, and it seemed as if God sent a message to every soul.

Friday, 25.--I set out between eight and nine in a one-horse chaise, the wind being high andcold enough. Much snow lay on the ground, and much fell as we crept along over the fen-banks.

Honest Mr. Tubbs would needs walk and lead the horse through water and mud up to his mid-leg,smiling and saying, "We fen-men do not mind a little dirt." When we had gone about four miles,the road would not admit of a chaise. So I borrowed a horse and rode forward; but not far, for allthe grounds were under water. Here, therefore, I procured a boat, fully twice as large as akneading-trough. I was at one end, and a boy at the other, who paddled me safe to Erith. ThereMiss L-- waited for me with another chaise, which brought me to St. Ives.

No Methodist, I was told, had preached in this town, so I thought it high time to begin. Aboutone I preached to a very well-dressed and yet well-behaved congregation. Thence my new friend(how long will she be such?) carried me to Godmanchester, near Huntingdon. A large barn wasready, in which Mr. Berridge and Mr. Venn used to preach. And though the weather was still severe,it was well filled with deeply attentive people.

Saturday, 26.--I set out early, and in the evening reached London.

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1775. Wednesday, February 22.--Ihad an opportunity of seeing Mr. Gordon's curious gardenat Mile End, the like of which I suppose is hardly to be found in England, if in Europe. One thingin particular I learned here, the real nature of the tea tree. I was informed 1) that the green and thebohea are of quite different species; 2)that the bohea is much tenderer thanthe green; 3) that thegreen is an evergreen and bears, not only in the open air, but in the frost, perfectly well; 4) that theherb of Paraguay likewise bears the frost and is a species of tea; 5) and I observed that they are allspecies of bay or laurel. The leaf of green tea is both of the color, shape, and size of a bay leaf; thatof bohea is smaller, softer, and of a darker color. So is the herb of Paraguay, which is of a dirtygreen and no larger than our common red sage.

Wesley's Coach Upset

Sunday, August 6.--At one I proclaimed the glorious gospel to the usual congregation at Birstal33 and in the evening at Leeds. Then, judging it needful to pay a short visit to our brethren at London,I took the stagecoach, with five of my friends, about eight o'clock. Before nine, a gentleman in asingle-horse chaise struck his wheel against one of ours. Instantly the weight of the men at topoverset the coach; otherwise, ten times the shock would not have moved it. But neither the coachman,nor the men at top, nor any within were hurt at all. On Tuesday, in the afternoon, we were met atHatfield by many of our friends, who conducted us safe to London.

Monday, October 30, and the following days, I visited the little societies in the neighborhoodof London.

Saturday, November 11. I made some additions to the Calm Address to Our American Colonies.Need anyone ask from what motive this was written? Let him look round: England is in a flame!a flame of malice and rage against the King, and almost all that are in authority under him. I laborto put out this flame. Ought not every true patriot to do the same? If hireling writers on either sidejudge of me by themselves, that I cannot help.

Sunday, 12.—I was desired to preach, in Bethnal Green Church, a charity sermon for the widowsand orphans of the soldiers that were killed in America. Knowing how many would seek occasionof offense, I wrote down my sermon. I dined with Sir John Hawkins and three other gentlemen thatare in commission for the peace; and was agreeably surprised at a very serious conversation keptup during the whole time I stayed.

Wesley and the American War

Monday, 27.--I set out for Norwich. That evening I preached at Colchester; Tuesday, at Norwich;Wednesday, at Yarmouth.

About this time I published the following letter in Lloyd's Evening Post:

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"SIR,-l have been seriously asked, 'From what motive did you publish your Calm Address tothe American Colonies?'

"I seriously answer, not to get money. Had that been my motive I should have swelled it intoa shilling pamphlet and have entered it at Stationers' Hall.

"Not to get preferment for myself or my brother's children. I am a little too old to gape after itfor myself: and if my brother or I sought it for them, we have only to show them to the world.

"Not to please any man living, high or low. I know mankind too well. I know they that loveyou for political service, love you less than their dinner; and they that hate you, hate you worsethan the devil.

"Least of all did I write with a view to inflame any: just the contrary. I contributed my mitetoward putting out the flame which rages all over the land. This I have more opportunity of observingthan any other man in England. I see with pain to what a height this already rises, in every part ofthe nation. And I see many pouring oil into the flame, by crying out, 'How unjustly, how cruelly,the King is using the poor Americans who are only contending for their liberty and for their legalprivileges!'

"Now there is no possible way to put out this flame, or hinder its rising higher and higher, butto show that the Americans are not used either cruelly or unjustly; that they are not injured at all,seeing they are not contending for liberty (this they had, even in its full, extent, both civil andreligious); neither for any legal privileges; for they enjoy all that their charters grant. But what theycontend for is the illegal privilege of being exempt from parliamentary taxation. A privilege thiswhich no charter ever gave to any American colony yet; which no charter can give, unless it beconfirmed both by King, Lords, and Commons; which, in fact, our colonies never had; which theynever claimed till the present reign: and probably they would not have claimed it now had they notbeen incited thereto by letters from England. One of these was read, according to the desire of thewriter, not only at the Continental Congress, but likewise in many congregations throughout theCombined Provinces. It advised them to seize upon all the King's officers and exhorted them, 'Standvaliantly, only for six months, and in that time there will be such commotions in England that youmay have your own terms.'

"This being the real state of the question, without any coloring or aggravation, what impartialman can either blame the King or commend the Americans?

"With this view, to quench the fire by laying the blame where it was due, the Calm Addresswas written.

"Sir, I am,"Your humble servant,"John Wesley."

Preaching from the Stocks

1776. January 1.—About eighteen hundred of us met together in London in order to renew ourcovenant with God; and it was, as usual, a very solemn opportunity.

Sunday, 14.--As I was going to West Street Chapel, one of the chaise springs suddenly snappedasunder; but the horses instantly stepping, I stepped out without the least inconvenience.

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At all my vacant hours in this and the following week, I endeavored to finish the Concise Historyof England. I am sensible it must give offense, as in many parts I am quite singular; particularlywith regard to those injured characters, Richard III and Mary Queen of Scots. But I must speak asI think; although I am still waiting for, and willing to receive, better information.

Tuesday, April 30.--in the evening I preached in a kind of square at Colne, to a multitude ofpeople, all drinking in the Word. I scarcely ever saw a congregation wherein men, women, andchildren stood in such a posture; and this in the town wherein, thirty years ago, no Methodist couldshow his head! The first that preached here was John Jane, who was innocently riding through thetown when the zealous mob pulled him off his horse and put him in the stocks. He seized theopportunity and vehemently exhorted them "to flee from the wrath to come."

Wednesday, May 1.—I set out early and the next afternoon reached Whitehaven; and my chaisehorses were no worse for traveling nearly a hundred and ten miles in two days.

In traveling through Berkshire, Oxfordshire, Bristol, Gloucestershire, Worcestershire,Warwickshire, Staffordshire, Cheshire, Lancashire, Yorkshire, Westmoreland, and Cumberland, Idiligently made two inquiries: the first was concerning the increase or decrease of the people; thesecond, concerning the increase or decrease of trade. As to the latter, it is, within these two lastyears, amazingly increased; in several branches in such a manner as has not been known in thememory of man: such is the fruit of the entire civil and religious liberty which all England nowenjoys! And as to the former, not only in every city and large town, but in every village and hamlet,there is no decrease, but a very large and swift increase. One sign of this is the swarms of littlechildren which we see in every place. Which, then, shall we most admire, the ignorance or confidenceof those that affirm population decreases in England? I doubt not but it increases fully as fast as inany province of North America.

"A Very Extraordinary Genius"

Monday, 6.--After preaching at co*ckermouth and Wigton, I went on to Carlisle and preachedto a very serious congregation. Here I saw a very extraordinary genius, a man blind from four yearsof age, who could wind worsted, weave flowered plush on an engine and loom of his own making;who wove his own name in plush, and made his own clothes and his own tools of every sort. Someyears ago, being shut up in the organloft 34 at church, he felt every part of it and afterward made anorgan for himself which, judges say, is an exceedingly good one. He then taught himself to playupon it psalm tunes, anthems, voluntaries, or anything which he heard. I heard him play severaltunes with great accuracy, and a complex voluntary. I suppose all Europe can hardly produce suchanother instance. His name is Joseph Strong. But what is he the better for all this if he is still "withoutGod in the world"?

Friday, 17.--l reached Aberdeen in good time. Saturday, 18. I read over Dr. Johnson's Tour tothe Western Isles. It is a very curious book, written with admirable sense and, I think, great fidelity;although, in some respects, he is thought to bear hard on the nation, which I am satisfied he neverintended.

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Monday, 20.--I preached about eleven at Old Meldrum, but could not reach Banff till nearlyseven in the evening. I went directly to the Parade and proclaimed to a listening multitude "thegrace of our Lord Jesus Christ." All behaved well but a few gentry, whom I rebuked openly, andthey stood corrected.

Neat and Elegant Banff

Banff is one of the neatest and most elegant towns that I have seen in Scotland. It is pleasantlysituated on the side of a hill, sloping from the sea, though close to it; it is sufficiently sheltered fromthe sharpest winds. The streets are straight and broad. I believe it may be esteemed the fifth, if notthe fourth, town in the kingdom. The county, quite from Banff to Keith, is the best peopled of anyI have seen in Scotland. This is chiefly, if not entirely, owing to the late Earl of Findlater. He wasindefatigable in doing good, took pains to procure industrious men from all parts and to providesuch little settlements for them as enabled them to live with comfort.

About noon I preached at the New Mills, nine miles from Banff, to a large congregation ofplain, simple people. As we rode in the afternoon the heat overcame me, so that I was weary andfaint before we came to Keith. But I no sooner stood up in the market place than I forgot myweariness, such were the seriousness and attention of the whole congregation, though as numerousas that at Banff. Mr. Gordon, the minister of the parish, invited me to supper and told me his kirkwas at my service. A little society is formed here already and is in a fair way of increasing. Butthey were just now in danger of losing their preaching house, the owner being determined to sellit. I saw but one way to secure it for them, which was to buy it myself. So (who would have thoughtit?) I bought an estate, consisting of two houses, a yard, a garden, with three acres of good land.But he told me flat, "Sir, I will take no less for it than sixteen pounds ten shillings, to be paid, partnow, part at Michaelmas, and the residue next May."

A Town of Beggars

Here Mr. Gordon showed me a great curiosity. Near the top of the opposite hill a new town isbuilt, containing, I suppose, a hundred houses, which is a town of beggars. This, he informed me,was the professed, regular occupation of all the inhabitants. Early in spring they all go out andspread themselves over the kingdom; and in autumn they return and do what is requisite for theirwives and children.

Monday, 27.--I paid a visit to St. Andrews, once the largest city in the kingdom. It was eighttimes as large as it is now, and a place of very great trade; but the sea rushing from the northeast,gradually destroyed the harbor and trade together; in consequence of this, whole streets (that were)are now meadows and gardens. Three broad, straight, handsome streets remain, all pointing at theold cathedral; this, by the ruins, appears to have been above three hundred feet long andproportionately broad and high. It seems to have exceeded York Minster, and to have at least equaled

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any cathedral in England. Another church, afterward used in its stead, bears date 1174. A steeple,standing near the cathedral, is thought to have stood thirteen hundred years.

Wesley Criticizes the Scotch Universities

What is left of St. Leonard's college is only a heap of ruins. Two colleges remain. One of themhas a tolerable square; but all the windows are broken, like those of a brothel. We were informedthat the students do this before they leave the college. Where are their blessed Governors in themeantime? Are they all fast asleep? The other college is a mean building but has a handsome librarynewly erected. In the two colleges, we learned, were about seventy students, nearly the same numberas at Old Aberdeen. Those at New Aberdeen are not more numerous, neither those at Glasgow. InEdinburgh, I suppose, there are a hundred. So four Universities contain three hundred and tenstudents! These all come to their several colleges in November and return home in May! So theymay study five months in the year and lounge all the rest! Oh, where was the common sense ofthose who instituted such colleges? In the English colleges, everyone may reside all the year, asall my pupils did; I should have thought myself little better than a highwayman if I had not lecturedthem every day in the year but Sundays.

Friday, June 28.--I am seventy-three years old and far abler to preach than I was atthree-and-twenty. What natural means has God used to produce so wonderful an effect? 1) Continualexercise and change of air, by traveling above four thousand miles in a year; 2) constant rising atfour; 3) the ability, if ever I want, to sleep immediately; 4) the never losing a night's sleep in mylife; 5) two violent fevers and two deep consumptions. These, it is true, were rough medicines: butthey were of admirable service, causing my flesh to come again as the flesh of a little child. MayI add, lastly, evenness of temper? I feel and grieve, but, by the grace of God, I fret at nothing. Butstill "the help that is done upon earth, He doeth it Himself." And this He doeth in answer to manyprayers.

Smuggling in Cornwall

Saturday, August 17.--We found Mr. Hoskins, at Cubert (Cornwall), alive, but just totteringover the grave. I preached in the evening on II Corinthians 5:1-4, probably the last sermon he willhear from me. I was afterward inquiring if that scandal of Cornwall, the plundering of wreckedvessels, still subsisted. He said, "As much as ever; only the Methodists will have nothing to do withit. But three months since a vessel was wrecked on the south coast, and the tinners presently seizedon all the goods and even broke in pieces a new coach which was on board and carried every scrapof it away." But is there no way to prevent this shameful breach of all the laws both of religion andhumanity? Indeed there is. The gentry of Cornwall may totally prevent it whenever they please.Let them only see that the laws be strictly executed upon the next plunderers; and after an exampleis made of ten of these, the next wreck will be unmolested. Nay, there is a milder way. Let themonly agree together to discharge any tinner or laborer that is concerned in the plundering of a wreck

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and advertise his name that no Cornish gentleman may employ him any more; and neither tinnernor laborer will any more be concerned in that bad work.

Sunday, 18--The passage through the sands being bad for a chaise, I rode on horseback to St.Agnes, where the rain constrained me to preach in the house. As we rode back to Redruth, it poureddown amain and found its way through all our clothes. I was tired when I came in; but after sleepinga quarter of an hour, all my weariness was gone.

Chapter 18. On the Isle of Man; City Road Chapel; Wesley Visits Lorg GeorgeGordon

In Bethnal Green Hamlet

1777. Wednesday, January 1.--We met, as usual, to renew our covenant with God. It was asolemn season wherein many found His power present to heal and were enabled to urge their waywith strength renewed.

Thursday, 2.--I began expounding, in order, the Book of Ecclesiastes. I never before had soclear a sight either of the meaning or the beauties of it. Neither did I imagine that the several partsof it were in so exquisite a manner connected together; all tending to prove that grand truth--thatthere is no happiness out of God.

Wednesday, 15.--I began visiting those of our society who lived in Bethnal Green hamlet. Manyof them I found in such poverty as few can conceive without seeing it. Oh, why do not all the richthat fear God constantly visit the poor! Can they spend part of their spare time better? Certainlynot. So they will find in that day when "every man shall receive his own reward according to hisown labor."

Such another scene I saw the next day in visiting another part of the society. I have not foundany such distress, no, not in the prison of Newgate. One poor man was just creeping out of hissickbed to his ragged wife and three little children, who were more than half naked and the verypicture of famine. When one brought in a loaf of bread, they all ran, seized upon it, and tore it inpieces in an instant. Who would not rejoice that there is another world?

City Road Chapel Begun

Monday, April 21, was the day appointed for laying the foundation of the new chapel. The rainbefriended us much, by keeping away thousands who purposed to be there. But there were stillsuch multitudes that it was with great difficulty I got through them to lay the first stone. Upon thiswas a plate of brass (covered with another stone) on which was engraved, "This was laid by Mr.John Wesley, on April 1, 1777." Probably this will be seen no more by any human eye, but willremain there till the earth and the works thereof are burned up.

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Sunday, 27.--The sun breaking out, I snatched the opportunity of preaching to many thousandsin Moorfields. All were still as night while I showed how "the Son of God was manifested to destroythe works of the devil" [see I John 3:8].

Wednesday, May 24.--At eleven I preached at Pocklington, with an eye to the death of thatlovely woman, Mrs. Cross. A gay young gentleman, with a young lady, stepped in, stayed fiveminutes, and went out again with as easy an unconcern as if they had been listening to a balladsinger. I mentioned to the congregation the deep folly and ignorance implied in such behavior.These pretty fools never thought that for this very opportunity they are to give an account beforemen and angels!

In the evening I preached at York. I would gladly have rested the next day, feeling my breastmuch out of order. But notice having been given of my preaching at Tadcaster, I set out at nine inthe morning. About ten the chaise broke down. I borrowed a horse; but as he was none of the easiest,in riding three miles I was so thoroughly electrified that the pain in my breast was quite cured. Ipreached in the evening at York; on Friday took the diligence; and on Saturday afternoon came toLondon.

Wesley in the Isle of Man

Friday, 30.--I went on to Whitchaven, where I found a little vessel waiting for me. Afterpreaching in the evening, I went on board about eight o'clock and before eight in the morning landedat Douglas, in the Isle of Man. Douglas exceedingly resembles Newlyn in Cornwall both in itssituation, form, and buildings; only it is much larger and has a few houses equal to most in Penzance.As soon as we landed, I was challenged by Mr. Booth, who had seen me in Ireland and whosebrother has been for many years a member of the society in Coolylough. A chaise was provided tocarry me to Castletown. I was greatly surprised at the country. All the way from Douglas toCastletown it is as pleasant and as well cultivated as most parts of England, with many gentlemen'sseats. Castletown a good deal resembles Galway, only it is not so large. At six I preached near thecastle, I believe, to all the inhabitants of the town. Two or three gay young women showed theyknew nothing about religion; all the rest were deeply serious.

Sunday, June 1.--At six I preached in our own room; and, my surprise, saw all the gentlewomanthere. Young as well as old were now deeply affected and would fain have had me stay were it butfor an hour or two; but I was forced to hasten away in order to be at Peeltown before the servicebegan.

Mr. Corbett said he would gladly have asked me to preach but that the Bishop had forbiddenhim and had also forbidden all his clergy to admit any Methodist preacher to the Lord's supper.But is any clergyman obliged, either in law or conscience, to obey such a prohibition? By no means.The will even of the King does not bind any English subject, unless it be seconded by an expresslaw. How much less the will of a bishop? "But did not you take an oath to obey him?" No, nor anyclergyman in the three kingdoms. This is a mere vulgar error. Shame that it should prevail almostuniversally.

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As it rained, I retired after service into a large malthouse. Most of the congregation followedand devoured the Word. It being fair in the afternoon, the whole congregation stopped in thechurchyard, and the Word of God was with power. It was a happy opportunity.

The Manx Men

Monday, 2.--The greater part of them were present at five in the morning. A more loving,simple-hearted people than this I never saw. And no wonder, for they have but six Papists and noDissenters in the island. It is supposed to contain nearly thirty thousand people, remarkably courteousand humane. Ever since smuggling was suppressed, they diligently cultivate their land; and theyhave a large herring fishery, so that the country improves daily.

The old castle at Peel (as well as the cathedral built within it) is only a heap of ruins. It wasvery large and exceedingly strong, with many brass guns; but they are now removed to England.

I set out for Douglas in the one-horse chaise, Mrs. Smyth riding with me. In about an hour, inspite of all I could do, the headstrong horse ran the wheel against a large stone and the chaise oversetin a moment. But we fell so gently on smooth grass that neither of us was hurt at all. In the eveningI preached at Douglas to nearly as large a congregation as that at Peel, but not nearly so serious.Before ten we went on board and about twelve on Tuesday, 3, landed at Whitehaven. I preachedat five in the afternoon; hastening to co*ckermouth, I found a large congregation waiting in thecastle yard. Between nine and ten o'clock I took chaise, and about ten on Wednesday, 4, reachedSettle. In the evening I preached near the market place, and all but two or three gentlefolks wereseriously attentive. Thursday, 5. About noon I came to Otley.

"Taught by a Chaise Boy"

Monday, July 21.--Having been much pressed to preach at Jatterson, a colliery six or sevenmiles from Pembroke, I began soon after seven. The house was presently filled and all the spaceabout the doors and windows; the poor people drank in every word. I had finished my sermon whena gentleman, violently pressing in, bade the people get home and mind their business. As he usedsome bad words, my driver spoke to him. He fiercely said, "Do you think I need to be taught by achaise-boy?" The lad replying, "Really, sir, I do think so," the conversation ended.

Tuesday, August 5.--Our yearly Conference began. I now particularly inquired (as that reporthad been spread far and wide) of every assistant, "Have you reason to believe, from your ownobservation, that the Methodists are a fallen people? Is there a decay or an increase in the work ofGod where you have been?

Are the societies in general more dead, or more alive to God, than they were some years ago?"The almost universal answer was, “If we must ‘know them by their fruits,' there is no decay in thework of God among the people in general. The societies are not dead to God: they are as muchalive as they have been for many years. And we look on this report as a mere device of Satan tomake our hands hang down."

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Are the Methodists a Fallen People?

"But how can this question be decided?" You, and you, style="#_ftn48" name="_ftnref48">[1]

can judge no farther than you see. You cannot judge of one part by another; of the people of London,suppose, by those of Bristol. And none but myself has an opportunity of seeing them throughoutthe three kingdoms.

But to come to a short issue. In most places, the Methodists are still a poor despised people,laboring under reproach and many inconveniences; therefore, wherever the power of God is not,they decrease. By this, then you may form a sure judgment. Do the Methodists in general decreasein number? Then they decrease in grace; they are a fallen, or, at least, a falling people. But they donot decrease in number; they continually increase. Therefore, they are not a fallen people.

The Conference concluded on Friday, as it began, in much love.

Wesley Starts a Magazine

Monday, November 14.--Having been many times desired, for nearly forty years, to publish amagazine, I at length complied; and I now began to collect materials for it. If it once begin, I inclineto think it will not end but with my life.

Wednesday, December 17.--Just at this time there was a combination among many of thepost-chaise drivers on the Bath road, especially those that drove in the night, to deliver theirpassengers into each other's hands. One driver stopped at the spot they had appointed, where anotherwaited to attack the chaise. In consequence of this many were robbed; but I had a good Protector,still. I have traveled all roads, by day and by night, for these forty years and never was interruptedyet.

1778. Friday, January 27, was the day appointed for the national fast; and it was observed withdue solemnity. All shops were shut up; all was quiet in the streets; all places of public worship werecrowded; no food was served up in the King's house till five o'clock in the evening. Thus far, atleast, we acknowledge God may direct our paths.

Sunday, June 28.--I am this day seventy-five years old; and I do not find myself, blessed beGod, any weaker than I was at five-and-twenty. This also hath God wrought!

Wesley Discusses Old Sermons

Tuesday, September 1.--I went to Tiverton. I was musing here on what I heard a good man saylong since--"Once in seven years I burn all my sermons; for it is a shame if I cannot write bettersermons now than I could seven years ago." Whatever others can do, I really cannot. I cannot writea better sermon on the Good Steward than I did seven years ago; I cannot write a better on the GreatAssize than I did twenty years ago; I cannot write a better on the Use of Money, than I did nearlythirty years ago; nay, I know not that I can write a better on the Circumcision of the Heart than Idid five-and-forty years ago. Perhaps, indeed, I may have read five or six hundred books more than

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I had then, and may know a little more history, or natural philosophy, than I did; but I am notsensible that this has made any essential addition to my knowledge in divinity. Forty years ago Iknew and preached every Christian doctrine which I preach now.

Among the Ruins

Thursday, 3.--About noon I preached at Cathanger, about eight miles from Taunton. It was anexceedingly large house, built (as the inscription over the gate testifies) in the year 1555 by SergeantWalsh, who had then eight thousand pounds a year; perhaps more than equal to twenty thousandnow. But the once famous family is now forgotten; the estate is moldered almost into nothing, andthree quarters of the magnificent buildings lie level with the dust. I preached in the great hall, likethat of Lincoln College, to a very serious congregation.

In the evening I preached at South Petherton, once a place of renown and the capital of a Saxonkingdom, as is vouched by a palace of King Ina still remaining and a very large and ancient church.I suppose the last blow given to it was by Judge Jefferies who, after Monmouth's rebellion, hangedso many of the inhabitants and drove so many away that it is never likely to lift up its head again.

City Road Chapel Opened

Sunday, November 1, was the day appointed for opening the new chapel in the City Road. Itis perfectly neat, but not fine, and contains far more people than the Foundry. I believe, togetherwith the morning chapel, as many as the Tabernacle. Many were afraid that the multitudes, crowdingfrom all parts, would have occasioned much disturbance. But they were happily disappointed; therewas none at all; all was quietness, decency, and order. I preached on part of Solomon's prayer atthe dedication of the Temple; and both in the morning and afternoon (when I preached on thehundred forty and four thousand standing with the Lamb on Mount Zion), God was eminentlypresent in the midst of the congregation.

Monday, 2.--I went to Chatham and preached in the evening to a lively, loving congregation.Tuesday, 3. I went by water to Sheerness. Our room being far too small for the people that attended,I sent to the Governor to desire (what had been allowed me before) the use of the chapel. He refusedme (uncivilly enough), affecting to doubt whether I was in orders! style="#_ftn49"

name="_ftnref49">[1] So I preached to as many as it would contain in our own room.Wednesday, 4.--I took a view of the old church at Minster, once a spacious and elegant building.

It stands pleasantly on the top of a hill and commands all the country round. We went from thenceto Queensborough, which contains above fifty houses and sends two members to Parliament. Surelythe whole Isle of Sheppey is now but a shadow of what it was once.

Thursday, 5.--l returned to Chatham and the following morning set out on the stagecoach forLondon. At the end of Stroud, I chose to walk up the hill, leaving the coach to follow me. But itwas in no great haste: it did not overtake me till I had walked above five miles. I cared not if it hadbeen ten: the more I walk, the sounder I sleep.

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Sunday, 15.--Having promised to preach in the evening at St. Antholine's Church, I had desiredone to have a coach ready at the door when the service at the new chapel was ended. But he hadforgotten; so that, after preaching and meeting the society, I was obliged to walk as fast as I couldto the church. The people were so wedged together that it was with difficulty I got in. The churchwas extremely hot. But this I soon forgot, for it pleased God to send a gracious rain upon Hisinheritance.

Sunday, 29.--I was desired to preach a charity sermon in St. Luke's church, Old Street. I doubtwhether it was ever so crowded before; the fear of God seemed to possess the whole audience. Inthe afternoon I preached at the new chapel; and at seven, in St. Margaret's, Rood Lane, fully asmuch crowded as St. Luke's. Is then the scandal of the cross ceased?

Wesley Goes North

1779. Monday, March 15.--I began my tour through England and Scotland; the lovely weathercontinuing, such as the oldest man alive has not seen before, for January, February, and half ofMarch. In the evening I preached at Stroud; the next morning at Cloucester, designing to preach inStanley at two, and at Tewkesbury in the evening. But the minister of Gratton (near Stanley) sendingme word that I was welcome to the use of his church, I ordered notice to be given that the servicewould begin there at six o'clock. Stanley Chapel was thoroughly filled at two. It is eighteen yearssince I was there before; many of those whom I saw here then were now grey-headed, and manywere gone to Abraham's bosom. May we follow them as they did Christ!

Thursday, 25.—I preached in the new house which Mr. Fletcher has built in Madeley Wood.The people here exactly resemble those at Kingswood, only they are more simple and teachable.But for want of discipline, the immense pains which he has taken with them has not done the goodwhich might have been expected.

I preached at Shrewsbury in the evening and on Friday, 26, about noon, in the assembly roomat Broseley. It was well we were in the shade, for the sun shone as hot as it usually does atmidsummer. We walked from thence to Coalbrook Dale and took a view of the bridge which isshortly to be thrown over the Severn. It is one arch, a hundred feet broad, fifty-two high, andeighteen wide; all of cast-iron, weighing many hundred tons. I doubt whether the Colossus at Rhodesweighed much more.

Thursday, April 15.--l went to Halifax, where a little thing had lately occasioned greatdisturbance. An angel blowing a trumpet was placed on the sounding-board over the pulpit. Manywere vehemently against this, others as vehemently for it; but a total end was soon put to the contest,for the angel vanished away. The congregations, morning and evening, were very large; and thework of God seems to increase in depth as well as extent.

Sunday, May 2.--Dr. Kershaw, the vicar of Leeds, desired me to assist him at the sacrament. Itwas a solemn season. We were ten clergymen and seven or eight hundred communicants. Mr.Atkinson desired me to preach in the afternoon. Such a congregation had been seldom seen there,but I preached to a much larger in our own house at five; and I found no want of strength.

Monday, June 28.--I preached in the new preaching-house, at Robin Hood's Bay and then wenton to Scarborough. Tuesday, 29, I spent agreeably and profitably with my old friends; and on my

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way to Bridlington, Wednesday, 30, took a view of Flamborough Head. It is a huge rock, risingperpendicularly from the sea to an immense height and giving shelter to an innumerable multitudeof sea fowl of various kinds. I preached in the evening at Bridlington, and afterward heard a veryuncommon instance of paternal affection: A gentleman of the town had a favorite daughter, whomhe set up in a milliner's shop. Sometime after she had a concern for her soul and believed it herduty to enter into the society. Upon this her good father forbade her his house, demanding all themoney he had laid out; and requiring her instantly to sell all her goods in order to make the payment!

Wesley Attended by Felons

Wednesday, July 21.--When I came to Coventry, I found notice had been given for my preachingin the park; but the heavy rain prevented. I sent to the Mayor, desiring the use of the town hall. Herefused, but the same day gave the use of it to a dancing-master. I then went to the women's market.Many soon gathered together and listened with all seriousness. I preached there again the nextmorning, Thursday, 22, and again in the evening. Then I took coach for London. I was noblyattended: behind the coach were ten convicted felons, loudly blaspheming and rattling their chains;by my side sat a man with a loaded blunderbuss, and another upon the coach.

Sunday, 25.--Both the chapels were full enough. On Monday, I retired to Lewisham to write.Tuesday, August 3.--Our Conference began; it continued and ended in peace and love. Sunday,

8. I was at West Street in the morning and at the new chapel in the evening, when I took a solemnleave of the affectionate congregation. This was the last night which I spent at the Foundry. Whathath God wrought there in one-and-forty years!

Friday, August 13 (Monmouth).--As I was going down a steep pair of stairs, my foot slippedand I fell down several steps. Falling on the edge of one of them, it broke the case of an almanack,which was in my pocket, all to pieces. The edge of another stair met my right buckle and snappedthe steel chape of it in two; but I was not hurt. So doth our good Master give His angels chargeover us! In the evening I preached at Brecknock.

"Make Your Will before You Sleep"

Thursday, September 23.--In the evening one sat behind me in the pulpit at Bristol who wasone of our first masters at Kingswood. A little after he left the school he likewise left the society.Riches then flowed in upon him, with which, having no relations, Mr. Spencer designed to do muchgood--after his death. "But God said unto him, Thou fool!" Two hours after he died intestate, andleft all his money to be scrambled for!

Reader, if you have not done it already, make your will before you sleep!Wednesday, October 6.--At eleven I preached in Winchester where there are four thousand five

hundred French prisoners. I was glad to find they have plenty of wholesome food and are treated,in all respects, with great humanity.

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In the evening I preached at Portsmouth Common. Thursday, 7. I took a view of the campadjoining the town and wondered to find it as clean and as neat as a gentleman's garden. But therewas no chaplain. The English soldiers of this age have nothing to do with God!

Friday, 8.--We took chaise, as usual, at two, and about eleven came to Cobham. Having a littleleisure, I thought I could not employ it better than in taking a walk through the gardens. They aresaid to take up four hundred acres and are admirably well laid out. They far exceed the celebratedgardens at Stow.

This night I lodged in the new house at London. How many more nights have I to spend there?1780. Sunday, January 23.--In the evening I retired to Lewisham, to prepare matter (who would

believe it) for a monthly magazine. Friday, February 4, being the national fast, I preached first atthe new chapel and then at St. Peter's Cornhill. What a difference in the congregation! Yet out ofthese stones God can raise up children to Abraham.

Wesley at the German Settlement

Monday, April 17.--l left Leeds in one of the roughest mornings I have ever seen. We had rain,hail, snow, and wind in abundance. About nine I preached at Bramley; between one and two atPudsey. Afterwards I walked to Fulneck, the German settlement. Mr. Moore showed us the house,chapel, hall, lodging-rooms, the apartments of the widows, the single men, and single women. Heshowed us likewise the workshops of various kinds, with the shops for grocery, drapery, mercery,35 hardware, and so on, with which, as well as with bread from their bakehouse, they furnish theadjacent country. I see not what but the mighty power of God can hinder them from acquiringmillions as they 1) buy all materials with ready money at the best hand; 2) have above a hundredyoung men, above fifty young women, many widows, and above a hundred married persons all ofwhom are employed from morning to night, without any intermission, in various kinds ofmanufactures, not for journeymen's wages, but for no wages at all, save a little very plain food andraiment; as they have 3) a quick sale for all their goods and sell them all for ready money. But canthey lay up treasure on earth and at the same time lay up treasure in heaven?

Saturday, May 20.--I took one more walk through Holyrood House, the mansion of ancientkings. But how melancholy an appearance does it make now! The stately rooms are dirty as stables;the colors of the tapestry are quite faded; several of the pictures are cut and defaced. The roof ofthe royal chapel has fallen in; and the bones of James the Fifth and the once beautiful Lord Darnleyare scattered about like those of sheep or oxen. Such is human greatness! Is not "a living dog betterthan a dead lion?"

Sunday, 21.--The rain hindered me from preaching at noon upon the Castle Hill. In the eveningthe house was well filled, and I was enabled to speak strong words. But I am not a preacher for thepeople of Edinburgh.

Tuesday, 23.--A gentleman took me to see Roslyn Castle, eight miles from Edinburgh. It isnow all in ruins, only a small dwelling house is built on one part of it. The situation of it isexceedingly fine, on the side of a steep mountain, hanging over a river, from which another mountain

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rises, equally steep and clothed with wood. At a little distance is the chapel, which is in perfectpreservation, both within and without. I should never have thought it had belonged to anyone lessthan a sovereign prince! The inside is far more elegantly wrought with variety of Scripture historiesin stonework, than I believe can be found again in Scotland; perhaps not in all England.

The Bishop of Durham's Tapestry

Wednesday, 31.--I went to Mr. Parker's, at Shincliff, near Durham. The congregation being fartoo large to get into the house, I stood near his door. It seemed as if the whole village were readyto receive the truth in the love thereof. Perhaps their earnestness may provoke the people of Durhamto jealousy.

In the afternoon we took a view of the castle at Durham, the residence of the bishop. Thesituation is wonderfully fine, surrounded by the river and commanding all the country. Many ofthe apartments are large and stately, but the furniture is mean beyond imagination. I know not whereI have seen such in a gentleman's house or a man of five hundred a year, except that of the LordLieutenant in Dublin. In the largest chambers the tapestry is quite faded; beside that, it is coarseand ill-judged. Take but one instance: In Jacob's vision you see, on the one side, a little paltry ladderand an angel climbing it in the attitude of a chimney sweeper; and on the other side, Jacob staringat him, from under a large silver-laced hat.

Monday, June 5 (York).--An arch newswriter published a paragraph today, probably designedfor wit, concerning the large pension which the famous Wesley received for defending the king.This so increased the congregation in the evening that scores were obliged to go away. And Godapplied that word to many hearts, "I will not destroy the city for ten's sake" [Gen. 18:32].

Monday, 12.--About eleven I preached at Newton-upon-Trent, to a large and very genteelcongregation. Thence we went to Newark, but our friends were divided as to the place where Ishould preach. At length they found a convenient place, covered on three sides and on the fourthopen to the street. It contained two or three thousand people well, who appeared to hear as for life.Only one big man, exceedingly drunk, was very noisy and turbulent till his wife seized him by thecollar, gave him two or three hearty boxes on the ear, and dragged him away like a calf. But, atlength, he got out of her hands, crept in among the people, and stood as quiet as a lamb.

Wesley on "Boston Stump"

Friday, 16.--We went on to Boston, the largest town in the county, except Lincoln. From thetop of the steeple (which I suppose is by far the highest tower in the kingdom) we had a view notonly of all the town, but of all the adjacent country. Formerly this town was in the fens; but thefens are vanished away: a great part of them is turned into pasture, and part into arable land. At sixthe house contained the congregation, all of whom behaved in the most decent manner.

Wednesday, 28.--I went to Sheffield; but the house was not ready, so I preached in the square.

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I can hardly think I am entered this day into the seventy-eight year of my age. By the blessingof God, I am just the same as when I entered the twenty-eighth. This hath God wrought, chiefly bymy constant exercise, my rising early, and preaching morning and evening.

Monday, September 11.--As I drew near Bath, I wondered what had drawn such a multitudeof people together, till I learned that one of the members for the city had given an ox to be roastedwhole. But their sport was sadly interrupted by heavy rain, which sent them home faster than theycame; many of whom dropped in at our chapel, where I suppose they never had been before.

Wesley at Sevenoaks

Monday, October 16.--I went to Tunbridge Wells and preached to a serious congregation onRevelation 22:12. Tuesday, 17. I came back to Sevenoaks and in the afternoon walked over to theDuke of Dorset's seat. The park is the pleasantest I ever saw; the trees are so elegantly disposed.The house, which is at least two hundred years old, is immensely large. It consists of two squares,considerably bigger than the two quadrangles in Lincoln College. I believe we were shown abovethirty rooms, beside the hall, the chapels, and three galleries.

The pictures are innumerable; I think, four times as many as in the castle of Blenheim. Into oneof the galleries opens the king's bedchamber, ornamented above all the rest. The bed-curtains arecloth-of-gold and so richly wrought that it requires some strength to draw them. The tables, thechairs, the frames of the looking-glasses, are all plated over with silver. The tapestry, representingthe whole history of Nebuchadnezzar, is as fresh as if newly woven. But the bed-curtains areexceedingly dirty, and look more like copper than gold. The silver on the tables, chairs, and glass,looks as dull as lead. And, to complete all, King Nebuchadnezzar among the beasts, together withhis eagle's claws, has a large crown upon his head and is clothed in scarlet and gold.

Wesley Visits Lord George in the Tower

Saturday, December 16 (London).--Having a second message from Lord George Gordon,earnestly desiring to see me, I wrote a line to Lord Stormont who, on Monday, 18, sent me a warrantto see him. On Tuesday, 19, I spent an hour with him at his apartment in the Tower. Our conversationturned upon popery and religion. He seemed to be well acquainted with the Bible and had abundanceof other books, enough to furnish a study. I was agreeably surprised to find he did not complain ofany person or thing; I cannot but hope his confinement will take a right turn and prove a lastingblessing to him.

Friday, 22.--At the desire of some of my friends, I accompanied them to the British Museum.What an immense field is here for curiosity to range in! One large room is filled from top to bottomwith things brought from Otaheite; two or three more with things dug out of the ruins ofHerculaneum! Seven huge apartments are filled with curious books; five with manuscripts; twowith fossils of all sorts, and the rest with various animals. But what account will a man give to thejudge of quick and dead for a life spent in collecting all these?

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Sunday, 24.--Desiring to make the most of this solemn day, I preached early in the morning atthe new chapel; at ten and four I preached at West Street; and in the evening met the society at eachend of the town.

Friday, 29.—I saw the indictment of the Grand jury against Lord George Gordon. I stood aghast!What a shocking insult upon truth and common sense! But it is the usual form. The more is theshame. Why will not the Parliament remove this scandal from our nation?

Saturday, 30.--Waking between one and two in the morning, I observed a bright light shineupon the chapel. I easily concluded there was a fire near, probably in the adjoining timber-yard. Ifso, I knew it would soon lay us in ashes. I first called all the family to prayer; then going out, wefound the fire about a hundred yards off, and had broken out while the wind was south. But a sailorcried out, "Avastl Avast! the wind is turned in a moment!" So it did, to the west, while we were atprayer, and so drove the flame from us. We then thankfully returned, and I rested well the residueof the night.

Chapter 19. An Ideal Circuit; Wesley in his Eighties; Wesley Visits Holland;Incidents in Scotland

1781. Thursday, January 25.--l spent an agreeable hour at a concert of my nephews. But I wasa little out of my element among lords and ladies. I love plain music and plain company best.

A Rough Voyage

Monday, April 9.--Desiring to be in Ireland as soon as possible, I hastened to Liverpool andfound a ship ready to sail; but the wind was contrary, till on Thursday morning the captain camein haste and told us the wind was come quite fair. So Mr. Floyd, Snowden, Joseph Bradford, andI, with two of our sisters, went on board. But scarcely were we out at sea when the wind turnedquite foul and rose higher and higher. In an hour I was so affected as I had not been for forty yearsbefore. For two days I could not swallow the quantity of a pea or anything solid and very little ofany liquid. I was bruised and sore from head to foot and ill able to turn me on the bed.

All Friday, the storm increasing, the sea of consequence was rougher and rougher. Early onSaturday morning, the hatches were closed which, together with the violent motion, made ourhorses so turbulent, that I was afraid we would have to kill them lest they should damage the ship.Mrs. S. now crept to me, threw her arms over me, and said, "O sir, we will die together!" We hadby this time three feet of water in the hold, though it was an exceedingly light vessel. Meantimewe were furiously driving on a lee-shore, and when the captain cried, "Helm-a-lec," she would notobey the helm. I called our brethren to prayers, and we found free access to the throne of grace.Soon after we got, I know not how, into Holyhead harbor, after being sufficiently buffeted by thewinds and waves for two days and two nights.

The more I considered, the more I was convinced it was not the will of God I should go toIreland at this time. So we went into the stagecoach without delay, and the next evening came toChester.

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